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2.
Zootaxa ; 4718(3): zootaxa.4718.3.9, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230033

RESUMO

New specimens and a re-examination of their holotypes have clarified the status of six nominal species of the extinct membracoid family Archijassidae from the Late Triassic (Norian) fossil insect localities at Mount Crosby, Denmark Hill and Dinmore in south-eastern Queensland. The 57 available tegmina ostensibly attributable to one or other of the six species are remarkably similar in venation and only vary in size and to a lesser extent in shape. The latter character varies subtlety across a continuum and is of no use in species definition. The tegmina, however, fall into two distinct size groups, and in the absence of any other discernible or consistent diagnostic characters, these groups are adopted as separate species, acknowledging, of course, the artificial nature of fossil insect species based on the size only of isolated wings. The following taxonomic changes result: Mesojassus Tillyard, 1916 (= Triassojassus Tillyard, 1919, syn. nov., = Triassocotis Evans, 1956, syn. nov., = Hylicellites Becker-Migdisova, 1962, syn. nov.), Mesojassus ipsviciensis Tillyard, 1916 (= Triassojassus proavitus Tillyard, 1919, syn. nov., = Triassocotis stricta Evans, 1961, syn. nov.), Mesojassus australis (Evans, 1956) comb. nov. (= Triassocotis amplicata Evans, 1961, syn. nov., = Hylicellites reducta (Evans, 1956), syn. nov.). Mesojassus is one of the four genera of the subfamily Archija` ssinae, and differs from the Jurassic Archijassus Handlirsch, 1906, Mesoledra Evans, 1956, and Ardela Ansorge, 1996, in the separation of R and M well before the arculus (at the same level or slightly beyond in the others), the proximal position of dSc, well before the apex of the clavus (at or beyond the apex in the others), and the two-branched RA (simple in the others). The separation of R and M distinctly basal to the arculus, a character of frequent occurrence in extant membracoids, is proposed as a possible apomorphy for this otherwise most plesiomorphic genus of the Membracoidea. Mesojassus, the oldest member of the extant Membracoidea, is one of a growing inventory of genera from the Late Triassic of Queensland which are the oldest representatives of extant groups, adding further evidence of the Triassic as the dawn of much of the modern insect fauna.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Insetos , Queensland , Asas de Animais
3.
Zootaxa ; 4751(3): zootaxa.4751.3.4, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230406

RESUMO

In this second part on the black fungus gnats of Queensland, Australia, nine species are described as new for science. These are: Pseudolycoriella angustoantennata sp. n., Psl. breviradiata sp. n., Psl. consectaria sp. n., Psl. fuscovenosa sp. n., Psl. globostylata sp. n., Psl. notanda sp. n., Psl. paucispinata sp. n., Psl. secura sp. n. and Psl. unispinata sp. n. The following three species are new for Australia: Psl. bisulca Vilkamaa, Hippa Mohrig, 2012, known from New Caledonia; Psl. snellingi Mohrig, 2013, reported from Papua New Guinea and Psl. horribilis (Edwards, 1931), described from Sumatra. All species are illustrated and keyed.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália , Fungos , Queensland
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 268: 15-30, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141876

