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1.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1117-1124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879199

RESUMO

4-tert-Butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM) is widely used throughout the world as a highly effective UVA absorber that can prevent the progression of photoaging in skin. However, due to its low photostability, BMDM is also known for the disadvantage of having a reduced capability to absorb UVA during prolonged exposure to sunlight. Although many studies have been carried out to overcome this disadvantage of BMDM, little attention has been paid to how the radicals generated from BMDM during UV exposure influence the skin. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: One goal was to clarify the influence of radicals on human skin using cytotoxicity as a parameter. The second was to propose a solution that could reduce the radical formation while taking photostability into consideration. Using ESR spin trapping and superoxide dismutase (SOD) treatment, the radicals produced by the UV exposure of BMDM were shown to be superoxide anion radicals (•O2-). HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to UVA in the presence of BMDM showed a significant reduction in cell viability, indicating that the radicals produced from BMDM have a harmful influence on the skin. UVA exposure coincidently led to a reduction of UVA absorbance by BMDM. Interestingly, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (Benzophenone-3; BP3) reduced both the radical formation and the cytotoxicity resulting from the UVA-exposure of BMDM, while also restoring its UVA absorbance. In conclusion, the results show that BMDM and BP3 is an effective combination to reduce the influence of UVA-exposed BMDM on the skin and to prevent the loss of UVA absorbance by BMDM during UV exposure.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Chalconas/efeitos adversos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Propiofenonas/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Interações Medicamentosas , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Propiofenonas/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento da Pele/patologia , Protetores Solares/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239625, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966340

RESUMO

During alcohol consumption, the esophageal mucosa is directly exposed to high concentrations of ethanol (EtOH). We therefore investigated the response of normal human esophageal epithelial cell lines EPC1, EPC2 and EPC3 to acute EtOH exposure. While these cells were able to tolerate 2% EtOH for 8 h in both three-dimensional organoids and monolayer culture conditions, RNA sequencing suggested that EtOH induced mitochondrial dysfunction. With EtOH treatment, EPC1 and EPC2 cells also demonstrated decreased mitochondrial ATPB protein expression by immunofluorescence and swollen mitochondria lacking intact cristae by transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was decreased in a subset of EPC1 and EPC2 cells stained with ΔΨm-sensitive dye MitoTracker Deep Red. In EPC2, EtOH decreased ATP level while impairing mitochondrial respiration and electron transportation chain functions, as determined by ATP fluorometric assay, respirometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additionally, EPC2 cells demonstrated enhanced oxidative stress by flow cytometry for mitochondrial superoxide (MitoSOX), which was antagonized by the mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoCP. Concurrently, EPC1 and EPC2 cells underwent autophagy following EtOH exposure, as evidenced by flow cytometry for Cyto-ID, which detects autophagic vesicles, and immunoblots demonstrating induction of the lipidated and cleaved form of LC3B and downregulation of SQSTM1/p62. In EPC1 and EPC2, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy flux by chloroquine increased mitochondrial oxidative stress while decreasing cell viability. In EPC2, autophagy induction was coupled with phosphorylation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor responding to low ATP levels, and dephosphorylation of downstream substrates of mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex (mTORC)-1 signaling. Pharmacological AMPK activation by AICAR decreased EtOH-induced reduction of ΔΨm and ATP in EPC2. Taken together, acute EtOH exposure leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in esophageal keratinocytes, where the AMPK-mTORC1 axis may serve as a regulatory mechanism to activate autophagy to provide cytoprotection against EtOH-induced cell injury.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Esôfago/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
3.
Gene ; 760: 145003, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739587

RESUMO

Imiquimod (IMQ) is approved as a first-line treatment for genital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, the recurrence rate is very high. HPV E7 protein plays a critical role in HPV immune escape. However, the role of HPV11 E7 protein in genital warts recurrence during IMQ treatment is not clear. Here, we found that the expression profile of NHEK cells was obviously changed after IMQ treatment, and a large number of genes encoding cytokines and genes involved in cytokine-mediated signaling pathways and cellular metabolic signaling pathways were up- or downregulated. HPV11E7 overexpression inhibited the IMQ-induced production of of multiple chemokines and colony-stimulating factors in NHEK cells. Furthermore, we found that HPV11E7 could impair the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Therefore, our results suggested that HPV11 E7 diminishes the production of chemokines, colony-stimulating factors and other cytokines via inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway, which suppresses the therapeutic effect of IMQ and promotes the recurrence of diseases, such as condyloma acuminatum.


