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1.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 17-22, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of surgical treatment of post-burn defects of face and cranial vault. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 65 patients with post-burn defects of face and cranial vault. Mean age of patients was 38.5 years (min 17 years, max 67 years). Soft tissue reconstruction was performed by using of local tissues, combined plasty, balloon dermotension aand free flaps on microvascular anastomoses. Osteoectomy and sequestrectomy were carried out if it was necessary. Implants were used to eliminate through skull defects. RESULTS: Balloon dermotension with expanders and plasty with local tissues ensure skull reconstruction in the vast majority of patients. Through bone defects required reconstruction of the cranial vault with various implants. CONCLUSION: The proposed surgical approach ensures correction of severe functional and cosmetic disorders caused by post-burn skull defects, elimination of bone damage, restoration of normal skin of the face and cranial vault.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/cirurgia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/cirurgia , Face/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Crânio/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Queimaduras/complicações , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/cirurgia , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Humanos , Microcirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Implantação de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Crânio/lesões , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/etiologia , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Expansão de Tecido , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012826, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burn injuries are the fourth most common traumatic injury, causing an estimated 180,000 deaths annually worldwide. Superficial burns can be managed with dressings alone, but deeper burns or those that fail to heal promptly are usually treated surgically. Acute burns surgery aims to debride burnt skin until healthy tissue is reached, at which point skin grafts or temporising dressings are applied. Conventional debridement is performed with an angled blade, tangentially shaving burned tissue until healthy tissue is encountered. Hydrosurgery, an alternative to conventional blade debridement, simultaneously debrides, irrigates, and removes tissue with the aim of minimising damage to uninjured tissue. Despite the increasing use of hydrosurgery, its efficacy and the risk of adverse events following surgery for burns is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of hydrosurgical debridement and skin grafting versus conventional surgical debridement and skin grafting for the treatment of acute partial-thickness burns. SEARCH METHODS: In December 2019 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people of any age with acute partial-thickness burn injury and assessed the use of hydrosurgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed study selection, data extraction, 'Risk of bias' assessment, and GRADE assessment of the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: One RCT met the inclusion criteria of this review. The study sample size was 61 paediatric participants with acute partial-thickness burns of 3% to 4% total burn surface area. Participants were randomised to hydrosurgery or conventional debridement. There may be little or no difference in mean time to complete healing (mean difference (MD) 0.00 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) -6.25 to 6.25) or postoperative infection risk (risk ratio 1.33, 95% CI 0.57 to 3.11). These results are based on very low-certainty evidence, which was downgraded twice for risk of bias, once for indirectness, and once for imprecision. There may be little or no difference in operative time between hydrosurgery and conventional debridement (MD 0.2 minutes, 95% CI -12.2 to 12.6); again, the certainty of the evidence is very low, downgraded once for risk of bias, once for indirectness, and once for imprecision. There may be little or no difference in scar outcomes at six months. Health-related quality of life, resource use, and other adverse outcomes were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review contains one randomised trial of hydrosurgery versus conventional debridement in a paediatric population with low percentage of total body surface area burn injuries. Based on the available trial data, there may be little or no difference between hydrosurgery and conventional debridement in terms of time to complete healing, postoperative infection, operative time, and scar outcomes at six months. These results are based on very low-certainty evidence. Further research evaluating these outcomes as well as health-related quality of life, resource use, and other adverse event outcomes is required.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/cirurgia , Desbridamento/métodos , Hidroterapia/métodos , Viés , Queimaduras/patologia , Criança , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Transplante de Pele , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Cicatrização
3.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(7): 560-567, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842403

RESUMO

Objective: To systematically evaluate the clinical effects of microskin grafting and Meek microskin grafting in repairing extensively deep burn wounds using meta-analysis. Methods: Foreign language databases including PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched with the terms of " Meek micrografting, burn" , and Chinese databases including Chinese Journal Full-Text Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP database, and Wanfang Data were searched with the terms in Chinese version of ", Meek," to retrieve the publicly published randomized controlled trials on the microskin grafting and Meek microskin grafting in repairing extensively deep burn wounds from the establishment of each database to March 20, 2019. The outcome indexes included the survival rate of skin graft, primary healing rate, operation time, and surgical treatment cost after the first operation, as well as the wound healing time and length of hospital stay. RevMan 5.3 and Stata 14.0 statistical software were used to conduct a meta-analysis of eligible studies. Results: A total of 821 patients with extensively deep burns were included in 15 studies, including 410 patients in microskin group who received microskin grafting and 411 patients in Meek microskin group who received Meek microskin grafting. The bias risks of the 15 studies included were uncertain. Compared with those of microskin group, the survival rate of skin graft and primary healing rate of patients in Meek microskin group were significantly increased, with relative risks of 0.76 and 0.66 (95% confidence interval=0.66-0.88, 0.50-0.88, P<0.01), the surgical treatment cost was significantly reduced, with a standardized mean difference of 3.19 (95% confidence interval=1.36-5.01, P<0.01), and the operation time, wound healing time, and length of hospital stay were significantly shortened, with standardized mean differences of 6.05, 2.39, and 2.35 (95% confidence interval=3.66-8.44, 1.43-3.35, 2.03-2.68, P<0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that microskin grafting combined with allogenic skin graft might be a heterogeneous source of operation time. Sensitivity analysis showed that the combined effect size was stable in the operation time, surgical treatment cost, and wound healing time. There was no publication bias in the survival rate of skin graft, operation time, wound healing time, and length of hospital stay (P>0.05), while the primary healing rate and surgical treatment cost had publication bias (P<0.01). Conclusions: Compared with microskin grafting, Meek microskin grafting improves the rates of skin graft survival and primary healing, shortens operation time, wound healing time, and length of hospital stay, and reduces the treatment cost in treating extensively deep burn wounds.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Pele , Transplante de Pele , Cicatrização
4.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(7): 605-607, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842411

