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1.
Am J Community Psychol ; 64(1-2): 159-171, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444914

RESUMO

Nunavimmiut (people of the land) are the Indigenous peoples of the northern peninsula of the province of Quebec. Communities of Nunavik and its regional organizations have been making concerted efforts in implementing community-based strategies to support family wellbeing. These community strategies are grounded in many of the values underpinning community psychology: favoring empowerment-oriented approaches, fostering community capacity, and transforming organizational cultures to allow for new modes of interaction, as well as new policies and practices that are grounded in community and culture. Despite the growing support and expectation for community mobilization, there is still very little research on the processes and challenges to such mobilization. In this study, we explored the unique challenges and facilitators to community endeavors in northern Quebec in order to better understand the complex dynamics and the strengths that Inuit build upon. We first used a focused ethnographic approach in the context of a 5-year community mobilization project in Nunavik. We then conducted 12 individual interviews and two small group interviews with Inuit working on community-based wellbeing-oriented mobilization projects in four additional communities. Results expose how sociogeographical realities and colonialism influence the process of community mobilization. They also highlight the values and motivational factors that lead community members to move beyond these influences.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Inuítes/psicologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Motivação , Antropologia Cultural , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quebeque/etnologia
2.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(7): 2491-2500, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194915

RESUMO

Purpose This study examined the utility of the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) recording system for investigating the language input to bilingual infants. Method Twenty-one French-English bilingual families with a 10-month-old infant participated in this study. Using the LENA recording system, each family contributed 3 full days of recordings within a 1-month period. A portion of these recordings (945 minutes) were manually transcribed, and the word counts from these transcriptions were compared against the LENA-generated adult word counts. Results Data analyses reveal that the LENA algorithms were reliable in counting words in both Canadian English and Canadian French, even when both languages are present in the same recording. While the LENA system tended to underestimate the amount of speech in the recordings, there was a strong correlation between the LENA-generated and human-transcribed adult word counts for each language. Importantly, this relationship holds when accounting for different-gendered and different-accented speech. Conclusions The LENA recording system is a reliable tool for estimating word counts, even for bilingual input. Special considerations and limitations for using the LENA recording system in a bilingual population are discussed. These results open up possibilities for investigating caregiver talk to bilingual infants in more detail.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Inglaterra , Feminino , França , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/etnologia
3.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(5): 807-826, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170894

RESUMO

Members of visible minorities are commonly targets of social coercion related to immigration and medical measures. Social coercion is associated with poor mental health outcomes and mistrust of medical services. This study will determine if Afro-Canadian immigrants referred to a Cultural Consultation Service (CCS) in Montreal report more or less medical and immigration coercion compared with other ethnic minorities. We reviewed the charts of 729 referrals to the CCS and gathered data on the 401 patients included in the study. Chi-square statistics examined the relation between minority group and self-reported coercion. Binary logistic regression models controlled for standard sociodemographic variables in addition to ethnicity, language barrier, length of stay in Canada since immigration, refugee claimant status, referral source, presence of psychosis in the main diagnosis, and presence of legal history. Patients were diverse and included 105 Afro-Canadians, 40 Latin Americans, 73 Arab and West Asians, 149 South Asians, and 34 East and Southeast Asians. Being Afro-Canadian was significantly and positively associated with medical coercion (p = .02, 95% CI = 1.15-4.57), while being South Asian was negatively and significantly associated with immigration coercion (p = .03, 95% CI = .29-.93). Members of visible minority communities are not equal in their reported experience of social coercion after arriving to Canada. Future research clarifying pathways to mental health care for immigrants and the experience of new Canadians in immigration and health care settings would give needed context to the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Coerção , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/etnologia
5.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(6): 1155-1169, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289362