RESUMO

The 10,000 Steps program originated from a landmark whole-of-community multi-strategy intervention to increase physical activity (PA) in Rockhampton, Australia in 2001-2003. It used a social ecological framework to promote physical activity at the individual, population, environmental and policy level. Two of the fundamental aspects of the original program were goal setting (10,000 steps per day) and self-monitoring (use of a pedometer for daily step counts). A project website (www.10000steps.org.au) allowed registered participants to record their physical activity. Over time the program morphed into an e- & mHealth intervention without face-to-face elements. The program is now delivered via website and smartphone apps and employs activity trackers (pedometers, Fitbit, Garmin). To date the project has signed-up over 425,000 members who have logged 221 billion steps (∼43 million a day) on the website or app. More than 14,000 workplaces and community organisations have been involved with the program. A central element of the program, the 'Workplace Challenge' has been used by ∼65% of 10,000 Steps members, which on average increases physical activity by 159 min/week for those who participate in it. In 2011, the Queensland Government designated the 10,000 Steps program as their key physical activity workplace health promotion strategy. Multiple factors underpin the success of the program. The message is simple and clear: the project name, with its distinctive logo and tagline ('Every Step Counts') provides a clear and prescriptive target for the physical activity 'dose'. Using effective behaviour change techniques: goal setting (the 10,000 Steps concept), self-monitoring (steps are tracked), social support (participants organise as 'teams' to reach certain step goals) and gamification (teams competing against each other creating 'friendly competition'). Ongoing redevelopment: since inception, there have been three complete redesigns of the website (including a branding redesign), and new smartphone apps. More recently, the website was modified to allow syncing of steps using popular activity trackers. Resources to support implementation: the program provides resources (e.g. 'Active Workplace Guide') and has dedicated staff to respond to queries from workplaces and individuals to help overcome implementation barriers. Project staff continuously promote the program via media interviews, attendance at events, social media and marketing, advertising, and networking and collaboration. Ongoing evaluation has contributed to continuous funding: to ensure the program remains successful in a fast-changing technology environment, continuous evaluation has been necessary. These evaluation strategies, the success of the original project and the strong partnership with the program funder (Queensland Health) have all contributed to the long-term (19 years) support for the project.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Actigrafia , Austrália , Humanos , Queensland
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114974

RESUMO

The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2018, there were 9,006 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. This was the highest annual total of isolates tested since the inception of the AGSP. The current treatment recommendation for gonorrhoea, for the majority of Australia, remains dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value ≥0.06 mg/L) was found nationally in 1.73% of isolates. The highest proportions were reported from Tasmania and non-remote Western Australia (7.3% and 2.1% respectively). In 2018 two extensively drug-resistant isolates were reported from Queensland patients. These two isolates, with ceftriaxone MIC values of 0.50 mg/L, high-level resistance to azithromycin (MIC ≥ 256 mg/L), and resistance to penicillin and ciprofloxacin were identified and reported to the World Health Organization as isolates of international significance. Resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥1.0 mg/L) was found nationally in 6.2% of isolates, lower than the 9.3% reported in 2017, but more than double the proportion reported in 2015 (2.6%). The highest proportions were reported from the Australian Capital Territory (8.7%), Victoria (8.3%), and New South Wales (6.5%). High-level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥256 mg/L) was reported in nine isolates nationally in 2018: four from New South Wales, three from Victoria, and two from Queensland. The proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin in non-remote Australia ranged from 8.8% in non-remote Northern Territory to 44.1% in South Australia. In remote Northern Territory penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.9%), and higher in remote Western Australia (6.5%). The proportion of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin in non-remote Australia ranged from 10.3% in non-remote Northern Territory to 48.3% in South Australia. Ciprofloxacin resistance rates remain comparatively low in remote Northern Territory (1.9%) and remote Western Australia (4.6%).


Assuntos
Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Território da Capital Australiana , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Resistência às Penicilinas , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Queensland/epidemiologia , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Tasmânia/epidemiologia , Vitória/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137481, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145617