RESUMO

A female patient aged 42 years with deep burn on right lower limb was admitted to Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University on January 25, 2019. The patient previously had cerebral infarction, hypertension, and hysteria, with long-term use of aspirin and risperidone. After admission, the patient underwent tangential excision twice. On the third day after the second tangential excision and skin grafting, the muscle strength of the right limb gradually decreased, and the patient was treated with emergency craniocerebral magnetic resonance imaging, which suggested acute cerebral infarction. Improvement of cerebral circulation and vasodilatation were given immediately. The limb muscle strength of the patient gradually recovered on the fifth day after the operation, and no sequela was left when the patient was discharged. After the case was discussed, we think that postoperative decreased blood volume and blood concentration resulting from tangential excision bleeding of deep burn and wound exudate as well as inadequate fluid infusion are the main causes of hemodynamic change, the patient had the basis of multiple cerebral artery stenosis, and superposition of multiple factors led to the occurrence of postoperative acute cerebral infarction. Appropriate increase in the fluid infusion volume during and after surgery and transfusion if necessary to increase blood and oxygen supply to the brain can reduce the occurrence of cerebral infarction.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Infarto Cerebral , Transplante de Pele , Adulto , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pele , Cicatrização
5.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(1): 171-182, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life is decreased in burn survivors, with scars implicated as a cause. The authors aim to characterize the use of reconstructive surgery following hospitalization and determine whether patient-reported outcomes change over time. The authors hypothesized improvement in health-related quality of life following reconstructive surgery. METHODS: Adult burn survivors undergoing reconstructive surgery within 24 months after injury were extracted from a prospective, longitudinal database from 5 U.S. burn centers (Burn Model System). Surgery was classified by problem as follows: scar, contracture, and open wound. The authors evaluated predictors of surgery using logistic regression. Short Form-12/Veterans RAND 12 health survey outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 months were compared at follow-up intervals and matched with nonoperated participants using propensity score matching. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-two of 1359 participants (27.4 percent) underwent one or more reconstructive operation within 24 months of injury. Factors that increased the likelihood of surgery included number of operations during index hospitalization (p < 0.001), hand (p = 0.001) and perineal involvement (p = 0.042), and range-of-motion limitation at discharge (p < 0.001). Compared to the physical component scores of peers who were not operated on, physical component scores increased for participants undergoing scar operations; however, these gains were only significant for those undergoing surgery more than 6 months after injury (p < 0.05). Matched physical component scores showed nonsignificant differences following contracture operations. Mental component scores were unchanged or lower following scar and contracture surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Participants requiring more operations during index admission were more likely to undergo reconstructive surgery. There were improvements in Short Form-12/Veterans RAND 12 scores for those undergoing scar operations more than 6 months after injury, although contracture operations were not associated with significant differences in Short Form-12/Veterans RAND 12 scores.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Qualidade de Vida , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Queimaduras/psicologia , Queimaduras/reabilitação , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Cicatriz/psicologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(5): 363-369, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456373