RESUMO

The relationships between social identities are important when discussing the national and religious identities of Muslims in Western contexts. This study explored the identity narratives of second-generation Muslim young adults to consider the relevance of bicultural identity and acculturation theories commonly employed in research with this group. The sample comprised 20 Muslim young adults of diverse ethnicities and backgrounds from Montreal, Berlin, and Copenhagen who participated in semi-structured interviews that explored how they negotiate their social identities in light of their unique life course trajectories. This article focuses on two major themes underlying second-generation identity development: the importance of personal experience in the development of social identities; and the enmeshment of multiple social identities. We then discuss the results of our findings in light of the complex nature of social identity, group membership, and political categorization.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Islamismo/psicologia , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Narração , Política , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Quebeque/etnologia , Religião e Psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Can J Psychiatry ; 64(3): 180-189, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the physical and mental health of Cree adults, as well as the personal, clinical, and environmental factors associated with the presence of lifetime anxiety and mood disorders. METHODS: Mental health was assessed using the computerised version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (CDIS-IV), and standardised instruments were used to assess physical health, addiction severity, and psychological distress in 506 randomly selected participants from 4 Northern Cree communities in Quebec. RESULTS: Overall, 46.1% of participants reported chronic medical problems, 42.1% were current smokers and 34.5% met the DSM-IV criteria for an anxiety or mood disorder. Individuals with an anxiety or mood disorder were younger, predominantly female, and with higher educational levels, and a large proportion (47.7%) met the lifetime criteria for substance dependence. Hierarchical regression determined that anxiety or mood disorders were associated with serious problems getting along with parents, a history of physical and sexual abuse, and a lifetime diagnosis of substance dependence. Overall, 29.7% of Cree adults reported sexual abuse, 47.1% physical abuse, and 52.9% emotional abuse. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the high rates of physical and mental health problems in Cree communities and the association among parental history of psychological problems, history of abuse, and psychological distress. Participants expressed a desire for additional medical and psychological treatments to address the patterns of abuse, trauma, and mental disorders that are burdening the Cree communities in Northern Quebec.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/etnologia , Família/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Transtornos do Humor/etnologia , Abuso Físico/etnologia , Angústia Psicológica , Trauma Psicológico/etnologia , Delitos Sexuais/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/etnologia
7.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(6): 1139-1154, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27418583

RESUMO

This paper discusses results from a pilot study conducted in the spring of 2014 among young adults living in Montreal. The main objective of this study was to assess the relation between perception of the Charter of Quebec Values, 1 self-identification, perception of intercommunity relations, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in young students enrolled in undergraduate or graduate programs of a francophone university in Montreal. A total of 441 students (30.5% male, 69.5% female) took part in a web survey designed by the research team. The data analyses and results suggest that the debate around the Charter of Quebec values was associated with a shift from a predominantly positive perception of intercommunity relations to a predominantly negative one, particularly among women, immigrants, and those who self-identified as cultural or religious minorities. In addition, more than 30% of participants reported having experienced some form of ethnic or religious discrimination since the Charter was released (personally or as a witness). This was particularly the case among immigrants, as well as those who self-identified as bicultural or from cultural or religious minority groups. This study's results thus highlight the exacerbation of intercommunity tensions linked to the public debate around identity and intercommunity relations in Quebec.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Identificação Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Aculturação , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Quebeque/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 55(1): 120-146, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29299979

RESUMO

Inuit communities of Canada experience many disparities in health and psychosocial context. Research in community psychology has shown associations between such socio-ecological factors and individual well-being. The objective of the study was to explore how community-level determinants of well-being influence family well-being in a northern community of Nunavik, Quebec. A total of 14 participants were interviewed. A thematic inductive analysis was conducted to extract community determinants of family well-being from the data. A system science approach was used to explore the associations between determinants and larger psychosocial dynamics. A community workshop was held to discuss the results and their meaning. A total of 25 determinants were coded, 16 of which were community-level. Community-level stressors were highly interrelated, whereas community supports were generally disconnected and superimposed on narratives of stressors. Participants spoke of desired supports. In their narratives, these supports were connected to a variety of determinants of well-being, suggesting the need to connect, redefine and support existing resources rather than simply add on new ones. We discuss intricate links between family and community well-being in small and geographically isolated communities.


