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1.
Life Sci ; 254: 117746, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376266

RESUMO

AIMS: Transmembrane 4 L six family member 1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed in cancers. However, the role of TM4SF1 that plays in keloids remains unknown. We investigated the expression, function and the microRNA (miRNA) regulatory network of TM4SF1 in keloids. MAIN METHODS: Small interfering RNAs and lentivirus were used to alter the expression of TM4SF1 in fibroblasts. Dual-luciferase reporter assays were applied to determine the miRNA targets. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting, qRT-PCR, wound healing assays, Transwell assays, cell count kit-8 assays and flow cytometry were also employed in this study. KEY FINDINGS: TM4SF1 was frequently upregulated in human keloid fibroblasts (HKFs) compared with human normal skin fibroblasts (HSFs). The downregulation of TM4SF1 significantly inhibited proliferation and migration, and induced apoptosis in HKFs. Furthermore, si-TM4SF1 inhibited the AKT/ERK signaling. Meanwhile, the upregulation of TM4SF1 promoted proliferation, migration and the activation of AKT/ERK signaling in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF-1). Moreover, TM4SF1 can be regulated by miRNAs, which have been validated to play important roles in keloids by posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. After screening, we found miR-1-3p and miR-214-5p targeted TM4SF1, inhibited TM4SF1 expression, cell proliferation, migration, and induced apoptosis in HKFs. And the level of miR-1-3p and miR-214-5p were found lower in HKFs than in HSFs. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrates a novel regulatory mechanism by which miR-1-3p, miR-214-5p, and TM4SF1 are involved in proliferation, cell motility, and apoptosis, suggesting that they may be potential targets in therapies for keloids.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície/fisiologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Queloide/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Humanos , Queloide/metabolismo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19857, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to screen and explore the expression of inflammatory factors in keloid patients and to investigate how hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy affects the expression levels of interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß (MIP-1ß), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). OBJECTIVE: 30 patients were randomly selected and divided into the following 3 groups: keloid samples from keloid patients treated with HBO therapy (A), keloid samples from keloid patients treated without HBO therapy (B), and normal control skin samples derived from individuals who had no clear scarring (C). Each group included 10 samples. METHODS: Inflammatory factors in the keloid tissues were measured with the MILLIPLEX multiplexed Luminex system. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining, and Western blotting were used to observe the morphological differences in different tissues and the expression levels. RESULTS: The expression levels of inflammatory mediators, including IL-12p40, MIP-1ß, PDGF-BB, and IL-1Ra, in keloid tissues were significantly different from those in samples of normal skin. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed significantly greater inflammatory infiltration in keloid tissue. Significantly different expression levels were observed in group A, B, and C. CONCLUSION: Significantly altered levels of inflammatory factors in the samples from keloid patients were observed, suggesting that formation of a keloid is potentially related to inflammatory responses. HBO therapy could significantly affect the expression levels of IL-12p40, MIP-1ß, PDGF-BB, and IL-1Ra, indicating that the effects of HBO therapy are associated with the attenuation of inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Becaplermina/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL4/metabolismo , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/efeitos adversos , Subunidade beta 1 de Receptor de Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Queloide/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1 , Queloide/metabolismo , Queloide/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
Life Sci ; 254: 117326, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954164