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical effect of pre-expanded deltopectoral flap in the repair of faciocervical lesion and defect. Methods: From July 2004 to August 2018, 355 patients with faciocervical lesion and defect were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University, including 200 males and 155 females aged 4 to 48 years with major conditions including thermal burn scars, and type Ⅲ and Ⅳ facial-cervical deformities. During the stage Ⅰ skin soft tissue expander implantation surgery, according to the size and location of lesion and defect, expanders with appropriate volume were placed to expand the deltopectoral area. During the stage Ⅱ flap pedicled transposition surgery, after the expander was expanded to the desired volume, the impairment tissue was removed, the flap was designed according to the size of the defect (the unilateral defect area was 7 cm×5 cm to 17 cm×16 cm) and pedicled transposition was carried out. The incision in the chest donor area was directly sutured and closed. After the flap survived, stage Ⅲ flap delay and pedicle division surgery was carried out. The area of one single flap was 8 cm×5 cm to 20 cm×18 cm. The numbers of flaps and expanders, rated volume and expansion of expander, the intervals between surgeries in each stage, flap survival, postoperative complications in surgeries in each stage, and follow-up were recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 460 pre-expanded deltopectoral flaps were used, including 250 unilateral flaps and 105 bilateral flaps. Totally 460 expanders were used in this group of patients. The rated volume was mostly 500 mL (163 expanders) and 600 mL (142 expanders). The expansion multiple of the expander was (1.14±0.19) times of the rated volume. The flap expansion time of the patients was (96±30) d, the pedicle time was (32±8) d, and the delay time was (7.5±1.6) d. The postoperative complications of patients mainly included infection (29 patients), expander exposure (18 patients), and hematoma (10 patients). During the follow-up of 6 to 120 months, the elasticity, texture, and color of the flaps of patients were similar to the surrounding tissue of the recipient area, and the face and neck were symmetrical, not bloated. Conclusions: The deltopectoral flap obtained by overexpansion has a larger area and a thinner thickness, and the elasticity, texture, and color are similar to the surrounding tissue of the recipient area. After transfer, a stable appearance of the face and neck can be obtained. The main complications are infection and expander exposure, most of which occurred after stage Ⅰ skin soft tissue expander implantation surgery.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Transplante de Pele , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cicatriz/etiologia , Cicatriz/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Expansão de Tecido , Adulto Jovem
9.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(3): 360-367, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371635

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to summarize literature in pediatric burn resuscitation and management that is relevant to the pediatric anesthesiologist. The scope of the literature is expanding as long-term survival in even the most critically ill, burn-injured children has increased. RECENT FINDINGS: Longstanding variations in the care of burn-injured children exist despite decades of experience in burn care management. There seems to be a discomfort outside major burn centers in the triage, evaluation, and assessment of burned children. This is evidenced by the prevalence of 'unnecessary intubations', continued overestimation of total body surface area injured, and subsequent fluid administration disproportionate to injury leading to over-resuscitation. Techniques, such as virtual reality and regional anesthesia are increasingly available and serve adjuncts to pharmacologic therapies for anxiolysis and analgesia. Such techniques reduce opioid utilization while maintaining patient comfort and satisfaction particularly during wound dressing changes. Questions about transfusion threshold and ratio of blood products remain topics of ongoing research. SUMMARY: Literature review continues to reveal underpowered or retrospective analyses of these very important questions. Public health burden caused by burns warrants rigorous, prospective studies to take the best care of these patients and portend the best long-term outcomes. Collaboration amongst pediatric anesthesiologists who care for these children is necessary to develop and execute powered studies to answer important questions.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Hidratação/métodos , Ressuscitação , Transplante de Pele , Transfusão de Sangue , Queimaduras/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Cicatrização
10.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(3): 179-186, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241043

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical effect of bi-layered artificial dermis combined with autologous skin graft in the repair of wounds with exposed bone and/or tendon. Methods: The medical records of 25 patients (aged 3 to 79 years, including 21 males and 4 females) with bone and/or tendon exposed wounds caused by various reasons, admitted to Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University from May 2014 to December 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 25 patients, 7 patients had exposed bone only, 13 patients had exposed tendon only, and 5 patients had exposure of both bone and tendon. The total wound area was 78.0 (53.4, 103.2) cm(2). The widths of bone exposure and tendon exposure were 3.2 (3.0, 3.6) cm and 2.0 (1.7, 2.4) cm, respectively. All wounds were implanted with bi-layered artificial dermis in the first stage after thorough wound debridement. After 2 to 3 weeks of vascularization of artificial dermis, autologous thin-to-medium-thickness skins or split-thickness skins were grafted to repair the wounds in the second stage. The vascularization of artificial dermis and its time, whether or not producing hematoma, the skin graft survival rate on day 7 post autologous skin grafting, whether or not repeating skin grafting, and the time of complete wound healing were observed and recorded. The patients were further followed up and observed for 3 or more months after discharge. Results: The vascularization of artificial dermis was achieved in 24 patients after the first transplantation with vascularization time being 11-21 (16±4) days. No hematoma was observed in the transplanted artificial dermis. Failed vascularization of grafted artificial dermis was observed in one patient who was later treated with negative pressure drainage and skin grafting alone, and was discharged with wound healing. The skin graft survival rate on day 7 post autologous skin grafting was 92.2%-100.0% ( (99.3±1.3)%), with the remaining wound areas recovered later by themselves or healed by dressing changes without repeated skin grafting. The complete wound healing time was 7-19 (11.9±2.8) days after autologous skin grafting. The patients were followed up for 3 to 60 months after discharge. Except for the pigmentation in skin graft area, the skin grafts survived well, being soft in texture and with no repeated ulceration, obvious hypertrophic scar, or contracture deformity. Conclusions: Artificial dermis combined with autologous skin grafting can effectively repair wounds with bone and/or tendon exposure, providing a repair strategy for this type of wounds.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/cirurgia , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Pele Artificial , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Derme , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tendões , Cicatrização , Adulto Jovem
11.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(3): 171-178, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241042