Assuntos
Família/etnologia , Inuítes/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Características de Residência , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/etnologia
9.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0178708, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, food insecurity is a major public health concern. In North America, it is particularly prevalent in certain sub-groups, including Indigenous communities. Although many Indigenous and remote communities harvest and share food, most food security assessment tools focus on economic access. This study describes the psychometric evaluation of a modified Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), developed for mixed economies, to assess food insecurity among pregnant Inuit women. METHODS: The HFIAS was administered to 130 pregnant women in Nunavik (Arctic region of Quebec), Canada. Data were fit to a Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM) to determine the discrimination ability of the HFIAS. Person parameter (Theta) estimates were calculated based on the RSM to provide a more accurate scoring system of the modified HFIAS for this population. Theta values were compared to known correlates of food insecurity. RESULTS: Comparative fit indices showed preference for a modified version of the HFIAS over the original. Theta values displayed a continuum of severity estimates and those values indicating greater food insecurity were consistently linked to known correlates of food insecurity. Participants living in households with more than 1 hunter (Theta = -.45) or more than 1 fisher (Theta = -.43) experienced less food insecurity than those with no hunters (Theta = .48) or fishers (Theta = .49) in their household. The RSM indicated the scale showed good discriminatory ability. Subsequent analyses indicated that most scale items pertain to the classification of a household as moderately food insecure. CONCLUSIONS: The modified HFIAS shows potential for measuring food insecurity among pregnant women in Nunavik. This is an efficient instrument that can inform interventions targeting health conditions impacting groups that obtain food through both monetary and non-monetary means.


Assuntos
Características da Família/etnologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inuítes/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Prevalência , Psicometria , Quebeque/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 162(3): 462-475, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27861699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little attention has been given, so far, to the early colonial diet in New France from an isotopic perspective. Historical records that compare France to New France suggest a shift toward a more diverse diet, including a higher protein intake due to an improvement in living conditions in the New World, despite the retention of ancestral dietary habits. This hypothesis will be explored here. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stable carbon (organic and mineral) and nitrogen isotopes were measured on 43 individuals from Notre Dame cemetery (first Catholic parish church cemetery in Montreal, 1683-1803) as well as 13 French compatriots from La Rochelle, France (Protestant Hospital Cemetery, 1765-1792). Intragroup variation (age at death, sex, and/or burial location) was investigated and compared to compiled data from various northeastern North American sites (N = 99). RESULTS: The Notre Dame sample means are as follows: -19.6‰ versus VPDB for δ13 Ccollagen , -12.22‰ versus VPDB for δ13 Ccarbonate , and 11.5‰ versus AIR for δ15 N. They are significantly lower than both La Rochelle (-18.4‰, -11.67‰, and 12.7‰, respectively, p ≤ .005) and the northeastern North American groups used for this comparison (p = .000). DISCUSSION: The isotopic values obtained from Notre Dame cemetery suggest that the diet was mainly based on C3 resources with limited C4 resources. Although different from all comparable contemporary sites, colonial Montreal's diet remains most similar to La Rochelle, France. This study agrees with historians who have suggested that French dietary traditions seem to have been retained among the early colonial inhabitants of Montreal.


Assuntos
Dieta/história , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Sepultamento , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Criança , Feminino , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Quebeque/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 16(1): 679, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is the most costly health system component of tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Our objectives were to identify how frequently patients are hospitalized, and the factors associated with hospitalizations and length-of-stay (LOS) of TB patients in a large Canadian city. METHODS: We extracted data from the Montreal TB Resource database, a retrospective cohort of all active TB cases reported to the Montreal Public Health Department between January 1996 and May 2007. Data included patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and dates of treatment and hospitalization. Predictors of hospitalization and LOS were estimated using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. RESULTS: There were 1852 active TB patients. Of these, 51% were hospitalized initially during the period of diagnosis and/or treatment initiation (median LOS 17.5 days), and 9.0% hospitalized later during treatment (median LOS 13 days). In adjusted models, patients were more likely to be hospitalized initially if they were children, had co-morbidities, smear-positive symptomatic pulmonary TB, cavitary or miliary TB, and multi- or poly-TB drug resistance. Factors predictive of longer initial LOS included having HIV, renal disease, symptomatic pulmonary smear-positive TB, multi- or poly-TB drug resistance, and being in a teaching hospital. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high hospitalization rate during diagnosis and treatment of patients with TB. Diagnostic delay due to low index of suspicion may result in patients presenting with more severe disease at the time of diagnosis. Earlier identification and treatment, through interventions to increase TB awareness and more targeted prevention programs, might reduce costly TB-related hospital use.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Quebeque/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Miliar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Miliar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160766, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27517613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cree births in Quebec are characterized by the highest reported prevalence of macrosomia (~35%) in the world. It is unclear whether Cree births are at greater elevated risk of perinatal and infant mortality than other First Nations relative to non-Aboriginal births in Quebec, and if macrosomia may be related. METHODS: This was a population-based retrospective birth cohort study using the linked birth-infant death database for singleton births to mothers from Cree (n = 5,340), other First Nations (n = 10,810) and non-Aboriginal (n = 229,960) communities in Quebec, 1996-2010. Community type was ascertained by residential postal code and municipality name. The primary outcomes were perinatal and infant mortality. RESULTS: Macrosomia (birth weight for gestational age >90th percentile) was substantially more frequent in Cree (38.0%) and other First Nations (21.9%) vs non-Aboriginal (9.4%) communities. Comparing Cree and other First Nations vs non-Aboriginal communities, perinatal mortality rates were 1.52 (95% confidence intervals 1.17, 1.98) and 1.34 (1.10, 1.64) times higher, and infant mortality rates 2.27 (1.71, 3.02) and 1.49 (1.16, 1.91) times higher, respectively. The risk elevations in perinatal and infant death in Cree communities attenuated after adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, education, marital status, parity), but became greater after further adjustment for birth weight (small, appropriate, or large for gestational age). CONCLUSIONS: Cree communities had greater risk elevations in perinatal and infant mortality than other First Nations relative to non-Aboriginal communities in Quebec. High prevalence of macrosomia did not explain the elevated risk of perinatal and infant mortality in Cree communities.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Macrossomia Fetal/etnologia , Macrossomia Fetal/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Quebeque/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 55(3): 438-56, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27242071