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study aimed to explore the effect of syndecan-1 on keloid fibroblasts. MAIN METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to assess the expression of syndecan-1. Primary cultured keloid fibroblasts were transfected with syndecan-1 siRNA. The function of syndecan-1 on the proliferation of keloid fibroblasts was investigated through Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry. Extracellular matrix, TGF-ß1/Smad, and MAPK related proteins were evaluated by Western blot. KEY FINDINGS: Syndecan-1 was significantly overexpressed in both keloid tissues and fibroblasts. Moreover, the knockdown of syndecan-1 remarkably attenuated the proliferation of keloid fibroblasts and reduced the content of the extracellular matrix. Importantly, syndecan-1 regulates the expression of the extracellular matrix in keloid fibroblasts via TGF-ß1/Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. SIGNIFICANCE: The current results revealed a crucial function for syndecan-1 in regulating the expression of extracellular matrix and cell proliferation, thereby designating syndecan-1 as a novel target for keloid.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Queloide/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Sindecana-1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Queloide/patologia
4.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(6): 1338-1349, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors have previously shown that an embryonic stem cell-like population within keloid-associated lymphoid tissues in keloid lesions expresses components of the renin-angiotensin system that may be dysregulated. The authors hypothesized that cathepsins B, D, and G are present within the embryonic stem cell-like population in keloid lesions and contribute to bypass loops of the renin-angiotensin system. METHODS: 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine immunohistochemical staining for cathepsins B, D, and G was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections in keloid tissue samples of 11 patients. Immunofluorescence immunohistochemical staining was performed on three of these keloid tissue samples, by co-staining with CD34, tryptase, and OCT4. Western blotting, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme activity assays were performed on five keloid tissue samples and four keloid-derived primary cell lines to investigate protein and mRNA expression, and functional activity, respectively. RESULTS: 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine immunohistochemical staining demonstrated expression of cathepsins B, D, and G in all 15 keloid tissue samples. Immunofluorescence immunohistochemical staining showed localization of cathepsins B and D to the endothelium of microvessels within the keloid-associated lymphoid tissues and localization of cathepsin G to the tryptase-positive perivascular cells. Western blotting confirmed semiquantitative levels of cathepsins B and D in keloid tissue samples and keloid-derived primary cell lines. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed quantitative transcriptional activation of cathepsins B and D in keloid tissue samples and keloid-derived primary cell lines and cathepsin G in keloid tissue samples. Enzyme activity assays demonstrated functional activity of cathepsins B and D. CONCLUSION: Cathepsins B, D, and G are expressed by the embryonic stem cell-like population within the keloid-associated lymphoid tissues of keloid lesions and may act to bypass the renin-angiotensin system, suggesting a potential therapeutic target using renin-angiotensin system modulators and cathepsin inhibitors.


Assuntos
Catepsinas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/química , Queloide/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Catepsina A/metabolismo , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Catepsina G/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular/citologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450620

RESUMO

Overabundance of extracellular matrix resulting from hyperproliferation of keloid fibroblasts (KFs) and dysregulation of apoptosis represents the main pathophysiology underlying keloids. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays important roles in the regulation of cellular death. Suppression of HMGB1 inhibits autophagy while increasing apoptosis. Suppression of HMGB1 with glycyrrhizin has therapeutic benefits in fibrotic diseases. In this study, we explored the possible involvement of autophagy and HMGB1 as a cell death regulator in keloid pathogenesis. We have highlighted the potential utility of glycyrrhizin as an antifibrotic agent via regulation of the aberrant balance between autophagy and apoptosis in keloids. Higher HMGB1 expression and enhanced autophagy were observed in keloids. The proliferation of KFs was decreased following glycyrrhizin treatment. While apoptosis was enhanced in keloids after glycyrrhizin treatment, autophagy was significantly reduced. The expressions of ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB, were enhanced in HMGB1-teated fibroblasts, but decreased following glycyrrhizin treatment. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components was reduced in glycyrrhizin-treated keloids. TGF-ß, Smad2/3, ERK1/2, and HMGB1 were decreased in glycyrrhizin-treated keloids. Treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA resulted in a decrease of autophagy markers and collagen in the TGF-ß-treated fibroblasts. The results indicated that autophagy plays an important role in the pathogenesis of keloids. Because glycyrrhizin appears to reduce ECM and downregulate autophagy in keloids, its potential use for treatment of keloids is indicated.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Proteína HMGB1/antagonistas & inibidores , Queloide/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/ultraestrutura , Fibrose/etiologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica
6.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 317(5): C1001-C1010, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411918