RESUMO

The current Australian sugarcane industry transition toward adoption of an 'alternative' herbicide strategy as part of improved environmental stewardship is increasingly complicated by recent farming system, regulatory and herbicidal product changes. This study quantified and compared the efficacy, economic costs and environmental risk profiles of a range of established, emerging, and recently registered pre-emergent herbicides across field trials in the Wet Tropics region of North Queensland. Several herbicides were effective on certain weed species, but lacked broad spectrum control. Better efficacy results from products with multiple active ingredients (i.e., imazapic-hexazinone) demonstrated the benefits of using mixtures of active ingredients to widen the spectrum of weed control efficacy. All tested pre-emergent herbicides behaved quite similarly in terms of their propensity for off-site movement in water (surface runoff losses generally >10% of active applied), with their losses largely driven by their application rate. Herbicides with lower application rates consistently contributed less to the total herbicide loads measured in surface runoff. Results demonstrated alternative choices from the more environmentally problematic herbicides (such as diuron) are available with effective alternative formulations providing between 4 and 29 times less risk than the traditional diuron-hexazinone 'full rate'. However, considerable challenges still face canegrowers in making cost-effective decisions on sustainable herbicide selection. Additional research and effective grower extension are required to address information gaps in issues such as specific weed control efficacy of alternative herbicides and potential blending of some herbicides for more effective broad spectrum weed control, while also minimising environmental risks.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/química , Austrália , Queensland , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Controle de Plantas Daninhas
7.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 43, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oral health of Indigenous children in remote communities is much worse than other population groups in Australia. Providing and maintaining an oral health service is challenging due to the remoteness of communities, the associated high cost, and the low retention of clinical staff. An annual preventive intervention delivered by fly-in clinicians may be a more cost-effective way to manage this problem. In this analysis we estimate the cost-effectiveness of an annual professional intervention for the prevention of dental caries in children of a remote Indigenous community in Far North Queensland. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted based on an annual preventive intervention protocol. This included treating all dental decay in those with disease, applying fissure sealants, a disinfectant swab, fluoride varnish and providing oral hygiene instructions and dietary advice to all participating school children. This study included an intervention group and a natural comparison group and both groups were followed-up for 2 years after the initial preventive intervention. A Markov model was built to assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention compared with the usual care. Costs of treatment from the Queensland Department of Health were used and effectiveness was measured as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) with the CHU-9D. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify key drivers and quantify uncertainty. RESULTS: The preventive intervention was found to be highly cost-effective. The incremental cost per QALY gained was AU$3747. Probability of new caries and seeking treatment were identified as the main drivers of the model. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis intervention was cost effective in 100% of simulations. CONCLUSION: An annual preventive intervention for remote Indigenous communities in Australia is a highly cost-effective strategy to prevent dental caries and improve the quality of life of children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/terapia , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/economia , Saúde Bucal/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Queensland
8.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227925, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitals and other health care providers frequently experience difficulties contacting patients and their carers who live remotely from the town where the health service is located. In 2016 Nurse Navigator positions were introduced into the health services by Queensland Health, to support and navigate the care of people with chronic and complex conditions. One hospital in Far North Queensland initiated an additional free telephone service to provide another means of communication for patients and carers with the NNs and for off-campus health professionals to obtain details about a patient utilising the service. Calls made between 7am and 10pm, seven days per week are answered by a nurse navigator. AIM: To report utilisation of the service by navigated clients and remotely located clinicians compared to use of navigators' individual work numbers and direct health service numbers. We report the reason for calls to the free number and examine features of these calls. METHODS: Statistical analysis examined the call reason, duration of calls, setting from where calls originated and stream of calls. Interactions between the reasons for calls and the features of calls, such as contact method, were examined. RESULTS: The major reason for calls was clinical issues and the source of calls was primarily patients and carers. Clinical calls were longer in duration. Shorter calls were mainly non-clinical, made by a health professional. Setting for calls was not related to the reason. The most frequent number used was the individual mobile number of the NN, followed by the hospital landline. Although the free number was utilised by patients and carers, it was not the preferred option. CONCLUSION: As patients and carers preferred to access their NN directly than via the 1800 number, further research should explore options best suited to this group of patients outside normal business hours.