Assuntos
Imiquimode/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Fatores Estimuladores de Colônias/biossíntese , Fatores Estimuladores de Colônias/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Papillomavirus Humano 11/metabolismo , Humanos , Imiquimode/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4275-4288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606677

RESUMO

Purpose: Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) are promising antibacterial agents to tackle the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to fabricate Se NPs with a net positive charge to enhance their antibacterial efficacy. Methods: Se NPs were coated with a positively charged protein - recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(κ16) - to give them a net positive surface charge. Their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity were investigated, with negatively charged polyvinyl alcohol coated Se NPs as a control. Besides, these eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs were immobilized on the spider silk films, and the antibacterial activity of these films was investigated. Results: Compared to the negatively charged polyvinyl alcohol coated Se NPs, the positively charged eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs demonstrated a much higher bactericidal efficacy against the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, with a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) approximately 50 times lower than that of negatively charged Se NPs. Cytotoxicity testing showed that the eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs are safe to both Balb/3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts and HaCaT human skin keratinocytes up to 31 µg/mL, which is much higher than the MBC of these particles against E. coli (8 ± 1 µg/mL). In addition, antibacterial coatings were created by immobilising the eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs on positively charged spider silk films and these were shown to retain good bactericidal efficacy and overcome the issue of low particle stability in culture broth. It was found that these Se NPs needed to be released from the film surface in order to exert their antibacterial effects and this release can be regulated by the surface charge of the film, such as the change of the spider silk protein used. Conclusion: Overall, eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs are promising new antibacterial agents against life-threatening bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Seda/farmacologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The skin provides a predominant barrier against chemical, physical and microbial incursion. The intemperate exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation can cause excessive cellular oxidative stress, leading to skin damage, proteins damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. There is sufficient evidences supporting the proposal that mitochondria is highly implicated in skin photo-damage. METHODS: In the present study, a polysaccharide isolated from Astragalus membranaceus was further purified to be an α-glucan, which was further investigated its beneficial influence on UVA-induced photo-damage in HaCaT cells. RESULTS: Our results showed that the purified Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide (AP) can protect HaCaT cells from UVA-induced photo-damage through reducing UVA-induced intracellular ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby altering ATP content. It was found that the UVA induced damage in HaCaT cells could be effectively restored by co-treatment with AP. CONCLUSIONS: AP exhibited promising potential for advanced application as multifunctional skin care products and drugs.


Assuntos
Astragalus propinquus/química , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/química , Protetores contra Radiação/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232565, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722676

RESUMO

In vitro scratch wound healing assay, a simple and low-cost technique that works along with other image analysis tools, is one of the most widely used 2D methods to determine the cellular migration and proliferation in processes such as regeneration and disease. There are open-source programs such as imageJ to analyze images of in vitro scratch wound healing assays, but these tools require manual tuning of various parameters, which is time-consuming and limits image throughput. For that reason, we developed an optimized plugin for imageJ to automatically recognize the wound healing size, correct the average wound width by considering its inclination, and quantify other important parameters such as: area, wound area fraction, average wound width, and width deviation of the wound images obtained from a scratch/ wound healing assay. Our plugin is easy to install and can be used with different operating systems. It can be adapted to analyze both individual images and stacks. Additionally, it allows the analysis of images obtained from bright field, phase contrast, and fluorescence microscopes. In conclusion, this new imageJ plugin is a robust tool to automatically standardize and facilitate quantification of different in vitro wound parameters with high accuracy compared with other tools and manual identification.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Software , Cicatrização , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(7): 1801-1811, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435894

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oral mucositis is a debilitating inflammatory disorder observed in patients undergoing active cancer treatment, particularly cancer of the head and neck region. A key pathway believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis is the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The identification of compounds that can inhibit this pathway may therefore be of benefit in treating this disorder. The kava plant (Piper methysticum) contains various constituents, including flavokawain A (FKA), flavokawain B (FKB), yangonin, methysticin and kavain. These constituents are known to be biologically active and possess anti-oxidative properties. This study therefore focused on examining these constituents for their effect on ROS formation in an in vitro oral mucositis model. METHODS: Cell proliferation was assessed in normal oral keratinocytes (OKF6) treated with and without kava constituents, namely FKA, FKB, yangonin, methysticin and kavain using an MTS in vitro assay. Oxidative stress was assessed by co-treating and pre-treating OKF6 cells with H2O2. The effects were quantified by analysis of ROS production, using a CM-H2DCFDA assay. RESULTS: Pre-treatment of cells for 24 h with 2.5 µg/ml kavain and 5 µg/ml FKA demonstrated a significant protective anti-oxidative effect. Similarly, FKB at a concentration of 2.5 µg/ml, demonstrated a trend of ROS reduction but was observed to be cytotoxic at concentrations greater than 5 µg/ml. Reduction in ROS production by methysticin and yangonin was compromised by their cell cytotoxicity. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to identify the anti-oxidative effects and safety of FKA and kavain with regard to oral keratinocytes, highlighting their potential use in the development of a preventative treatment for oral mucositis.


