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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18078, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895765

RESUMO

Sun protection early in life is an essential issue for primary prevention of skin cancers. The Il Sole per Amico was an educational campaign among 66 Italian primary schools. A total of 12,188 questionnaires were completed at baseline. Overall, 9.4% children reported >1 sunburn during the last year and 44.7% parents a use of sunlamps. Independent factors associated with sunburns were: age, lower level of parents' education, light eye and skin color, freckles, nevi on arms, intense sun exposure during the last year, sporadic use of sunscreens, and parental use of sunlamps. A total of 7280 (59.7%) questionnaires were completed at the end of the educational intervention. No significant difference was documented about behavior between the pre- and post-intervention periods. A significant reduction was instead found in both prevalence of recent sunburns and total number of sunburn episodes after comparison with the data obtained by identical questionnaire in the same geographic areas in the "Sole Si Sole No" project in 2001.


Assuntos
Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 110(10): 830-840, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185605

RESUMO

Introducción: La exposición solar en la infancia es el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de cáncer de piel en la vida adulta. Las intervenciones basadas en programas y políticas de fotoprotección escolar han demostrado ser las estrategias más eficaces y coste-efectivas para la prevención del cáncer de piel. Objetivos: Elaborar un modelo de certificación que permita identificar de forma objetiva aquellos centros escolares que promueven activamente la fotoprotección. Métodos: Se empleó metodología de consenso basada en panel de expertos, recurriendo al método Delphi en 2 rondas. Se analizaron las medianas de las valoraciones de la importancia y factibilidad de cada una de las recomendaciones, y el porcentaje de respuestas positivas para los niveles de cada una de ellas. Resultados: Se obtuvo un modelo integrado por 14 recomendaciones junto a sus criterios de evaluación, relativas a 7 dimensiones: 1) liderazgo organizacional (5 recomendaciones), 2) comunicación efectiva (2 recomendaciones), 3) elementos estructurales (2 recomendaciones), 4) formación de profesionales (una recomendación), 5) currículum escolar (una recomendación), 6) modelos de conducta (2 recomendaciones) y 7) hábitos del alumnado (una recomendación). Todas las recomendaciones mostraron un alto nivel de acuerdo, tanto en la valoración de la importancia y factibilidad como en la categorización de los niveles de complejidad. Conclusión: Se trata del primer distintivo de fotoprotección escolar que se desarrolla en nuestro país. Se necesitan estudios que evalúen el grado de aceptación de la estrategia y su impacto en los hábitos de fotoprotección de los escolares


Introduction: Sun exposure during childhood is the main risk factor for skin cancer in later life. School-based sun protection policies and practices have proven to be the most effective and cost-effective strategies for preventing skin cancer. Objective: To develop a sun protection accreditation program known as «Soludable» (a play on the Spanish words sol [sun] and saludable [healthy]) to objectively identify schools that actively promote sun protection behaviors among students. Methods: The consensus method used was a 2-round Delphi technique with input from a panel of experts. We then calculated the median scores for the importance and feasibility of each of the recommendations proposed and the level of complexity assigned to each recommendation by counting the percentage of experts who chose each difficulty category. Results: The resulting accreditation model consists of 14 recommendations with corresponding evaluation criteria divided into 7 domains: 1) organizational leadership (5 recommendations), 2) effective communication (2 recommendations), 3) structural elements (2 recommendations), 4) training of professionals (1 recommendation), 5) school curriculum (1 recommendation), 6) behavioral models (2 recommendations), and 7) student habits (1 recommendation). A high level of agreement among experts was observed for all recommendations, in terms of both their perceived importance and feasibility and their categorization by levels of complexity. Conclusions: This is the first sun protection accreditation program developed for Spanish schools. Studies are needed to evaluate how this program is received and how it affects students' sun protection behaviors


Assuntos
Humanos , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Liderança , Estilo de Vida Saudável
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1044, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sunburns during childhood are strongly associated with development of melanoma in later life. While parents play an important role in children's sun protection, insight in possible shifts in behavioral responsibility from parents towards their children and the possible effect of children's sex is important for targeting sun safety interventions throughout childhood and adolescence. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey study was conducted among a representative sample of Dutch parents (N = 1053) of children aged between 4 and 13 years old. Questionnaires measured both parental and children's own sun safety behavior during planned (e.g. going to the beach) and incidental (e.g. bycicling) sun exposure situations. Analyses of variance were used to test for age group differences and linear regression models were computed to detect behavioral shifts in executive behavior. RESULTS: Parents applied all sun safety behaviors (i.e. sunscreen use, wearing UV-protective clothing and seeking shade) more often on younger children, except for supportive behavior (facilitating children's own sun safety behavior), which remained relatively stable over the years. Older children and girls were more likely to execute sun safety behaviors themselves. A behavioral shift was found in wearing UV-protective clothing during planned situations among 11 year old children. For other behaviors, shifts were predicted after the age of 13. CONCLUSIONS: Older children execute sun safety behaviors more often than younger children, although they still largely depend on their parents' protection. Specific attention for boys in the primary school years, and for both boys and girls in the years adjacent to adolescence is warranted in skin cancer prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
5.
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat ; 27(2): 67-74, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351499