RESUMO

This study investigated the conditions under which discrimination can lead to social identity changes among members of a minority group. Both positive and negative relations between perceptions of discrimination and social identity have previously been reported. To explain the conflicting results and understand the complex reality of members of stigmatized groups, we argue that group-based emotions (e.g., group-based dissatisfaction) and ambiguity of discrimination cues (i.e., overt vs. ambiguous) need to be considered. We hypothesized that perceptions of discrimination would play a moderating role between group-based dissatisfaction and social identity change in a context of ambiguous, but not of overt, discrimination. The sample was comprised of 151 Arab Muslims living in the province of Quebec. Participants read fictitious newspaper articles portraying either overt (n = 76) or ambiguous (n = 75) discrimination towards in-group members. Results revealed that for participants in the overt discrimination condition, only group-based dissatisfaction was positively associated with social identity change. In contrast, for the participants in the ambiguous discrimination condition, those who perceived little discrimination and felt low group-based dissatisfaction reported a decrease in social identity. However, those who perceived low group discrimination and felt high group-based dissatisfaction reported a positive social identity change.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Processos Grupais , Islamismo/psicologia , Preconceito/etnologia , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 12(8): 1153-62, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26099015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis predominantly affects socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. The extent to which specific dietary and lifestyle factors contribute to tuberculosis susceptibility has not been established. METHODS: A total of 200 residents of a village in Northern Quebec were investigated during a tuberculosis outbreak and identified to have active tuberculosis, latent tuberculosis infection, or neither. Participants completed questionnaires about their intake of food from traditional and commercial sources, and provided blood samples. Adults were asked about recent smoking and drug and alcohol intake. Nutritional adequacy was evaluated with reference to North American standards. Multiple dietary, lifestyle, and housing factors were combined in a logistic regression model evaluating the contributions of each to disease and infection. FINDINGS: After adjusting for potential confounding, new infection was associated with inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-4.3), carbohydrates (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.2-16.3), and certain vitamins and minerals. A multivariable model, combining nutrition, housing, and lifestyle factors, found associations between new infection and inadequate fruit and vegetable intake (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0-5.1), living in the same house as a person with smear-positive tuberculosis (OR, 14.7; 95% CI, 1.6-137.3), and visiting a community gathering house (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.7-8.3). Current smoking was associated with new infection (OR, 9.4; 95% CI, 1.2-72) among adults completing a detailed lifestyle survey. INTERPRETATION: Inadequate nutrition was associated with increased susceptibility to infection, but not active tuberculosis. Interventions addressed at improving nutrition may reduce susceptibility to infection in settings where access to healthy foods is limited.