Assuntos
Kava/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Piranos/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Estomatite/etiologia
8.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(7): 907-920, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased keratinocyte proliferation occurs in the skin of psoriatic patients and is supposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Compounds interfering with keratinocyte proliferation could be useful in the management of psoriatic patients. AIM: To investigate whether albendazole, an anti-helmintic drug that regulates epithelial cell function in various systems, inhibits keratinocyte proliferation in models of psoriasis. METHODS: Aldara-treated mice received daily topical application of albendazole. Keratinocyte proliferation and keratin (K) 6 and K16 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting and inflammatory cells/mediators were analysed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. In human keratinocytes (HEKa and HaCaT) treated with albendazole, cell cycle and proliferation, keratins and cell cycle-associated factors were evaluated by flow cytometry, colorimetric assay and Western blotting respectively. RESULTS: Aldara-treated mice given albendazole exhibited reduced epidermal thickness, decreased number of proliferating keratinocytes and K6/K16 expression. Reduction of CD3- and Ly6G-positive cells in the skin of albendazole-treated mice associated with inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-17A, IL-36, CCL17, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5 expression. Treatment of keratinocytes with albendazole reduced K6/K16 expression and reversibly inhibited cell growth by promoting accumulation of cells in S-phase. This phenomenon was accompanied by down-regulation of CDC25A, a phosphatase regulating progression of cell cycle through S-phase, and PKR-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of eIF2α, an inhibitor of CDC25 translation. In Aldara-treated mice, albendazole activated PKR, enhanced eIF2α phosphorylation and reduced CDC25A expression. CONCLUSIONS: Data show that albendazole inhibits keratinocyte proliferation and exerts therapeutic effect in a murine model of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Albendazol/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imiquimode , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/metabolismo , Psoríase/patologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Fosfatases cdc25/metabolismo , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
9.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 685: 108355, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268137

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a skin disease characterized by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and inflammation. Currently, there are no cures for this disease, so the goal of treatment is to decrease inflammation and slow down the associated rapid cell growth and shedding. Recent advances have led to the usage of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors for treatment of this condition. For example, apremilast is an oral, selective PDE4 inhibitor that is able to reduce skin inflammation and is Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved to treat adults with moderate to severe psoriasis and/or psoriatic arthritis. However, common target-related adverse events, including diarrhea, nausea, headache, and insomnia limit the usage of this drug. To circumvent these effects, the usage of PDE4 inhibitors specifically designed for topical treatment, such as CHF6001, may combine local anti-inflammatory activity with limited systemic exposure, improving tolerability. In this study, we showed that CHF6001, currently undergoing clinical development for COPD, suppresses human keratinocyte proliferation as assessed via BrdU incorporation. We also observed decreased re-epithelialization in a scratch-wound model after CHF6001 treatment. At the molecular level, CHF6001 inhibited translocation of phosphorylated NF-κB subunit p65, promoting loss of nuclear cyclin D1 accumulation and an increase of cell cycle inhibitor p21. Furthermore, CHF6001 decreased oxidative stress, measured by assessing lipid peroxidation (4-HNE adduct formation), through the inactivation of the NADPH oxidase. These results suggest that CHF6001 has the potential to treat skin disorders associated with hyperproliferative keratinocytes, such as psoriasis by targeting oxidative stress, abnormal re-epithelization, and inflammation.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , para-Aminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Humanos , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4/toxicidade , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , para-Aminobenzoatos/toxicidade
10.
Toxicology ; 439: 152476, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335162