RESUMO

Aim of this study was to investigate changes in health behavior of melanoma survivors with emphasis on safe sun behavior (SSB) and skin self-examination (SSE). We also identified factors with significant impact on SSE improvement. We performed a cross-sectional (epidemiological) survey based on a structured questionnaire. 150 patients from three medical institutions were invited and 144 patients responded. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 23.0, with the level of significance set to 0.05. After being diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma, patients significantly improved preventive health behavior: 68.1% showed improvement in SSE, and 91.5% of patients improved SSB. There was statistically significant (P<0.001) improvement in the frequency of skin examination, examination of poorly visible areas (between the toes, genitals), and obtaining help in examination. Use of melanoma images remained scarce. Results for SSB were even better, and statistically significant improvement was recorded in all areas: using higher UV protection filters, wearing sunglasses, headgear, long sleeves, and trousers, and especially in staying in deep shade during hours of heavy UV radiation. The only factor with a positive influence on expected improvement in SSE was female gender. On the other hand, there were two factors that had a negative impact on SSE: patients with melanoma stage 1 and patients who had already self-examined themselves before their melanoma diagnosis. Preventive health behavior improved significantly after diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. Patients markedly improved SSB and substantially enhanced SSE. We believe that it is reasonable to improve SSE further, encouraging patients by increasing their feeling of self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Melanoma/psicologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Roupa de Proteção , Autoexame , Fatores Sexuais , Eslovênia , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(7): 649-653, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334624

RESUMO

A large proportion of data on photoprotective practices is yielded from free skin cancer screenings. However, the sun safety practices of populations who seek these skin cancer screenings may differ from the general public. To examine differences in skin cancer prevention practices and risk factors, we surveyed pedestrians at six locations in Washington, DC (public group, n=285) and attendees of a free skin cancer screening (screening group, n=144) using an IRB-approved survey. The screening group was older and included more individuals with fair skin than the public group. Respondents from the screening group were significantly more likely to always wear sunscreen, always seeks shade, and always or sometimes wear sun-protective clothing than the public group (P<0.05). To examine whether younger and non-white participants, who were less likely to attend our free screening, have different practices and risk factors than older and white participants, respectively, we compared survey answers for all participants by age and race. White participants were more likely to always or sometimes wear sunscreen and sun-protective clothing than non-white participants (P<0.05). Patients over 61 years were more likely to always seek shade and wear sun-protective clothing than those younger than 31 years (P<0.05). Therefore, free skin cancer screenings need to be better popularized among non-white and younger populations or more effective educational vehicles are needed. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(7):649-653.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimadura Solar/etiologia , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Int J Behav Med ; 26(4): 372-379, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to investigate the association of health literacy with skin cancer risk and protective behaviors among young adults at moderate to high risk of skin cancer, the most common cancer. METHOD: A US national sample of 958 adults, 18-25 years old, at moderate to high risk of developing skin cancer, completed a survey online. Behavioral outcomes were ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure (e.g., indoor and outdoor tanning, sunburn) and protective (e.g., sunscreen use, sunless tanning) behaviors. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to determine whether health literacy (a four-item self-report measure assessing health-related reading, understanding, and writing) was associated with behavioral outcomes while controlling for demographic factors. RESULTS: Higher health literacy was independently associated with less sunbathing, odds ratio (OR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.60-0.98; less indoor tanning, OR = 0.38, CI = 0.31-0.48; and less use of tanning oils, OR = 0.54, CI = 0.43-0.69. However, health literacy was also associated with a lower likelihood of wearing long pants, OR = 0.76, CI = 0.58-0.99, or a hat, OR = 0.68, CI = 0.53-0.87, when outdoors. On the other hand, higher health literacy was associated with higher incidental UV exposure, OR = 1.69, CI = 1.34-2.14, and a greater likelihood of ever having engaged in sunless tanning, OR = 1.50, CI = 1.17-1.92. CONCLUSION: Interestingly, higher health literacy was associated with lower levels of intentional tanning yet also higher incidental UV exposure and lower skin protection among US young adults. These findings suggest that interventions may be needed for young adults at varying levels of health literacy as well as populations (e.g., outdoor workers, outdoor athletes/exercisers) who may be receiving large amounts of unprotected incidental UV.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Neoplasias Cutâneas/psicologia , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Assunção de Riscos , Autorrelato , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Banho de Sol/psicologia , Queimadura Solar/complicações , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(2): 172-181, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive sun exposure is the major risk factor for skin cancer. Thus, sun exposure behavior is the major focus for prevention of this disease, since it is potentially modifiable. Increasing the knowledge on sun related habits and other skin cancer risk factors is fundamental in the development of preventive programs, especially when directed to young people. OBJECTIVES: To assess the photoprotection habits and the knowledge about skin cancer in college students. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study from Oct. 16 to Feb. 17, including 371 students from the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, through a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The level of knowledge about skin cancer and photoprotection was unsatisfactory in more than 10% of the students. The occurrence of sunburn was extremely high among students, and 25% reported at least one episode of second degree sunburn. Proper use of sunscreen was referred by only 34% of individuals. Students who reported having received photo education in college were associated with a more consistent use of sunscreen. STUDY LIMITATIONS: health area represented a large part of the sample; instrument validated outside Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Young people are unaware of basic information about sun protection and exposure. Even among those with proper knowledge, the use of photoprotective measures is very low. The sun exposure has shown to be excessive in most of the students, which makes this population an important target for photo-educational measures.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hábitos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Luz Solar , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Pigmentação da Pele , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Transl Behav Med ; 9(3): 468-479, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094440