RESUMO

Keloid, characterized by exuberant collagen deposition and invasive growth beyond original wound margins, results from abnormal wound healing. A recent microarray analysis identified homeobox (HOX) A11 antisense (HOXA11-AS) as a keloid-specific long non-coding RNA, although its potential role in keloid formation remains elusive. In this study, hematoxylin-eosin, Masson, and immunohistochemical staining of type I collagen (ColI) revealed abnormal arrangement and hyperplasia of fibers in keloid tissues along with increased ColI level. qRT-PCR and Western blot showed that HOXA11-AS and ColI were significantly upregulated, while miR-124-3p was decreased in both keloid tissues and human keloid fibroblasts (HKFs). Knockdown of HOXA11-AS inhibited cell proliferation (by CCK-8 and immunofluorescence staining of Ki67) and cell migration (by wound healing and transwell assays). Mechanistic experiments verified that HOXA11-AS acted as a sponge of micro-RNA (miR)-124-3p and Smad5 was a target of miR-124-3p. miR-124-3p sufficiently reversed the regulatory effects of HOXA11-AS, and Smad5 was involved in miR-124-3p-mediated biological functions. Furthermore, HOXA11-AS induced ColI synthesis via sponging miR-124-3p-mediated Smad5 signaling, thus promoting keloid formation. Overall, our study implied that HOXA11-AS induces ColI synthesis to promoted keloid formation via sponging miR-124-3p-mediated Smad5 signaling, which might offer a novel target for developing the therapy of keloid formation.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/biossíntese , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/biossíntese , Queloide/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/biossíntese , Proteína Smad5/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Queloide/genética , Queloide/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteína Smad5/genética
7.
Kobe J Med Sci ; 65(1): E10-E18, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Keloids are characterized by an overabundance of collagen deposition due to elevated activity and proliferation of fibroblasts, which lead to hypoxic conditions. Adaptation to these conditions is regulated by the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Cytoglobin (Cygb), a reactive oxygen species scavenger, is a target gene of HIF-1α. In our previous study, we showed that Cygb expression in keloid tissue was correlated with HIF-1α expression. However, whether HIF-1α regulates Cygb expression and the proliferation of keloid fibroblasts remained unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the role of HIF-1α in Cygb expression and fibroblast proliferation of keloids. METHODS: This was an in vitro study using a primary culture of keloid fibroblasts in which ibuprofen was used to inhibit HIF-1α expression. The expression of HIF-1α and Cygb mRNA were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) methods, and their protein levels were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fibroblast proliferation was analyzed using a Trypan blue exclusion assay. RESULTS: Inhibition of HIF-1α by ibuprofen decreased Cygb mRNA expression but not in all the samples, followed by a decrease in the protein level of Cygb. There was a positive correlation between the HIF-1α protein and Cygb mRNA, probably due to the regulation of Cygb by HIF-1α at the mRNA level, but not the protein level. The proliferation of keloid fibroblasts was significantly decreased and positively correlated with the HIF-1α protein. CONCLUSION: HIF-1α regulates Cygb expression and fibroblast proliferation in keloids.


Assuntos
Citoglobina/genética , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/fisiologia , Queloide/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/análise , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/antagonistas & inibidores , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(2): 372-384, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated expression of prorenin receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II receptor 1, and angiotensin II receptor 2 by the embryonic stem cell-like population on the endothelium of the microvessels and perivascular cells within keloid-associated lymphoid tissues. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for prorenin receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II receptor 1, and angiotensin II receptor 2 was performed on 11 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of keloid tissue samples. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on three keloid tissue samples by co-staining with OCT4, CD34, ERG, and tryptase. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on five keloid tissue samples and four keloid-derived primary cell lines. Western blotting was performed on the four keloid-derived primary cell lines for mRNA and protein expression of these proteins, respectively. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining showed expression of prorenin receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II receptor 1, and angiotensin II receptor 2 in all 11 keloid tissue samples. Prorenin receptor and angiotensin II receptor 1 were expressed on the endothelium and the pericyte layer of the microvessels and perivascular cells, angiotensin II receptor 2 was localized to the endothelium of the microvessels and the tryptase-positive perivascular cells, and angiotensin-converting enzyme was localized to the endothelium of the microvessel, within the keloid-associated lymphoid tissues. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed transcripts of prorenin receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and angiotensin II receptor 1 in the keloid tissue samples and keloid-derived primary cell lines, whereas angiotensin II receptor 2 was detected in keloid tissue samples only. Western blotting confirmed the presence of prorenin receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and angiotensin II receptor 1 in the keloid-derived primary cell lines. CONCLUSION: Prorenin receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II receptor 1, and angiotensin II receptor 2 were expressed by the embryonic stem cell-like population within the keloid-associated lymphoid tissues, suggesting that this primitive population may be a potential therapeutic target by modulation of the renin-angiotensin system.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Queloide/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Queloide/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Regulador Transcricional ERG/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Life Sci ; 232: 116637, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288014