RESUMO

Two non-animal test methods, KeratinoSens™ and LuSens, have been approved by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guidelines for evaluating the sensitization potential of chemicals, and been positioned as a method for appraising key event (KE)-2, namely, the keratinocyte response component of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) in sensitization process. However, these two methods require separate cytotoxicity tests to determine the concentrations to be tested in the main test. Therefore, we developed a simple and highly accurate KE-2 test method named α-Sens that uses the dual luciferase assay system and attempted a further application of luciferase-based determination of cell viability to calculate the normalized Antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated transcriptional activity, named normalized ARE Activity (nAA), to evaluate the sensitizing potential of chemicals. A cell line carrying the ARE-inducible Firefly luciferase reporter gene and Thymidine kinase (TK) promoter-driven Renilla luciferase gene was established and used for the α-Sens. A total of 28 chemicals, consisting of 19 skin sensitizers and nine non-skin sensitizers were tested by this assay system. The α-Sens yielded an accuracy (%), sensitivity (%), and specificity (%) against corresponding values for local lymph node assay of 96.4 %, 95.0 %, and 100 %, respectively, and for human data of 100 % for all. The α-Sens gave clear positive results for phenyl benzoate and eugenol, chemicals for which KeratinoSens™ or LuSens yielded false-negative results, using a new parameter. Our results suggest that better prediction capacity could be achieved by using nAA as a classifier compared to other existing KE-2 test methods. In conclusion, the α-Sens is promising as a simple and highly accurate in vitro skin sensitization test method for evaluation of KE-2.


Assuntos
Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/patologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Alternativas aos Testes com Animais , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Local de Linfonodo , Luciferases/metabolismo , Renilla/enzimologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Cutâneos , Timidina Quinase/metabolismo
11.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(7): 593-598, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241220

RESUMO

The grape skins after pressing the juice are a major problem for winery. However, because it contains a large amount of polyphenols, development of effective usages are expected to construct sustainable waste use. In this study, we examined whether grape skin extract is effective for recovery of DNA damage caused by UV irradiation. Extract from Zweigelt and Niagara skin was prepared by methanol, and UV irradiation was performed at 10 mJ/cm2 (250 nm) and 15 mJ/cm2 (290 nm) using human normal skin cells. As results, the decreased cell viability due to UV irradiation was improved by adding Niagara or Zweigelt skin extract. On the other hand, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer production due to UV irradiation decreased significantly by Niagara or Zweigelt extract. In addition, the effects of grape skin extracts on the expression of sirtuin gene were also examined.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Dímeros de Pirimidina/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitis/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Dímeros de Pirimidina/antagonistas & inibidores
12.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1): 55, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a malignant skin disease characterized as keratinocyte hyperproliferation and aberrant differentiation. Our previous work reported that a bibenzyl compound, erianin, has a potent inhibitory effect on keratinocyte proliferation. To improve its poor water-solubility, increase anti- proliferation activity, and enhance the skin delivery, erianin loaded dendritic mesoporous silica nanospheres (E/DMSNs) were employed. RESULTS: In this work, DMSNs with pore size of 3.5 nm (DMSN1) and 4.6 nm (DMSN2) were fabricated and E/DMSNs showed pore-size-dependent, significantly stronger anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect than free erianin on human immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, resulting from higher cellular uptake efficiency. In addition, compared to free erianin, treatment with E/DMSNs was more effective in reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing cytoplasmic calcium levels, which were accompanied by regulation of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway. Porcine skin was utilized in the ex vivo accumulation and permeation studies, and the results indicated higher drug retention and less drug penetration in the skin when administered as the E/DMSNs-loaded hydrogel compared to the erianin-loaded hydrogel. Conlusions This work not only illustrated the further mechanisms of erianin in anti-proliferation of HaCaT cells but also offer a strategy to enhance the efficiency of erianin and the capacity of skin delivery through the DMSNs drug delivery systems.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibenzilas/farmacologia , Nanosferas/química , Fenol/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Solubilidade
13.
J Virol ; 94(12)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238586