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cell sheets containing allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds. Methods: The cell sheets containing allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts were constructed using polyurethane biofilm as carrier. Then gross observation and histological observation were conducted. From April 2016 to December 2017, Changhai Hospital of Naval Medical University recruited patients with acute partial-thickness burn wounds that met the inclusion criteria for this prospective and positively self-controlled clinical trial. Recruitment of 40 acute partial-thickness burn wounds were planned with each selected single wound being not smaller than 10 cm×10 cm and not more than 5% total body surface area (TBSA). Each wound was equally divided into two areas, which were recruited into cell sheet group and conventional treatment group according to the random number table. The wounds in cell sheet group were covered by cell sheet and then sterile gauze as secondary dressings. Depending on the wound healing and exudation, the sterile gauze was replaced every 1 to 3 day (s) after the treatment was started, and the cell sheet was replaced every 7 days (namely dressing changing). The wounds in conventional treatment group were covered by sulfadiazine silver cream gauze and then dressed with sterile gauze, with the dressings changed every 2 to 3 days depending on wound exudation. On treatment day 5, 7, 10, and 14, the wound healing rates in the two groups were calculated. The complete wound healing time, the total number of dressing changes, and the status of wound infection during treatment were recorded. The Visual Analogue Scale was used to score the pain at the first dressing change. Scar formation of patients was followed up for 6 to 12 months after injury. Safety indicators including vital signs, laboratory examination indexes, and adverse reactions during treatment were observed. Data were statistically analysed with Wilcoxon rank sum test and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) Each prepared cell sheet had a diameter of about 8 cm and was about 49 cm(2) in size, containing 2 or 3 layers of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. (2) A total of 43 patients were enrolled, of whom 3 patients dropped out of the study. Of the 40 patients who completed the treatment, there were 22 males and 18 females who were aged 1 to 57 year (s), with total burn area of 2% to 26% TBSA. (3) On treatment day 5, 7, 10, and 14, the wound healing rates in cell sheet group were significantly higher than those in conventional treatment group (Z=4.205, 4.258, 3.495, 2.521, P<0.05 or P<0.01). The complete wound healing time in cell sheet group was 7 (6, 8) days, which was significantly shorter than 11 (7, 14) days in conventional treatment group (Z=4.219, P<0.01). The total number of wound dressing changes in cell sheet group was 1 (1, 2) times, which was significantly less than 6 (4, 7) times in conventional treatment group (Z=5.464, P<0.01). (4) The wounds in cell sheet group in 31 patients healed before the first dressing change. The pain score of wounds in the first dressing change in cell sheet group of 9 patients was 1 (0, 1) point, while the pain score of wounds in the first dressing change in conventional treatment group of 40 patients was 2 (1, 3) points. There was no obvious infection in the wounds in both groups of 40 patients before the wound healing. Nine patients completed the follow-up after the trial. In 6 patients, no scar formation was observed in cell sheet group or conventional treatment group. The color of wounds in cell sheet group was consistent with normal skin, and there was only a small amount of pigment deposition in the wounds of conventional treatment group. Three patients developed pigment deposition only in the wounds of cell sheet group but obvious scars in conventional treatment group. (5) The abnormal fluctuations of vital signs including body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and laboratory examination indexes of all patients during treatment were alleviated through the process of burn wound healing. No obvious adverse reactions or abnormalities related to the treatment were observed. Conclusions: The cell sheet containing allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts can reduce the number of dressing changes, accelerate wound epithelialization, shorten wound healing time, reduce pain during dressing change in the treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds, and it may reduce scar hyperplasia after wound healing because of accelerating wound epithelization. Its clinical application is simple, safe, and effective.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/cirurgia , Fibroblastos/transplante , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Queratinócitos/transplante , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 48(2): 93-100, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233644

RESUMO

After major burn injury, once survival is achieved by the immediate excision of all deep burn eschar, we are faced with a patient who is often physiologically well but with very extensive wounds. While very early grafting yields excellent results after the excision of small burns, it is not possible to achieve the same results once the wound size exceeds the available donor site. In patients where 50%-100% of the total body surface area is wound, we rely on serial skin graft harvest, from finite donor site resources, and the massive expansion of those harvested grafts to effect healing. The result is frequently disabling and dysaesthetic. Temporisation of the wounds both passively, with cadaver allograft, and actively, with dermal scaffolds, has been successfully employed to ameliorate some of the problems caused by our inability to definitively close wounds early. Recent advances in technology have demonstrated that superior functional and cosmetic outcomes can be achieved in actively temporised areas even when compared with definitive early closure with skin graft. This has several beneficial implications for both patient and surgeon, affecting the timing of definitive wound closure and creating a paradigm shift in the care of the burned patient.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Transplante de Pele , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Humanos , Cicatrização
13.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 48(2): 89-92, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233928