RESUMO

Keloid is characterized by overactive fibroblasts. Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is transcription factor that plays important roles in the progression of fibrosis. However, the role of FOXM1 in keloid has not been elucidated. In the present study, we examined the expression levels of FOXM1 in clinical keloid tissue specimens and primary keloid fibroblasts (KFs). The results showed that FOXM1 levels were significantly increased in both keloid tissues and KFs. To further investigate the biological functions of FOXM1, FOXM1 was knocked down in KFs by transfection with small interfering RNA targeting FOXM1 (si-FOXM1). Knockdown of FOXM1 inhibited transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-induced cell proliferation and migration of KFs. Besides, the increased expressions of collagen (coll I), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in TGF-ß1-induced KFs were suppressed by si-FOXM1 transfection. Furthermore, TGF-ß1-induced increase in p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 expressions was attenuated by FOXM1 knockdown. These data indicated that knockdown of FOXM1 inhibited TGF-ß1-induced KFs activation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, which was attributed to the inhibition of TGF-ß1/Smad pathway.


Assuntos
Proteína Forkhead Box M1/deficiência , Queloide/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes/métodos , Humanos , Queloide/genética , Masculino , Fosforilação , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
10.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(1): 58e-67e, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibroproliferative disorders result in excessive scar formation, are associated with high morbidity, and cost billions of dollars every year. Of these, keloid disease presents a particularly challenging clinical problem because the cutaneous scars progress beyond the original site of injury. Altered mechanotransduction has been implicated in keloid development, but the mechanisms governing scar progression into the surrounding tissue remain unknown. The role of mechanotransduction in keloids is further complicated by the differential mechanical properties of keloids and the surrounding skin. METHODS: The authors used human mechanical testing, finite element modeling, and immunohistologic analyses of human specimens to clarify the complex interplay of mechanical stress, strain, and stiffness in keloid scar progression. RESULTS: Changes in human position (i.e., standing, sitting, and supine) are correlated to dynamic changes in local stress/strain distribution, particularly in regions with a predilection for keloids. Keloids are composed of stiff tissue, which displays a fibrotic phenotype with relatively low proliferation. In contrast, the soft skin surrounding keloids is exposed to high mechanical strain that correlates with increased expression of the caveolin-1/rho signaling via rho kinase mechanotransduction pathway and elevated inflammation and proliferation, which may lead to keloid progression. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that changes in human position are strongly correlated with mechanical loading of the predilection sites, which leads to increased mechanical strain in the peripheral tissue surrounding keloids. Furthermore, increased mechanical strain in the peripheral tissue, which is the site of keloid progression, was correlated with aberrant expression of caveolin-1/ROCK signaling pathway. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for keloid progression.


Assuntos
Caveolina 1/fisiologia , Queloide , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Quinases Associadas a rho/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Queloide/metabolismo , Queloide/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(2): 1429-1435, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173246

RESUMO

Pathological scarring is a result of the hypertrophy of scar tissue during tissue repair following trauma. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of ubiquitin­specific protease 4 (USP4) silencing on pathological scarring, and to evaluate the mechanistic basis for the effect. An MTT assay was used to assess cell viability. Immunoprecipitation (IP) was used to determine ubiquitination levels of the TGF­ß receptor (TßR)I and Smad7. Tumor formation was assessed by injecting keloid fibroblasts. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to detect pathological changes in tumor tissue. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis assays were used to evaluate the expression levels of TßRI and Smad7. Compared with the untreated control animals, cell viability and the expression of TßRI and Smad7 increased significantly in animals treated with TGF­ß. Short hairpin RNA for USP4 (shUSP4) decreased the cell viability of negative control cells, TGF­ß­induced cellular proliferation, and the expression of TßRI and Smad7. IP experiments indicated that the ubiquitination level of TßRI was decreased following USP4 silencing. There was no remarkable difference in the structure of scar tissue among the various animal groups at 14 days following treatment, while the necrotic area of the scar tissue in the shUSP4 and vialinin A (USP inhibitor)­treated animals increased significantly at the 28th and 42nd day compared with the control animals. At days 14, 28 and 42, the expression levels of TßRI and Smad7 in the shUSP4 and vialinin A­treated animals were significantly decreased compared with the control animals (P<0.05). In summary, interference with or inhibition of USP4 prevented the activity of the TGF­ß/Smad pathway signaling and inhibited the formation of pathological scars.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/genética , Queloide/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/genética , Proteína Smad7/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatriz/metabolismo , Cicatriz/patologia , Cicatriz/prevenção & controle , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibroblastos/transplante , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Queloide/metabolismo , Queloide/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad7/metabolismo , Compostos de Terfenil/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Transplante Heterólogo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137604