Assuntos
Dieta/etnologia , Surtos de Doenças , Inuítes/etnologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Estado Nutricional/etnologia , Tuberculose/etnologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Quebeque/etnologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Verduras , Vitaminas , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Med Genet ; 16: 24, 2015 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific germline mutations in the hereditary breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility (HBC/HBOC) genes, BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2, have been shown to recur in French Canadians of Quebec, Canada, and this has been attributed to common ancestors. Germline TP53 mutation carriers are known to segregate in Li-Fraumeni syndrome families, which feature young age of onset breast cancer. We have reported rare TP53 mutation carriers in French Canadian HBC families, though none recurred possibly due to the limited number of cancer families investigated. Here we describe TP53 germline mutations found in French Canadian cancer families provided from hereditary cancer clinics; investigate 37 new BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-negative HBC/HBOC families for the TP53 mutations; and assess the frequency of TP53 mutations in a 1235 French Canadian breast cancer cases not selected for family history of cancer. METHODS: TP53 mutation-positive pedigrees from French Canadian cancer families were provided from local hereditary cancer clinics. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing of all protein encoding exons of TP53 was performed using peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA from breast/ovarian cancer probands from 37 HBC/HBOC families of French Canadian descent. Targeted bidirectional Sanger sequencing assay of regions containing the identified TP53 mutations was performed on 1235 French Canadian breast cancer cases not selected for family history cancer. RESULTS: Five new TP53 mutations were identified in six pedigrees from hereditary cancer clinics. No deleterious mutations were identified in cancer probands from 37 HBC/HBOC families. A targeted mutation screen of the 1235 breast cancer cases identified a c.844C>T [p.Arg282Trp] mutation carrier. This mutation was also found among the six mutation-positive cancer families provided by the local hereditary cancer clinics. The targeted screen also uncovered a new TP53 mutation, c.685T>C [p.Cys229Arg] that was found in two breast cancer cases. All TP53 mutation carriers were among the 656 women with breast cancer diagnosed less than 50 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: In all six new TP53 mutations were identified in French Canadians, where two each occurred in independently ascertained cases/families. Although all newly identified breast cancer mutation carriers reported a family history of cancer, none were consistent with features of Li-Fraumeni syndrome families.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Linhagem , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pain Res Manag ; 20(2): 75-83, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25848845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived self-efficacy is a non-negligible outcome when measuring the impact of self-management interventions for chronic pain patients. However, no validated, chronic pain-specific self-efficacy scales exist for studies conducted with French-speaking populations. OBJECTIVES: To establish the validity of the use of the French-Canadian Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale (FC-CPSES) among chronic pain patients. METHODS: The Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale is a validated 33-item self-administered questionnaire that measures perceived self-efficacy to perform self-management behaviours, manage chronic disease in general and achieve outcomes (a six-item version is also available). This scale was adapted to the context of chronic pain patients following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines. The FC-CPSES was administered to 109 fibromyalgia and 34 chronic low back pain patients (n=143) who participated in an evidence-based self-management intervention (the PASSAGE program) offered in 10 health care centres across the province of Quebec. Cronbach's alpha coefficients (α) were calculated to determine the internal consistency of the 33- and six-item versions of the FC-CPSES. With regard to convergent construct validity, the association between the FC-CPSES baseline scores and related clinical outcomes was examined. With regard to the scale's sensitivity to change, pre- and postintervention FC-CPSES scores were compared. RESULTS: Internal consistency was high for both versions of the FC-CPSES (α=0.86 to α=0.96). Higher self-efficacy was significantly associated with higher mental health-related quality of life and lower pain intensity and catastrophizing (P<0.05), supporting convergent validity of the scale. There was a statistically significant increase in FC-CPSES scores between pre- and postintervention measures for both versions of the FC-CPSES (P<0.003), which supports their sensitivity to clinical change during an intervention. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that both versions of the FC-CPSES are reliable and valid for the measurement of pain management self-efficacy among chronic pain patients.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/normas , Medição da Dor/normas , Autocuidado/normas , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/etnologia , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/tendências , Medição da Dor/tendências , Quebeque/etnologia , Autocuidado/tendências , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Obes ; 5(3): 103-15, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25880029

RESUMO

First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) youth are disproportionately affected by obesity and represent known a high-risk group in Canada. School-based prevention programmes may have the potential to effectively influence obesity-related health behaviours (i.e. healthy eating and physical activity) among this population. We conducted a systematic review of nine electronic databases (2003-2014) to identify studies that describe school-based programmes that have been developed to improve obesity-related health behaviours and outcomes among FNIM youth in Canada. The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes and assess the strength of the methodologies used to evaluate them. Fifteen studies, representing seven distinct interventions, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of these programmes did not result in significant improvements in outcomes related to obesity, healthy eating, or physical activity among FNIM youth. The studies varied in design rigour and use of evaluation activities. The lack of literature on effective school-based programmes for FNIM youth in Canada that target obesity-related outcomes highlights a priority area for future intervention development, evaluation and dissemination within the peer-reviewed literature. Further research is needed on interventions involving Métis and Inuit youth, secondary school-aged FNIM youth and FNIM youth living in urban settings.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Adolescente , Colúmbia Britânica/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Inuítes/etnologia , Masculino , Ontário/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Quebeque/etnologia
18.
Child Abuse Negl ; 44: 56-65, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25816756