RESUMO

Multicomponent skin cancer preventive interventions for adolescents that aim to decrease ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and sunburns are particularly needed given their intentional tanning and infrequent use of sun protection. The purpose of this study was to conduct an early-phase study within the Multiphase Optimization Strategy framework that experimentally tested four unique intervention components targeting high school students' skin cancer prevention behaviors. Schools (11 total, N = 1,573 students) were assigned to receive one of four interventions: skin cancer education (control), education plus a sunscreen activity (to illustrate sunscreen's UVR-blocking properties), or behavior change worksheet (sun protection goal setting and planning) or receipt of a personalized UV damage photograph (photograph of facial damage). Sun protection, sunburn, and tanning outcomes were assessed before intervention and at 1-month follow-up. Within- and between-intervention changes in outcomes were examined using generalized estimating equation modeling. All interventions were associated with significant improvements in sun protection. The photograph was superior in controlling intentional tanning and sunburn when compared to the behavior change worksheet (ps < .05). In contrast, the worksheet was associated with greater increases in sun protection use when compared with the photograph (ps < .05). In this experiment testing four skin cancer preventive intervention components that varied in approach, content, and interactivity, the behavior change worksheet was superior in improving sun protection use whereas the UV photograph was superior in controlling intentional tanning and sunburn. Future randomized trials to test combinations of these intervention components are needed, and could identify mechanisms underlying improved effects and demographic or behavioral moderators of intervention effects.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Roupa de Proteção , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Utah
12.
Gerontologist ; 59(Suppl 1): S17-S27, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Skin cancer incidence rates are highest among U.S. older adults. However, little is known about sun protection behaviors and sunburn among adults aged 65 years and older. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey to examine the association between sun protection behaviors (sun avoidance, wearing protective clothing, and sunscreen use) and likelihood of having experienced sunburn in the past year. RESULTS: Just over one in ten older adults (13.2%) had experienced sunburn in the past year; sunburn prevalence was nearly twice as high (20.4%) among sun-sensitive older adults. Men, ages 65-69 years, non-Hispanic whites, and those with skin that burns or freckles after repeated sun exposure were more likely to have been sunburned in the past year compared with the respective comparison groups. The only sun protection behavior significantly associated with sunburn was sunscreen use. None of the sun protection behaviors were significantly associated with a decreased risk of sunburn. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The prevalence of sunburn among older adults suggests opportunities to reduce skin cancer risk within this demographic group by preventing overexposure to the sun. The lack of reduced sunburn risk among those who regularly used sun protection may be related to inadequate or inconsistent use of sun protection or the way the sun protection behaviors were measured. Multi-sector approaches to facilitate sun-safety among older adults are warranted and could include targeted efforts focused on those most likely to get sunburned, including men and those with sun-sensitive skin.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Roupa de Proteção , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino
13.
Health Promot J Austr ; 30(2): 267-271, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972900