RESUMO

Previous studies described the involvement of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) in systemic fibrotic diseases, but the role of ERK in cutaneous scarring is unknown. Although hypoxia drives tissue fibrosis by activating hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), the specific roles of hypoxia and associated ERK phosphorylation in abnormal fibroblast activity during cutaneous scarring are unclear. Here, we investigated whether pathologic myofibroblast-like keloid fibroblast activity is promoted by hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition mediated by ERK activation. ERK phosphorylation was significantly increased in keloid tissue and fibroblasts. Human dermal fibroblasts cultured under hypoxia (1% O2) expressed phosphorylated ERK and exhibited activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Hypoxic human dermal fibroblasts showed increased protein and mRNA levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers. Furthermore, administration of an ERK inhibitor (SCH772984) reduced the hypoxia-induced elevation of collagen type I levels in human dermal fibroblasts. Therefore, ERK may be a promising therapeutic target in profibrogenic diseases.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Queloide/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Hipóxia Celular , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Queloide/patologia , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
13.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 5251-5262, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059100

RESUMO

Keloids are benign fibrous overgrowths that occur as a result of abnormal wound healing following cutaneous injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are short non­coding RNAs that serve critical roles in numerous important biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, their role in keloid development remains largely unknown. In the present study, the role of miR­30a­5p, a miRNA regulated by Trichostatin A (TSA), in apoptosis within cultured keloid fibroblasts was investigated. An MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation of cultured keloid fibroblasts treated with TSA. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle phases were analyzed using flow cytometry. In addition, an miRNA microarray was performed to compare expression profiles between cultured keloid fibroblasts treated with or without 1,000 nM TSA. Reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted to estimate miRNA expression levels. The direct target of miR­30a­5p was identified using a dual­luciferase reporter assay. Western blotting was employed to assess protein expression levels in keloid fibroblasts. The results demonstrated that TSA inhibited the proliferation of keloid fibroblasts in a time­ and dose­dependent manner. The miRNA microarray revealed alterations in the expression of numerous miRNA sequences in response to TSA when compared with controls. Notably, the expression of miR­30a­5p was downregulated in keloid tissues. In addition, overexpression of miR­30a­5p induced apoptosis by targeting B­cell lymphoma 2, which was similar to that observed in response to TSA. These results provide important information regarding a novel miR­30a­5p­mediated signaling pathway induced by TSA treatment, and suggest a potential use for TSA and miR­30a­5p as effective therapeutic strategies for keloids.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Colágeno/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queloide/metabolismo , Queloide/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
14.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 854: 282-288, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034822