RESUMO

Sexual abuse leads to short-term and long-lasting pervasive outcomes, including addictions. Among Indigenous Peoples, sexual abuse experienced in the context of residential schooling may have led to unresolved grief that is contributing to social problems, such as pathological (disordered) gambling. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between child sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling. The participants were 358 Indigenous persons (54.2% women) aged between 18 and 87 years, from two communities and two semi-urban centers in Quebec (Canada). Probable pathological gambling was evaluated using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and sexual abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). The results indicate an 8.7% past-year prevalence rate of pathological gambling problems among participants, which is high compared with the general Canadian population. Moreover, 35.4% were sexually abused, while 28.1% reported having been schooled in a residential setting. The results of a logistic regression also indicate that experiences of child sexual abuse and residential schooling are associated with probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples. These findings underscore the importance of using an ecological approach when treating gambling, to address childhood traumas alongside current addiction problems.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/etnologia , Jogo de Azar/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/etnologia , Instituições Residenciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Health Rep ; 26(2): 3-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25692938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infant mortality and stillbirth rates among Aboriginal people are higher than in the rest of Canada, but little is known on the perinatal health status of First Nations people living on reserves. This study examines stillbirth and infant mortality rates among Aboriginal people in Quebec, notably, First Nations people living on reserves, and compares these rates with those of the province's non-Aboriginal population. DATA AND METHODS: Data on live births and stillbirths in Quebec from 1989 to 2008 were extracted from Statistics Canada's Infant Birth-Death Linked File. Postal codes were used to identify births and stillbirths on First Nations reserves, in the Cree and Naskapi communities (not on reserves), and in Inuit communities. Associations between type of community and mortality were measured using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Aboriginal people had a higher stillbirth rate than non-Aboriginal people in Quebec, but this difference was not significant after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics (mothers' age and education, community size and isolation). Neonatal mortality was also higher among the Inuit. Post-neonatal mortality was higher among Aboriginal people, and was unrelated to differences in the mothers' age and education or to community size and isolation. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for post-neonatal mortality on reserves, in the Cree and Naskapi communities, and in Inuit communities were, respectively, 1.57 (1.16 - 2.12), 3.01 (2.14 - 4.24) and 4.29 (3.09 - 5.97). INTERPRETATION: Stillbirth and infant mortality are higher among Aboriginal people than non-Aboriginal people in Quebec. The differences in post-neonatal mortality are particularly pronounced.


Assuntos
Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Inuítes/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto/etnologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Idade Materna , Quebeque/etnologia , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 70(3): 496-507, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24924159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study estimates the sex-specific prevalence of repartnering after widowhood. The main objective is to examine the competing choice between nonmarital cohabitation and remarriage as well as repartnering differentials. METHODS: The study uses data from the 2007 Canadian General Social Survey and life table methods to illustrate gender and regional differences in the cumulative proportion of people aged 45 and older who repartner after widowhood. Proportional hazard models are used to examine how factors such as socioeconomic resources, region, demographic characteristics, and health associate with the risk of repartnering and repartnering preferences. RESULTS: Most repartnering after widowhood occurs within ten years of this event or not at all. Ten years after widowhood, about 7% of widows and 29% of widowers have formed a new union. For both widows and widowers, the rate of remarriage is twice as high as the rate of cohabitation. The exception to this is the province of Quebec, where cohabitation is a more prevalent choice of repartnering than remarriage. There is a weak association between socioeconomic resources and both the risk of cohabitation and remarriage. DISCUSSION: Our results confirm that constraints in marriage markets appear to contribute to a gender gap in the prevalence of repartnering after widowhood. Though the widowed prefer remarriage over cohabitation as a repartnering choice, there are important regional differences in repartnering that reflect cultural norms in the social acceptance of cohabitation. Socioeconomic disincentives to marriage do not appear to push the widowed into cohabitation.


Assuntos
Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Viuvez/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cônjuges/etnologia , Viuvez/etnologia
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