RESUMO

ISSUE ADDRESSED: The SunSmart Policy Support and Intervention Study (SSPSIS) (ACTRN12614000926639) investigated the feasibility of improving schools' implementation of the SunSmart Program, which is a resource for primary school communities to support their development of a comprehensive sun protection policy. METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) was used to evaluate the SSPSIS, which was conducted in NSW SunSmart schools (n = 20). Objective measurements of students' sun-safe hat-wearing behaviours and sunscreen application, and teachers' role-modelling behaviours, were collected for baseline, post-test and follow-up data. Interviews with school community stakeholders, including students (n = 103), parents (n = 31), teachers (n = 11) and executive staff (n = 4), were conducted to inform the intervention design, which was implemented following baseline data collection. RESULTS: The results of baseline observations and interviews have been published previously. The intervention design aimed to combat negative perceptions of hat-wearing policy and create a trigger for sunscreen application by rewarding students practising these sun protection behaviours with play-based incentives. Although this intervention had no significant effect on the wearing of sun-safe hats among students or teachers, it did have a large effect on the consumption of sunscreen. CONCLUSIONS: Associating sunscreen and play-based incentives can create an effective trigger for students' sunscreen application behaviours. However, further evidence is needed to investigate how students' and teacher role models' hat-wearing behaviours could be increased. SO WHAT?: While combining a play-based incentive with a trigger for behaviour can promptly increase students' sunscreen application, it was unable to increase students' or teacher role models' hat-wearing behaviours.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Roupa de Proteção , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Análise por Conglomerados , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Motivação , New South Wales , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 35(5): 304-312, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As future healthcare professionals, nursing students will play an important role in social training and promoting healthy behaviours including protection against sunlight. However, few studies to date have focused on their knowledge and attitudes regarding sun-related behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices about sun protection and skin cancer among nursing students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 200 all year nursing students from University of Vigo, located in the Vigo, Ourense and Pontevedra campus. Participants completed a validated, self-reported questionnaire with 38 questions regarding their demographic characteristics, sun-related behaviour, knowledge and attitudes. RESULTS: Approximately 87% of students reported experiencing sunburn last summer and 57% stated that they had sunbathed more than 15 days. Participants showed low level of sun protection behaviours, with the exception of using sunscreen (86%) and wearing sunglasses (72.5%). Knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection was considered high (rate of correct responses 87.7%, 6.14 out of 7). Moreover, positive tanning attitudes were high in the sample overall. Nursing students awarded a high value to tanned skin and showed misconceptions about sun exposure. CONCLUSION: Although most of the students were aware of the side effects of sun exposure, their behaviours and attitudes were unsatisfactory. A high level of knowledge may not be predictive of positive practices and adequate attitudes, even among future healthcare professionals. Further guidance and educational campaigns are utmost important, particularly in a group that will be directly involved in prevention and early diagnosis of skin cancer.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Banho de Sol
16.
Dermatol Clin ; 37(2): 149-157, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850037