RESUMO

Early excision of deep burn eschar and the expeditious closure of the resultant wounds have become established as gold standard burn care. However, early burn excision has been accepted as up to four days post injury based on a series of misconceptions, not least that the patient is too unwell to undergo surgery and tolerate anaesthesia too soon after injury. There are several reasons why immediate burn excision yields superior survival outcomes, and these are expounded in this article. The systemic pathophysiology following major burn injury, especially when complicated by the respiratory pathophysiology accompanying smoke inhalation, evolves. The hours immediately after burn injury offer several windows of surgical opportunity, windows closed by the pathophysiological events that peak 24 hours later and make surgery and anaesthesia at that time both dangerous and ill-advised.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Humanos , Transplante de Pele
14.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 46(supl.1): 39-46, abr. 2020. graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193493

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: El uso de matrices dérmicas ha repercutido muy positivamente en los aspectos funcionales y estéticos del paciente quemado, sobre todo tras la reconstrucción de áreas especiales. Presentamos la experiencia del Servicio de Cirugía Plástica y Quemados del Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet de Zaragoza, España, en el uso de matrices dérmicas tras cirugía de quemaduras agudas o de sus secuelas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio observacional de recopilación de 88 casos, infantiles y adultos, tratados entre septiembre de 1999 y septiembre de 2019. Las matrices utilizadas fueron Integra® bicapa y Matriderm® monocapa, únicos sustitutos dérmicos permanentes disponibles en el ámbito de nuestra sanidad pública durante los años referidos. Recopilamos datos de sexo, edad, porcentaje de superficie corporal quemada, mecanismo de la quemadura, grado de profundidad y localización del área tratada con matrices dérmicas, si es quemadura aguda o secuela, pérdidas totales y parciales, y mostramos nuestro protocolo de actuación. RESULTADOS: Por sexos encontramos 51 varones y 37 mujeres con una media de edad de 37.67 años, con el grupo más numeroso entre 31 y 50 años; 71 casos con quemaduras agudas y en 17 con secuelas. El mecanismo de quemadura más frecuente fue el térmico (81%). La loca-lización de uso más frecuente fue la extremidad superior con 61 casos. En 67 casos utilizamos Matriderm® de 1 mm, en 13 Integra® bicapa y en 8 ambas matrices en el mismo paciente. La SCQ media de los pacientes tratados por quemaduras agudas fue del 11.7%. Constatamos 4 casos de pérdida total (1 Integra® bicapa y 3 de Matriderm® monocapa) y 11 casos de pérdidas parciales. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de matrices dérmicas debe de ser cotidiano en nuestras unidades, tanto para quemaduras agudas como para secuelas, y es necesario familiarizarse con sus indicaciones, manejo y resultados para incluirlas en nuestras escalas reconstructivas


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Appearance of dermal matrices has had a very positive impact on the functional and aesthetic aspects in burned patients, specially after reconstruction of special areas. We present our experience in the Department of Plastic and Burns Surgery of the Miguel Servet Universitary Hospital in Zaragoza, Spain, in the use of dermal matrices in surgery of acute burns or sequelae. METHODS: We conduct an observational study on 88 cases, children and adults, treated from September 1999 to September 2019. The matrices used were Integra® bilayer and Matriderm® monolayer, the only permanent dermal substitutes available in our public health system during the referred years. We collected data on sex, age, percentage of burned body surface, burn mechanism, degree of depth and location of the area treated with dermal matrices, whether it is an acute burn or a sequel, as well as total and partial losses, and finally we show our protocol of action. RESULTS: Distribution by sex was 51 men and 37 women, average age 37.67 years being the most numerous group between 31 and 50 years; 71 cases of acute burns and 17 sequels. The most frequent burn mechanism was termal (81%). The most frequent used location was the upper limb with 61 cases. We used Matriderm® 1mm in 67 cases, Integra® bilayer in 13 and in 8 cases we used both in the same patient. The average TBSA percentage of patients treated for acute burns was 11.7%. We found 4 cases of total loss (1 of Integra® bilayer and 3 of Matriderm® monolayer), and 11 partial losses. CONCLUSIONS: Use of dermal matrices must be a daily option in our units, both for acute burns and sequelae, and we all must be familiar with their indications, management and results, to take them into account within our established reconstructive scales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Elastina/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Traumatismos da Mão/cirurgia
15.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 46(supl.1): S47-S52, abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193494

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: Ante un quemado de gran extensión (más del 30%) con zonas donantes limitadas, la cobertura cutánea con la técnica de microexpansión modificada Meek es eficiente y eficaz. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir dicha técnica, revisar las publicaciones al respecto y destacar sus ventajas sobre la técnica de mallado tradicional de injertos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Hacemos una puesta al día de los hechos históricos, descripción de la técnica quirúrgica de la microexpansión modificada Meek y revisión de la literatura con busquedas bibiografícas en inglés y español entre 1958 y 2019 empleando como palabras claves: (mesh) 'micrograft', 'micrograft tenchnique', Meek ', 'Meek technique, 'major burn treatment', y 'mesh skin graft'. Hacemos también una comparación de resultados con nuestra experiencia local. RESULTADOS: En nuestra experiencia, entre 2008 y 2010 tratamos 4 pacientes con quemaduras extensas y zonas dadoras limitadas, todos producto de accidentes laborales, con edad media de 47 años y promedio de superficie corporal quemada total (SCQT) del 63%. Empleamos microexpansión en tasa de 1:6 logrando cierre definitivo de las lesiones a las 4 semanas. Al comparar con la literatura publicada, observamos beneficios como disminución de estancia hospitalaria, número de procedimientos quirúrgicos realizados y baja morbimortalidad. CONCLUSIONES: La microexpansión modificada Meek en la cobertura cutánea de pacientes con quemaduras extensas y zonas dadoras de injertos limitadas constituye una herramienta eficiente y eficaz