Assuntos
Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Pacientes , Telefone Celular , Comunicação , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais/normas , Humanos , Queensland/epidemiologia , Telefone
9.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(1): 1-23, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912420

RESUMO

We provide molecular data (cox1, 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA) for 17 acanthocephalan species and 20 host-parasite combinations from Australian marine teleosts collected from off Queensland, Australia. Fourteen of these acanthocephalans are characterised with molecular data for the first time and we provide the first molecular data for a species of each of the genera Heterosentis Van Cleave, 1931, Pyriproboscis Amin, Abdullah & Mhaisen, 2003 and Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978. Using 18S and 28S rDNA sequences, the phylogenetic position of each newly sequenced species is assessed with both single-gene and concatenated 18S+28S maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses. Additional phylogenetic analyses focusing on the genus Rhadinorhynchus Lühe, 1912 and related lineages are included. Our phylogenetic results are broadly consistent with previous analyses, recovering previously identified inconsistencies but also providing new insights and necessitating taxonomic action. We do not find sufficient evidence to recognise the Gymnorhadinorhynchidae Braicovich, Lanfranchi, Farber, Marvaldi, Luque & Timi, 2014 as distinct from the Rhadinorhynchidae Lühe, 1912. The family Gymnorhadinorhynchidae and its sole genus, Gymnorhadinorhynchus Braicovich, Lanfranchi, Farber, Marvaldi, Luque & Timi, 2014, are here recognised as junior synonyms of Rhadinorhynchidae and Rhadinorhynchus, respectively. The two species currently assigned to Gymnorhadinorhynchus are recombined as Rhadinorhynchus decapteri (Braicovich, Lanfranchi, Farber, Marvaldi, Luque & Timi, 2014) n. comb. and Rhadinorhynchus mariserpentis (Steinauer, Garcia-Vedrenne, Weinstein & Kuris, 2019) n. comb. In all of our analyses, Rhadinorhynchus biformis Smales, 2014 is found basal to the Rhadinorhynchidae + Transvenidae Pichelin & Cribb, 2001, thus resulting in a paraphyletic Rhadinorhynchidae. It appears that R. biformis may require a new genus and family; however, morphological data for this species are currently insufficient to adequately distinguish it from related lineages, thus we defer the proposal of any new higher-rank names for this species. Species of the genus Sclerocollum, currently assigned to the Cavisomidae Meyer, 1932, are found nested within the family Transvenidae. We transfer the genus Sclerocollum to the Transvenidae and amend the diagnosis of the family accordingly. The genera Gorgorhynchoides Cable & Linderoth, 1963 and Serrasentis Van Cleave, 1923, currently assigned to the Rhadinorhynchidae, are supported as sister taxa and form a clade in the Polymorphida. We transfer these genera and Golvanorhynchus Noronha, Fabio & Pinto, 1978 to an emended concept of the Isthomosacanthidae Smales, 2012 and transfer this family to the Polymorphida. Lastly, Pyriproboscis heronensis (Pichelin, 1997) Amin, Abdullah & Mhaisen, 2003, currently assigned to the Pomphorhynchidae Yamaguti, 1939, falls under the Polymorphida in our analyses with some support for a sister relationship with the Centrorhynchidae Van Cleave, 1916. As this species clearly does not belong in the Pomphorhynchidae and is morphologically and molecularly distinct from the lineages of the Polymorphida, we propose the Pyriprobosicidae n. fam. to accommodate it.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Queensland , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 139, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980986

RESUMO

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has evolved as an environmental management and sustainability tool. Despite common principles shared by EIA globally, there are considerable variations in EIA processes across countries. In this paper, we reviewed and compared EIA processes of China, Queensland State of Australia and Nepal considering five key steps (selection of consultants, report preparation, public participation, report review and approval, and monitoring and evaluations) of EIA. Our review indicated that the EIA is well recognised in legal instruments in all state and countries under consideration and there are both similarities and differences in key steps of EIA. Monitoring of EIA recommendations and the integration of feedbacks from the past and current practices are important in improving EIA processes. This study also found that there are elements for possible improvement in existing EIA processes by each state and country introducing the best practices from others' EIA system. Some of the practices that Nepal can follow from the EIA processes of Queensland and China are licensing and accreditation of individuals and firms to conduct EIA, establishment of separate monitoring unit within regulating department, development of clear guidelines for approvals and monitoring, and the use of independent third-party auditing in EIA monitoring. The findings of this paper are useful in revising and improving EIA policies, practices and processes in the selected state, countries and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Austrália , China , Humanos , Nepal , Queensland
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 97, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912301