RESUMO

Keloids are characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and invasion of surrounding healthy skin. High levels of Nitric Oxide (NO) are thought to be the crucial factor within the micro-environment in promoting keloid formation. However, the effects and mechanisms of NO on the proliferation of Keloid Fibroblasts (KDFs) remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of NO on KDFs proliferation by Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor. Our results show that SNP significantly enhanced KDFs proliferation. Moreover, with prolonged treatment with SNP after cell confluence, the growth of KDFs escape contact inhibition and experience significant pile up growth. Furthermore, PTIO, an NO scavenger, attenuated SNP-enhanced cell proliferation effectively. The mechanism involved in SNP-induced KDFs proliferation was soluble Guanylyl Cyclase (sGC) and cGMP independent. ODQ, a specific sGC inhibitor, failed to suppress SNP-enhanced KDFs proliferation. 8-Bromo-c GMP, a cell-permeable cGMP analogue, could not stimulate KDFs proliferation. Erk and Akt provide important signaling for cell growth. U0126 and LY294002, inhibitors of Erk and Akt respectively, block SNP-enhanced KDFs proliferation effectively. As expected, a Western blot showed that SNP up-regulated the phosphorylation levels of Erk and Akt. Moreover, it decreased the expression of p27, a cell cycle inhibitor. Our results reveal that SNP induced KDFs proliferation and loss contact inhibition led to pile up growth via activation of the Erk and Akt pathways, as well as a decreased expression of p27. Thus, we speculate that the pathological feature of continuous expansion in keloids is caused by NO-induced KDFs sustained growth.


Assuntos
Queloide/metabolismo , Queloide/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8214923, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956986

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to detect abnormally expressed microRNA (miRNA) in keloids and to study their functions. The differential expression of miRNAs in keloids and normal tissue was detected by gene microarray. MiRNA expression was verified by real-time PCR. A luciferase reporter gene assay, western blot, and real-time PCR were used to detect the effect of miR-194-3p on RUNX2. An MTT assay and a transwell assay were used to detect the effect of miR-194-3p in both primary cultured fibroblasts and HKF cells. Related proteins were analysed by western blot and real-time PCR. The expression of miR-194-3p was lower in keloids, and MiR-194-3p was shown to target RUNX2 directly. MiR-194-3p inhibited the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts through the inhibition of CDK4 and MMP2. MiR-194-3p and RUNX2 may become new targets for the prevention and treatment of keloids.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/biossíntese , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Queloide/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Queloide/genética , Queloide/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
16.
Dermatol Surg ; 45(4): 536-546, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ablative fractional laser-assisted therapy is increasingly used to facilitate drug delivery and intensify clinical efficacy of topically applied drugs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of combined ablative fractional CO2 laser and topically applied 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or verapamil hydrochloride in the treatment of hypertrophic scars (HTSs) and keloids and to examine their possible effects on TGF-ß1 expression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with HTSs and keloids were randomly treated with combined CO2 laser followed by topical verapamil or 5-FU application or CO2 laser monotherapy. All patients received 4 treatments at 1-month intervals. Subjective and objective assessment was obtained using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Histological changes and immunohistochemical staining for TGF-ß1 were performed. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, there was a significant reduction in the VSS 1 month after the last treatment session in all groups (p < .05). Laser-assisted 5-FU delivery tended to show a higher extent of improvement in scar characteristics than laser-assisted verapamil hydrochloride delivery, without significance. No significant side effects were reported in all patient groups. TGF-ß1 expression was significantly decreased after laser sessions. CONCLUSION: Combined fractional CO2 laser and topical 5-FU or verapamil hydrochloride offer a safe therapy for HTSs and keloids.


Assuntos
Cicatriz Hipertrófica/terapia , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Queloide/terapia , Terapia a Laser , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Verapamil/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/metabolismo , Terapia Combinada , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Queloide/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/biossíntese , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 41(3): 193-204, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801341

RESUMO

Keloids are defined histopathologically as an inflammatory disorder characterized by exhibiting numerous fibroblasts, abnormal vascularization, increased number of proinflammatory immune cells as well as uncontrolled cell proliferation, and exacerbated and disorganized deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Importantly, many of these ECM molecules display N- and O-linked glycan residues and are considered as potential targets for galectin-1 (Gal-1) and galectin-3 (Gal-3). Nevertheless, the presence and localization of Gal-1 and Gal-3 as well as the interactions with some of their binding partners in keloid tissues have not been considered. Here, we show that in the dermal thickening of keloids, versican, syndecan-1, fibronectin, thrombospondin-1, tenascin C, CD44, integrin ß1, and N-cadherin were immunolocalized in the elongated fibroblasts that were close to the immune cell infiltrate, attached to collagen bundles, and around the microvasculature and in some immune cells. We also show that Gal-1 and Gal-3 were present in the cytoplasm and along the cell membrane of some fibroblasts and immune and endothelial cells of the dermal thickening. We suggest that Gal-1 and Gal-3, in concert with some of the ECM molecules produced by fibroblasts and by immune cells, counteract the inflammatory response in keloids. We also proposed that Gal-1 and Gal-3 through their binding partners may form a supramolecular structure at the cell surface of fibroblasts, immune cells, endothelial cells, and in the extracellular space that might influence the fibroblast morphology, adhesion, proliferation, migration, and survival as well as the inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Derme/química , Fibroblastos/química , Galectina 1/análise , Galectina 3/análise , Queloide/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Derme/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Queloide/patologia , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Adulto Jovem
18.
Analyst ; 144(6): 1866-1875, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734778