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In patients with extensive burns (greater tan 30%) and limited donor areas, skin coverage with the Meek modified microexpansión technique offers to be an efficient and effective technique. The objetive of this paper is to describe the technique, review the publications and highliht its advantages over the traditional grafting mesh technique. METHODS: We update the historical facts, description of the surgical technique of the Meek modified microexpansion and review the English and Spanish literature betwen 1958 and 2019 serarching with keywords: (mesh) 'micrograft', 'micrograft tenchnique', Meek ', 'Meek technique, 'major burn treatment', y 'mesh skin graft'. Finally we compare results with our local experience. RESULTS: In our experience, between 2008-2010, 4 patients with extensive burns and limited donor areas were treated with the Meek modified microexpansion technique for skin coverage, with an average age of 47 years and average of total burned body surface (SCQT) of 63%. Microexpansion was used at a rate of 1: 6, and definitive closure of his injuries was achieve at 4 weeks. When comparing with the published literature, benefits are shown with the decrease in hospital stay, number of surgical procedures and low morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the Meek modified microexpansion technique in the skin coverage of patients with extensive burns and limited graft donor areas is an efficient and effective method, compared to the dermoepidermic graft mesh technique


Assuntos
Humanos , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Transplante de Pele , Expansão de Tecido/métodos , Transplante Autólogo , Transplante Homólogo
16.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 46(supl.1): S75-S84, abr. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193496

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: El desbridamiento enzimático ha demostrado ser eficaz y rápido en su aplicación sobre quemaduras, a la vez que conservador con el tejido sano. Su uso sobre quemaduras inferiores al 15% ha mostrado reducir la cantidad de injertos, el sangrado y las escarotomías quirúrgicas. El objetivo de este estudio es comparar 2 grupos de pacientes grandes quemados, uno tratado mediante desbridamiento enzimático frente a otro tratado mediante tratamiento estándar, y su impacto en la estancia hospitalaria, necesidades de escarotomías, tiempo hasta desbridamiento, uso de hemoderivados y cantidad de cirugías durante el ingreso. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio de cohortes retrospectivas con 197 pacientes (SCQ 20-50%), mayores de 18 años, tratados entre 2012 y 2017, con 2 grupos: 32 pacientes tratados con Nexobrid® para el desbridamiento enzimático, y 165 pacientes en el grupo control con desbridamiento tangencial convencional. Ambos homogéneos para SCQ, edad, sexo, mecanismo de lesión y comorbilidades. RESULTADOS: La edad media fue de 48.4 ± 19.4 años, con una SCQ media de 29.5 ± 9.4%. Observamos disminución del tiempo hasta el inicio del desbridamiento de la quemadura (5.1 ± 4.9 días en el grupo control frente a 0.8±0.9 en el grupo de desbridamiento enzimático, p < 0.05). El grupo de Nexobrid® presentó una reducción de la cantidad de tiempos quirúrgicos durante su ingreso, siendo de 1.9±2.0 frente a 2.6±2.1 en el grupo control. El uso de hemoderivados se redujo en un 95% durante el desbridamiento. La necesidad de escarotomías se redujo un 60%. Finalmente, el grupo de Nexobrid® tuvo un 36% menos de estancia en la Unidad de Quemados Críticos, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas. CONCLUSIONES: La aplicación precoz del desbridamiento enzimático en grandes quemados (20-50% SCQ), permite la escarectomía completa del paciente reduciendo la necesidad de hemoderivados, el número de tiempos quirúrgicos, las escarotomías y la estancia en la unidad de cuidados intensivos