RESUMO

Hydrodynamic modelling is a powerful tool to gain understanding of river conditions. However, as widely known, models vary in terms of how they respond to changes and uncertainty in their input parameters. A hydrodynamic river model (MIKE HYDRO River) was developed and calibrated for a flood-prone tidal river located in South East Queensland, Australia. The model was calibrated using Manning's roughness coefficient for the normal dry and flood periods. The model performance was assessed by comparing observed and simulated water level, and estimating performance indices. Results indicated a satisfactory agreement between the observed and simulated results. The hydrodynamic modelling results revealed that the calibrated Manning's roughness coefficient ranged between 0.011 and 0.013. The impacts of tidal variation at the river mouth and the river discharge from upstream are the major driving force for the hydrodynamic process. To investigate the impacts of the boundary conditions, a new sensitivity analysis approach, based on adding stochastic terms (random noise) to the time series of boundary conditions, was conducted. The main purpose of such new sensitivity analysis was to impose changes in magnitude and time of boundary conditions randomly, which is more similar to the real and natural water level variations compared to impose constant changes of water level. In this new approach, the possible number of variations in simulated results was separately evaluated for both downstream and upstream boundaries under 5%, 10%, and 15% perturbation. The sensitivity analysis results revealed that in the river under study, the middle parts of the river were shown to be more sensitive to downstream boundary condition as maximum water level variations can reach 8%, 12%, and 15% under 5%, 10%, and 15% changes in the downstream boundary, respectively. The outcomes of the present paper will benefit future modelling efforts through provision of a robust tool to enable prediction of water levels at ungauged points of the river under various scenarios of flooding and climate change for the purpose of city planning and decision-making.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Inundações , Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Teóricos , Rios , Austrália , Calibragem , Mudança Climática , Simulação por Computador , Queensland
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917785

RESUMO

Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a marine turtle disease recognised by benign tumours on the skin, eyes, shell, oral cavity and/or viscera. Despite being a globally distributed disease that affects an endangered species, research on FP and its likely causative agent chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) in Australia is limited. Here we present improved molecular assays developed for detection of ChHV5, in combination with a robust molecular and phylogenetic analysis of ChHV5 variants. This approach utilised a multi-gene assay to detect ChHV5 in all FP tumors sampled from 62 marine turtles found at six foraging grounds along the Great Barrier Reef. Six distinct variants of ChHV5 were identified and the distribution of these variants was associated with host foraging ground. Conversely, no association between host genetic origin and ChHV5 viral variant was found. Together this evidence supports the hypothesis that marine turtles undergo horizontal transmission of ChHV5 at foraging grounds and are unlikely to be contracting the disease at rookeries, either during mating or vertically from parent to offspring.


Assuntos
Alphaherpesvirinae/patogenicidade , Organismos Aquáticos/virologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Tartarugas/virologia , Alphaherpesvirinae/genética , Alphaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Infecções por Herpesviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Queensland
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 466, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980604

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) represent an urgent threat to human health. Here we report the application of several complementary whole-genome sequencing (WGS) technologies to characterise a hospital outbreak of blaIMP-4 carbapenemase-producing E. hormaechei. Using Illumina sequencing, we determined that all outbreak strains were sequence type 90 (ST90) and near-identical. Comparison to publicly available data linked all outbreak isolates to a 2013 isolate from the same ward, suggesting an environmental source in the hospital. Using Pacific Biosciences sequencing, we resolved the complete context of the blaIMP-4 gene on a large IncHI2 plasmid carried by all IMP-4-producing strains across different hospitals. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing of environmental samples also found evidence of ST90 E. hormaechei and the IncHI2 plasmid within the hospital plumbing. Finally, Oxford Nanopore sequencing rapidly resolved the true relationship of subsequent isolates to the initial outbreak. Overall, our strategic application of three WGS technologies provided an in-depth analysis of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/enzimologia , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Enterobacter/enzimologia , Enterobacter/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/biossíntese , beta-Lactamases/genética , Queimaduras/microbiologia , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/patogenicidade , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Queensland/epidemiologia , Fatores R/genética , Engenharia Sanitária , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0217531, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978046