RESUMO

Cumulative ultraviolet exposure plays a critical role in photodamage. Recent advancements in photomedicine have resulted in a more thorough understanding of these mechanisms. Despite this, the adoption of routine sun protective practices is commonly not undertaken regularly by a large proportion of the public. Various obstacles exist that contribute to the public's nonadherence to these practices. Sunscreens, which are an integral component in all photoprotective regimens, have been questioned recently in terms of their safety. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of new concepts in photoprotection and also address current controversies pertaining to sunscreens.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Desoxirribodipirimidina Fotoliase/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento da Pele , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Benzofenonas/efeitos adversos , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Recifes de Corais , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Meio Ambiente , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Humanos , Dímeros de Pirimidina/metabolismo , Fator de Proteção Solar , Queimadura Solar/metabolismo , Luz Solar , Titânio/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Óxido de Zinco/uso terapêutico
17.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 35(4): 268-274, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Incidence of melanoma is increasing globally. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as important risk factor for developing skin cancer can be influenced by tanning behavior. Only a few studies are available concerning sun tanning behavior and protective measures. METHODS: An online survey was distributed via social media to assess tanning habits and examine associated demographic and behavioral factors. RESULTS: In total, 403 questionnaires were distributed, and mean age of respondents was 32. Having a tanned skin, feeling warm and relaxed were the most common motivations for tanning. The use of sunscreen varied and seemed to depend on the occasion of UVR exposure, constantly applied during vacation and during tanning, less commonly applied in daily life and during work. Avoiding painful solar dermatitis was more important as motivation for the use of sunscreen than skin cancer prevention. Skin aging as reason for the use of sunscreen was especially important for females younger than 26 years. The most common applied sun protection factor was 16-49. The main reason opposing the use of sunscreen was a too laborious usage, which was significantly associated with male. Beauty was the only association related to tanned skin the majority (62%) agreed with. CONCLUSION: The motivation for tanning and reasons for avoiding sunscreen strongly varies. Knowledge about these factors could be used for improving campaigns with respect to target groups. Clarifying the appropriate application of sunscreen, developing convenient sunscreen formulations and providing information about UVR-induced skin aging could lead to an increased usage of sunscreen and therefore to an improved UVR protection.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Banho de Sol , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 206, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norway has one of the highest incidences of melanoma in the world. It has been suggested that the majority of all skin cancers could be prevented by changes related to sun-tanning behaviour. This study explores the sun-tanning behaviour of the Norwegian population using a modified Health Belief Model (HBM). Increased knowledge about beliefs, attitudes and sun-tanning behaviour can provide information which may be useful for future sun protection interventions. METHODS: In 2017, 1004 members of the Norwegian population completed cross-sectional online surveys. People who seek the sun for tanning purposes was the eligibility criterion for this study, reducing the study population to 569. With the aid of the constructs from the HBM, predictive factors explaining sun-tanning behaviour were determined using multivariate linear regression adjusted for demographics (gender, age, education and income). Furthermore, the predictor variables, empowerment and benefits of tanning, were added to the model. RESULTS: Five of the constructs in the modified HBM showed significant correlation with sun-tanning behaviour using bivariate analysis. The strongest correlation was perceived barriers of sun protection (0.42), with the next strongest being the benefits of tanning (0.30). The modified model explained 31% of the variation in sun-tanning behaviour using multivariate analysis. Significant predictors from the HBM to sun-tanning behaviour were perceived barriers to sun protection (Beta = 0.36, p < 0.001) and the severity of melanoma (Beta = - 0.20, p < 0.001). In addition, empowerment (Beta = 0.05, p = 0.05) and the benefits of tanning (Beta = 0.28, p < 0.001) proved to be variables with significant effect on sun-tanning behaviour. The demographic factors age, education and income were also associated with sun-tanning behaviour (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, several factors in the modified HBM had a significant impact on Norwegians' sun-tanning behaviour. The results indicate that future sun protection interventions should focus on reducing barriers in relation to sun protection behaviour, as well as emphasizing the severity of adverse tanning behaviour and melanoma. Efforts to alter the perceptions of the beneficial factors of tanning behaviour can also be appropriate in health promotion campaigns and interventions. Finally, implementing empowerment strategies could have a positive effect on promoting healthy sun-tanning behaviour.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Melanoma/psicologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/psicologia , Banho de Sol/psicologia , Queimadura Solar/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Noruega , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle
19.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E15, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730830

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nearly 5 million people are treated for skin cancer each year in the United States. Agricultural and construction workers (ACWs) may be at increased risk for skin cancer because of high levels of ultraviolet radiation exposure from the sun. This is the first study that uses nationally representative data to assess sun-protection behaviors among ACWs. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement to examine the prevalence of sun-protection behaviors among ACWs. We calculated national, weighted, self-reported prevalence estimates. We used χ2 tests to assess differences between ACWs by industry and occupation. RESULTS: Most of the 2,298 agricultural and construction workers studied were male (by industry, 72.4% in agriculture and 89.3% in construction; by occupation, 66.1% in agriculture and 95.6% in construction) and non-Hispanic white. About one-third had at least 1 sunburn in the past year. The prevalence of sunscreen use and shade seeking was low and did not significantly differ among groups, ranging from 15.1% to 21.4% for sunscreen use and 24.5% to 29.1% for shade seeking. The prevalence of wearing protective clothing was significantly higher among agricultural workers than among construction workers by industry (70.9% vs 50.7%) and occupation (70.5% vs 53.0%). CONCLUSION: Our findings could be used to improve occupational health approaches to reducing skin cancer risk among ACWs and to inform education and prevention initiatives addressing skin cancer. Sun-safety initiatives may include modifying work sites to increase shade and adding sun safety to workplace policies and training. Employers can help reduce occupational health inequities and protect workers by creating workplaces that facilitate sun protection.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(1): eRW4456, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785475

RESUMO

Layered double hydroxides have received more attention from researchers due to their range of applications, ease of synthesis and low cost of production. With broader knowledge about solar radiation effects on the body, the use of sunscreens has become even more important. The ability of some nanostructures, such as layered double hydroxides, to act as matrices has made it possible to obtain improvements in photoprotective formulations, with solutions to problems caused by radiation and sunscreens. This review article brings together the most recent advances of these clays, the layered double hydroxides, applied to photoprotection.


Assuntos
Hidróxidos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Humanos
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