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Use of enzymatic debridement has demonstrated be fast and efficient after its application over burn wounds, being more delicate over healthy tissue. Its use in burns under 15% TBSA has shown less grafting procedures, bleeding and surgical escharotomies. The aim of this study was compare 2 groups of major burns; one treated by enzymatic debridement and other treated by standard of care. Length of stay, escharotomies, time until debridement, use of blood packs and number of surgeries during hospitalization were evaluated. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was designed with 197 patients (TBSA 20-50%), older than 18 years old, treated between 2012 and 2017, and divided in 2 groups: 32 patients were debrided using Nexobrid®, and 165 patients were included in the control group. Both groups were homogeneous for TBSA, age, gender, mechanism and comorbidities index. RESULTS: Mean age was 48.4±19.4 years, with a 29.5±9.4% of TBSA. A reduction of the number of days until the burns debridement were found, with 5.1±4.9 in the control group and 0.8±0.9 days in the enzymatic debridement group (p < 0.05). The number of surgeries during the hospitalization were less in the Nexobrid® group, with a reduction of 2.6±2.1 surgeries to 1.9±2.0. The number of blood packs was a 95% lower in the enzymatic debridement, and a 60% less escharotomies were observed. Finally, a shorter length of stay in the intensive care unit were found in the Nexobrid® group, with 36% less days, this difference were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Early application of enzymatic debridement in major burns (20-50% TBSA) allows a complete removal of eschar reducing the blood packs use, number of surgeries, escharotomies and length of stay in the intensive care unit


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Desbridamento/métodos , Úlcera Cutânea/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Bromelaínas/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo de Internação , Cicatriz/cirurgia
17.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 46(supl.1): S97-S106, abr. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193499

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO E OBJECTIVO: Definimos sequela de queimaduras como qualquer condição corporal anormal relacionada ou decorrente de uma queimadura, funcional as que levam a qualquer limitação da função e não-funcional quando ainda existe a sequela, porém não existe limitação da função, antigamente chamada de sequela estética. O presente estudo propõe uma sistematização de raciocínio no tratamento de sequelas de queimaduras de maneira para facilitar e estabelecer uma padronização do atendimento e da programação cirúrgica dos pacientes. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado no ambulatório de se¬quelas de queimaduras do hospital das clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brasil). Foram tratados 640 pacientes e geraram esta sistematização do atendimento de pacientes com sequelas de queimaduras. RESULTADOS: Em razão da dificuldade no tratamento das sequelas de queimaduras desenvolvemos um algoritmo onde se tornasse fácil o ensino dos conceitos e do raciocínio lógico. A padronização dos procedimentos e das condutas tornou o atendimento de sequelas de queimaduras reprodutível, de fácil compreensão por parte dos cirurgiões plásticos e ainda melhoraram os resultados. Desta maneira, acreditamos que a formação acadêmica se torna mais fácil e efetiva. CONCLUSÕES: O raciocínio médico padronizado é os algoritmos são uma arma poderosa e métodos auxiliares simples e eficazes na obtenção de resultados consistentes na prática diária da medicina


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We define burn sequelae as any abnormal body condition related to or resulting from a burn, functional when lead to any limitation of function and non-functional when the sequel still exists but there is no limitation of function, formerly called aesthetic sequelae. The present study proposes a systematization of reasoning in the treatment of burn sequelae in order to facilitate and establish a standardization of care and of the surgical schedule of patients. METHODS: We conduct a study in the burn sequelae outpatient clinic of the Hospital das Clinicas at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo (Brazil), treating 640 patients and generating a systematization of care for patients with burn sequelae. RESULTS: Due to the difficulty in treating burn sequelae, we developed an algorithm where the teaching of concepts and logical reasoning became easy. The standardization of procedures made the treatment of burn sequelae reproducible, easy to understand by plastic surgeons and even improving the results. In this way, we believe that academic training becomes easier and more effective. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized medical reasoning and algorithms are a powerful weapon and simple and effective auxiliary methods to obtain consistent results in the daily practice of medicine


Assuntos
Humanos , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Queimaduras/complicações , Cicatriz/cirurgia , Estatísticas de Sequelas e Incapacidade , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Tatuagem , Expansão de Tecido
18.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 46(supl.1): S115-S120, abr. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193501

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: El empleo de transferencias de tejido libre vascularizado se ha consolidado en los últimos años dentro del tratamiento quirúrgico de los pacientes quemados. El objetivo de este trabajo es establecer conclusiones extrapolables a la práctica habitual para la optimización de resultados en el uso de colgajos libres en estos pacientes. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Realizamos una revisión de las bases de datos Pubmed y Scielo utilizando los términos "colgajo libre" o "microcirugía" o "transferencia tisular libre" y "quemadura" o "lesión térmica". Identificamos 1366 artículos que posteriormente revisamos para seleccionar aquellos con información relevante sobre: incidencia de colgajos libres en pacientes quemados, complicaciones, estrategias para mejorar la tasa de éxito, preparación preoperatoria, control y manejo postoperatorio. RESULTADOS: Incluimos finalmente 31 artículos. Los trabajos publicados reflejan que entre el 1.5 y el 1.8% de los pacientes con quemaduras quirúrgicas reciben cobertura mediante colgajos libres. La tasa de complicaciones mayores se eleva respecto a otros grupos de pacientes; sin embargo desciende en gran medida si la cirugía no se realiza entre los días 5 y 21 postquemadura. La realización de pruebas de imagen para la selección de vasos receptores no es indispensable. Se recomienda mantener temperatura por encima de 36 °C, normovolemia y hematocrito entre 30 y 40%, evitando la transfusión en caso de valores de hemoglobina superiores a 70 g/l. En caso de necesidad de drogas vasoactivas, serían de elección la noradrenalina o la dobutamina. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque la Microcirugía es infrecuente en el tratamiento de las quemaduras, es un recurso esencial en determinados pacientes. Esta revisión puede ser de utilidad para orientar el manejo clínico de los colgajos libres en pacientes quemados así como futuras investigaciones en este ámbito