RESUMO

The shallow tidal and freshwater coastal wetlands adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon provide a vital nursery and feeding complex that supports the life cycles of marine and freshwater fish, important native vegetation and vital bird habitat. Urban and agricultural development threaten these wetlands, with many of the coastal wetlands becoming lost or changed due to the construction of artificial barriers (e.g. bunds, roads, culverts and floodgates). Infestation by weeds has become a major issue within many of the wetlands modified (bunded) for ponded pasture growth last century. A range of expensive chemical and mechanical control methods have been used in an attempt to restore some of these coastal wetlands, with limited success. This study describes an alternative approach to those methods, investigating the impact of tidal reinstatement after bund removal on weed infestation, associated changes in water quality, and fish biodiversity, in the Boolgooroo lagoon region of the Mungalla wetlands, East of Ingham in North Queensland. High resolution remote sensing, electrofishing and in-water logging was used to track changes over time- 1 year before and 4 years after removal of an earth bund. With tides only penetrating the wetland a few times yearly, gross changes towards a more natural system occurred within a relatively short timeframe, leading to a major reduction in infestation of olive hymenachne, water hyacinth and salvina, reappearance of native vegetation, improvements in water quality, and a tripling of fish diversity. Weed abundance and water quality does appear to oscillate however, dependent on summer rainfall, as changes in hydraulic pressure stops or allows tidal ingress (fresh/saline cycling). With an estimated 30% of coastal wetlands bunded in the Great Barrier Reef region, a passive remediation method such as reintroduction of tidal flow by removal of an earth bund or levee could provide a more cost effective and sustainable means of controlling freshwater weeds and improving coastal water quality into the future.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Austrália , Ecossistema , Peixes , Água Doce , Humanos , Plantas Daninhas , Queensland , Movimentos da Água , Áreas Alagadas
15.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109777, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733476

RESUMO

Psychosocial factors determine individual and collective behaviours, and there is growing evidence of their influence on land management behaviours. Native vegetation management encompasses biophysical, economic, political, and cultural dimensions that are immensely complex, and a more thorough understanding of the personal and cultural dimensions of deforestation activity is required. We emphasise this interdisciplinary imperative using Queensland, Australia, as an exemplar case study, where the controversial Vegetation Management Act1999 has been met with significant scrutiny over its effects on private landholders and its ability to curb deforestation behaviours. We surveyed landholders across Queensland in order to identify different landholder typologies based upon (1) their recent tree clearing behaviours and (2) their psychosocial characteristics, mapped their distribution in the landscape, and determined the unique demographic and psychosocial factors associated with typology membership. We identified a heterogeneous mosaic of landholders in the clearing landscape, composed of four clearing typologies and five psychosocial typologies. Social norms, identity, trust, and security played crucial roles in distinguishing different types of landholders. The two most contrasting clearing typologies-active and inactive clearers-were primarily located in hot- and cold-spots of deforestation, respectively; in contrast, most psychosocial typologies could be found throughout the landscape, highlighting the potential benefit of complementing generalised state-wide psychosocial targets with localised behavioural targets. We discuss how conservation policy instruments can be regionally tailored, and relevant strategies for effective communication and engagement can be developed to create behaviour change by understanding the characteristics and distribution of these types of landholders. If modified top-down efforts (e.g. strategic messages, community-based communication) can be supplemented with more bottom-up approaches (e.g. collective learning, building network support), sustainable land management in deforestation hotspots around the world may be achievable.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mudança Social , Austrália , Queensland , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 317-327, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of general practitioners in cancer care has expanded in recent years. However, little is known about utilization of primary health care (PHC) services by patients with cancer, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged groups. We describe utilization of PHC services by patients with cancer, and the nature of the care provided. The study focuses on a disadvantaged group in Australia, namely Indigenous Australians. METHODS: A retrospective audit of clinical records in ten PHC services in Queensland, Australia. Demographic and clinical data of Indigenous Australians diagnosed with cancer during 2010-2016 were abstracted from patient's medical records at the PHC services. The rates of cancer-related visits were calculated using person years at risk as a denominator. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients' records were audited. During 12 months following the cancer diagnosis, patients visited the PHC service on average 5.95 times per year. Frequency of visits were relatively high in remote areas and among socioeconomic disadvantaged patients (IRR = 1.87, 95%CI 1.61-2.17; IRR = 1.79, 95%CI 1.45-2.21, respectively). Over 80% of visits were for seeking attention for symptoms, wound care, and emotional or social support. Patients who did not undergo surgery, had greater comorbidity, received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and male gender had significantly greater rate of visits than their counterparts. CONCLUSION: The frequency of utilization of PHC services, especially by patients with comorbidities, and the range of reasons for attendance highlights the important role of PHC services in providing cancer care. The reliance on PHC services, particularly by patients in remote and disadvantaged communities, has important implications for appropriate resourcing and support for services in these locations.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Auditoria Clínica , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais/normas , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/normas , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Queensland/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 706: 136035, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841841