RESUMO

A keloid is a type of unusually raised scar. Unlike other raised scars, keloids form larger sizes than the wound site due to overgrowth, generally related to various biological factors. To date, only a few diagnostic and therapeutic methods for keloids have been reported. The high recurrence rates and undesirable side effects of keloids, at the end stage, encourage the invention of novel diagnostic tools, in order to cure keloids at an earlier stage. In this review, we summarize the general information about keloid diagnosis, keloid biomarkers, and recently reported fluorescent probes that can sense the key biomarkers of keloids. The focused description of fluorescent probes for keloid biomarkers and the author's perspective give useful insights in order to design the next-generation diagnostic sensing system for keloids.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Queloide/diagnóstico , Queloide/metabolismo , Humanos
19.
BMB Rep ; 52(3): 202-207, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638178

RESUMO

Keloids are the most common pathological form of trauma healing, with features that seriously affect appearance and body function, are difficult to treat and have a high recurrence rate. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs are involved in a variety of pathological processes and play an important role in the process of fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the function and regulatory network of miR-152-5p in keloids. The miRNA miR-152-5p is frequently downregulated in keloid tissue and primary cells compared to normal skin tissue and fibroblasts. In addition, the downregulation of miR-152-5p is significantly associated with the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of keloid cells. Overexpression of miR-152-5p significantly inhibits the progression of fibrosis in keloids. Smad3 is a direct target of miR-152-5p, and knockdown of Smad3 also inhibits fibrosis progression, consistent with the overexpression of miR-152-5p. The interaction between miR-152-5p and Smad3 occurs through the Erk1/2 and Akt pathways and regulates collagen3 production. In summary, our study demonstrates that miR-152-5p/Smad3 regulatory pathways involved in fibrotic progression may be a potential therapeutic target of keloids. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(3): 202-207].


Assuntos
Queloide/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Apoptose/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Queloide/metabolismo , Queloide/patologia , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo
20.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 51(2): 185-196, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668826

RESUMO

Keloids (KDs) and hypertrophic scars (HSs), two forms of pathological scars, seriously affect the physical and psychological health of patients. Despite many similarities with HSs, KDs are characterized by invasion and a high rate of recurrence after surgery, features they share in common with tumors. The underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we used microRNA (miRNA) array analysis to search for invasion-associated miRNAs in KDs. The expression of miR-188-5p in KDs, HSs, normal skin (NS) tissues, and cell lines was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were detected in KD fibroblasts (KFs) and HS fibroblasts (HSFs), and interrelated proteins were ascertained by western blot analysis. It was found that miR-188-5p was significantly decreased in KD tissue compared with HS and NS tissues. Upregulated expression of miR-188-5p suppressed KF proliferation, migration, and invasion; and decreased expression of miR-188-5p also promoted HSF proliferation, migration, and invasion. The protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, PI3K, and p-Akt in miR-188-5p mimic-transfected KFs were repressed. In contrast, after transfection with miR-188-5p inhibitor, the protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, PI3K, and p-Akt were higher than the control in HSFs. Treatment with PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 in KFs with miR-188-5p inhibitor did not further reduce their proliferation, migration, and invasion. The upregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by miR-188-5p inhibitor could be abolished by LY294002. These findings together demonstrate a tumor-suppressive role of miR-188-5p in KD proliferation and invasion via PI3K/Akt/MMP-2/9 signaling, indicating that miR-188-5p may be a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for KDs.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Queloide/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Queloide/metabolismo , Queloide/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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