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The use of microvascular free tissue transplantation in burn patients has consolidated over the last years. The purpose of this article is to establish practical conclusions in order to optimize the results of free flaps in this group of patients. METHODS: A review of the PubMed and Scielo databases was performed using a combination of the search terms "free flap" or "microsurgery" or "free tissue transfer" and "burn" or "thermal injury". The search returned 1366 articles that were analyzed to include those with relevant information about: incidence of free flaps in burn patients, complications, strategies to increase success and pre-operative and post-operative management. RESULTS: Following revision 31 articles were included. Published works report an incidence of free flaps transplantations in burn patients ranging between 1.5 and 1.8%. Complication rate is high compared to other groups of patients, however, it decreases considerably if surgery is not performed between day 5 and 21 after burn injury. Imaging tests are not indispensable to select recipient vessels. It is advisable to keep body temperature over 36 °C, normovolemia and hematocrit between 30 and 40% avoiding hemoglobine values over 70 g/l. In the need of vasopressors norepinephrine and dobutamine are the drugs of choice. CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgery is uncommon but sometimes essential in burn treatment. This review may be valuable guiding not only clinical management of free flaps in burn patients but pointing towards new lines of research


Assuntos
Humanos , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Microcirurgia/métodos , Microcirurgia/tendências , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/cirurgia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Antifibrinolíticos
19.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 46(supl.1): S133-S138, abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193503

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: La piel de dorso de las manos y de los dedos es de bajo espesor y por lo tanto de baja resistencia al trauma mecánico o térmico. La actitud de prensión la expone aún más al contacto con objetos y así al daño de todo su espesor y de los elementos nobles subyacentes. La máxima elasticidad en el dorso de las articulaciones agrega propiedades de difícil sustitución cuando hay que restituir la cubierta cutánea del primer dedo. Consideramos que el colgajo de primera arteria metacarpiana dorsal (PAMD), descrito por Foucher en 1979, es el de elección en estos casos por ser un colgajo neurovascularizado, de disección simple y confiable. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Presentamos una serie de 6 pacientes afectados con lesiones agudas de pulgar o cicatrices retráctiles postquemadura tratados con este colgajo, con descripción de la técnica y de las medidas complementarias para inmovilización y cobertura. RESULTADOS: Todos los pacientes presentaron mejoría o curación; la mitad sufrió congestión venosa a las 24 horas de posoperatorio con posterior epidermólisis y recuperación total sin necrosis ni dehiscencias de heridas. Todos los injertos de la zona dadora prendieron y se conservó la movilidad. El colgajo PAMD presentó sensibilidad conservada con leve hiperalgesia los primeros 30 días. En el pedículo observamos en todos los casos la vasa-nervorum del ramo radial. En 3 casos la arteria PAMD no fue una estructura independiente en el colgajo, observando otros ramos incluidos en la fascia. En 1 caso la arteria fue subfascial y en 2 suprafascial. CONCLUSIONES: Recomendamos el uso del colgajo PAMD en este tipo de lesiones, en isla en la región volar y en península en la región dorsal, con el fin de no obstaculizar el retorno venoso


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Skin of the dorsal aspect of the hand and fingers is thin and fragile when exposed to mechanical or thermal trauma. In gripping gestures contact with close objects ends in full thickness skin injuries and damage to underlying structures. Maximum elasticity on the back of the joints adds properties that are difficult to replace when the skin cover of the first finger needs to be replaced We considerer that the first dorsal metacarpal artery flap (PAMD), described by Foucher in 1979, is a very good alternative in these cases as it is a neurovascularizad flap, with simple and reliable dissection Methods. This study presents a series of 6 patients affected with acute thumb lesions or post-burn scars contracture, repaired with this flap with a description of the technique and complementary measures for immobilization and coverage. RESULTS: All the patients presented improvement or cure; half suffered venous congestion 24 hours after surgery with subsequent epidermolysis and full recovery without necrosis or wound dehiscence. All the grafts used to cover the donor area take and mobility was preserved. The PAMD flap showed preserved sensitivity with mild hyperalgesia the first 30 days. In the pedicle we observed in all cases the vasa-nervorum of the radial branch. In 3 cases the PAMD artery was not an independent flap structure, observing other branches included in the fascia. In 1 case the artery was subfascial and in 2 suprafascial. CONCLUSION: We recommend the use of the PAMD flap in this type of injury, as an island flap in the volar region and as a peninsula flap in the dorsal region, in order not to hinder venous return


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Polegar/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Polegar/lesões , Traumatismos da Mão/cirurgia , Dedos/cirurgia
20.
Am J Nurs ; 120(4): 72, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218058
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