RESUMO

Litterfall helps maintaining nutrient return in forest ecosystems. However, the influence of long-term prescribed burning on the dynamics of litterfall biomass and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling is poorly understood. A 39-year old prescribed burning field trial in a wet sclerophyll forest, southeast Queensland, Australia, was used to investigate the interactive effects of prescribed fire regimes and temporal variation on the quantity and quality of litterfall and C and N return. Treatments included no burning (NB) since 1969, 2 yearly burning (2yrB; burned 19 times) and 4 yearly burning (4yrB; burned 9 times) since 1972. Litterfall was collected monthly on 32 occasions between 2011 and 2013. Significant temporal variation was observed in monthly and annual litterfall biomass. Both burning treatments had lower monthly inputs of total litterfall and leaf litter, mean annual cumulative litter biomass, litter C concentrations and C return via leaf litter, compared with the NB treatment. Most significant reductions in litter N concentrations and N return via litter were associated with 2yrB treatment. The 4yrB and the NB treatments did not differ significantly in terms of twig biomass, litterfall C:N ratios and N return via leaf litter. Despite both long-term prescribed burning treatments negatively impacting C return to the soil by reducing the quantity and quality of litter inputs, previous studies at the site suggest no difference in 0-10 cm soil organic carbon levels between the 4yrB treatment and the unburnt treatment. Hence a longer period of prescribed burning at the 4yrB frequency is likely required before lower C return translates to differences in ecosystem productivity in this wet sclerophyll forest ecosystem. The 2yrB can potentially alter forest C and N cycling and net primary productivity, but these alterations are unlikely to be detected through short-term studies.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Austrália , Carbono , Florestas , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Queensland , Solo , Árvores
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1740, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing healthy nutrition, activity, and sleep behaviours early in life is a key strategy in childhood obesity prevention. Parents are the primary influence on the development and establishment of obesity-related behaviours in young children. There is evidence that autonomy supporting parenting practices are crucial for the development of self-regulation and the internalisation of healthy behaviours in children. It is therefore imperative that parenting practices are targeted as part of an obesity prevention intervention. However, there is limited understanding of barriers and facilitators to parents using autonomy supporting parenting practices with their children aged 0-5 years. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify barriers and facilitators to using autonomy supporting parenting practices. A secondary aim was to determine parent preferences in respect to an intervention program to be delivered in community playgroups. METHODS: Parents were recruited through Playgroup Queensland (PGQ), a not-for-profit organisation in Brisbane, Australia, to attend a focus group during their usual playgroup session. The focus group interview guide was designed to promote discussion among the participants in respect to their shared experiences as parents of young children. The focus group transcripts were coded and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Five focus groups with parents (n = 30) were conducted in May 2018. Most of the participants were mothers [1], and the majority (76%) had a child at playgroup aged between 2 and 4 years. RESULTS: The support and guidance received from other parents at playgroup was a facilitator to autonomy supporting parenting practices. Barriers included beliefs around the need to use rewards to encourage child eating, beliefs around the need for screens as babysitters, and feeling disempowered to change sleep behaviours. Parents were enthusiastic about a potential program that would leverage off the existing playgroup support networks, but they did not want to be "educated", or to lose their "playgroup time" to an intervention. Rather they wanted strategies and support to deal with the frustrations of food, screen and sleep parenting. CONCLUSION: These results will be used to inform the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention to be delivered in a community playgroup setting.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Jogos e Brinquedos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Queensland
19.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 570-576, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the under-identification of Indigenous∗ infants in death records and examine the impact of a multi-stage algorithm on disparities in sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI). METHODS: Data on SUDI in Queensland between 2010 and 2014 were linked to birth and death registrations, health data, and child protection and coronial records. An algorithm was applied to cases of SUDI and population data to derive Indigenous status. Numbers, proportions and rates of SUDI were compared. RESULTS: Using multiple sources of Indigenous status resulted in a 64.9% increase in the number of infants identified as Indigenous. The Indigenous SUDI rate increased by 54.3%, from 1.38 to 2.13 per 1,000 live births after applying the algorithm to SUDI and live births data. CONCLUSIONS: Applying an algorithm to both numerator and denominator data reduced numerator-denominator incompatibility, to more accurately report rates of Indigenous SUDI and measure the gap in Indigenous infant mortality. Implications for public health: Estimation of the true magnitude of the disparity is restricted by under-identification of Indigenous status in death records. Data linkage improved the reporting of Indigenous infant mortality. Accuracy in reporting of measures is integral to determining genuine progress towards Closing the Gap.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etnologia , Algoritmos , Causas de Morte , Atestado de Óbito , Documentação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Masculino , Queensland/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1521, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving the rates of, and instruments used in, screening for perinatal depression and anxiety among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women are important public health priorities. The Kimberley Mum's Mood Scale (KMMS) was developed and later validated as an effective and acceptable perinatal depression and anxiety screening tool for the Kimberley region under research conditions. Other regions have expressed interest in using the KMMS with perinatal Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. It is, however, important to re-evaluate the KMMS in a larger Kimberley sample via a real world implementation study, and to test for applicability in other remote and regional environments before recommendations for wider use can be made. This paper outlines the protocol for evaluating the process of implementation and establishing the 'real world' validity and acceptability of the KMMS in the Kimberley, Pilbara and Far North Queensland in northern Australia. METHODS: The study will use a range of quantitative and qualitative methods across all sites. KMMS validation/revalidation internal consistency of Part 1 will be determined using Cronbach's alpha. Equivalence for identifying risk of depression and anxiety compared to a standard reference assessment will be determined from receiver operating characteristic curves. Sensitivity and specificity will be determined based on these cut-points. Qualitative methods of phenomenology will be used to explore concepts of KMMS user acceptability (women and health professionals). Additional process evaluation methods will collate, assess and report on KMMS quality review data, consultations with health service administrators and management, field notes, and other documentation from the research team. This information will be reported on using the Dynamic Sustainability Framework. DISCUSSION: This project is contributing to the important public health priority of screening Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women for perinatal depression and anxiety with tools that are meaningful and responsive to cultural and clinical needs. Identifying and addressing barriers to implementation contributes to our understanding of the complexity of improving routine clinical practie. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered retrospectively on 15/05/2019 with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial registry (ACTRN12619000580178).


Assuntos
Afeto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ilhas , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Gestantes/etnologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Psicometria , Queensland , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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