RESUMO

Beta genus human papillomaviruses (ß-HPVs) cause cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) in a subset of immunocompromised patients. However, ß-HPVs are not necessary for tumor maintenance in the general population. Instead, they may destabilize the genome in the early stages of cancer development. Supporting this idea, ß-HPV's 8E6 protein attenuates p53 accumulation after failed cytokinesis. This paper offers mechanistic insight into how ß-HPV E6 causes this change in cell signaling. An in silico screen and characterization of HCT 116 cells lacking p300 suggested that the histone acetyltransferase is a negative regulator of Hippo pathway (HP) gene expression. HP activation restricts growth in response to stimuli, including failed cytokinesis. Loss of p300 resulted in increased HP gene expression, including proproliferative genes associated with HP inactivation. ß-HPV 8E6 expression recapitulates some of these phenotypes. We used a chemical inhibitor of cytokinesis (dihydrocytochalasin B [H2CB]) to induce failed cytokinesis. This system allowed us to show that ß-HPV 8E6 reduced activation of large tumor suppressor kinase (LATS), an HP kinase. LATS is required for p53 accumulation following failed cytokinesis. These phenotypes were dependent on ß-HPV 8E6 destabilizing p300 and did not completely attenuate the HP. It did not alter H2CB-induced nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor YAP. ß-HPV 8E6 also did not decrease HP activation in cells grown to a high density. Although our group and others have previously described inhibition of DNA repair, to the best of our knowledge, this marks the first time that a ß-HPV E6 protein has been shown to hinder HP signaling.IMPORTANCE ß-HPVs contribute to cSCC development in immunocompromised populations. However, it is unclear if these common cutaneous viruses are tumorigenic in the general population. Thus, a more thorough investigation of ß-HPV biology is warranted. If ß-HPV infections do promote cSCCs, they are hypothesized to destabilize the cellular genome. In vitro data support this idea by demonstrating the ability of the ß-HPV E6 protein to disrupt DNA repair signaling events following UV exposure. We show that ß-HPV E6 more broadly impairs cellular signaling, indicating that the viral protein dysregulates the HP. The HP protects genome fidelity by regulating cell growth and apoptosis in response to a myriad of deleterious stimuli, including failed cytokinesis. After failed cytokinesis, ß-HPV 8E6 attenuates phosphorylation of the HP kinase (LATS). This decreases some, but not all, HP signaling events. Notably, ß-HPV 8E6 does not limit senescence associated with failed cytokinesis.


Assuntos
Citocinese/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/genética , Papillomaviridae/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocalasina B/análogos & derivados , Citocalasina B/farmacologia , Citocinese/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/deficiência , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/virologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/virologia , Papillomaviridae/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
14.
J Virol ; 94(12)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269126

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E7 has long been known to stabilize the tumor suppressor TP53. However, the molecular mechanism of TP53 stabilization by HPV16 E7 has remained obscure, and this stabilization can occur independently of the E2F-regulated MDM2 inhibitor p14ARF Here, we report that the damage-induced noncoding (DINO) lncRNA (DINOL) is the "missing link" between HPV16 E7 and increased TP53 levels. DINO levels are decreased in cells where TP53 is inactivated, either by HPV16 E6, by expression of a dominant negative TP53 minigene, or by TP53 depletion. DINO levels are increased in HPV16 E7-expressing cells. HPV16 E7 causes increased DINO expression independently of RB1 degradation and E2F1 activation. Similar to what is seen with the adjacent CDKN1A locus, DINO expression is regulated by the histone demethylase KDM6A. DINO stabilizes TP53 in HPV16 E7-expressing cells, and as it is a TP53 transcriptional target, DINO levels further increase. As with expression of other oncogenes, such as adenovirus E1A or MYC, HPV16 E7-expressing cells are sensitized to cell death under conditions of metabolic stress, which in the case of E7 has been linked to TP53 activation. Consistent with earlier studies, we show that HPV16 E7-expressing keratinocytes are highly sensitive to metabolic stress induced by starvation or the antidiabetic drug metformin. Sensitivity of HPV16 E7-expressing cells to metabolic stress is rescued by DINO depletion. Moreover, DINO depletion decreases sensitivity to the DNA damage-inducing chemotherapy agent doxorubicin. This work identifies DINO as a critical mediator of TP53 stabilization and activation in HPV16 E7-expressing cells.IMPORTANCE Viral oncoproteins, including HPV16 E6 and E7, have been instrumental in elucidating the activities of cellular signaling networks, including those governed by the TP53 tumor suppressor. Our study demonstrates that the long noncoding RNA DINO is the long-sought missing link between HPV16 E7 and elevated TP53 levels. Importantly, the TP53-stabilizing DINO plays a critical role in the cell death response of HPV16 E7-expressing cells to metabolic stress or DNA damage.


Assuntos
Histona Desmetilases/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/virologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
15.
Chem Biol Interact ; 321: 109031, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142722

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is mainly produced as a by-product from electron transport chain (ETC) of mitochondria and effectively eliminated by cellular antioxidants. However, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) exposure to keratinocytes declined antioxidant capacity and increased accumulation of ROS triggered alteration of mitochondrial activity and apoptosis is lacking. Our findings demonstrated that the electron leakage from the impaired ETC, leading to the accumulation of ROS was gradually elevating with increasing concentration of CEES exposure, which decline the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), manganese SOD (MnSOD) and copper-zinc SOD (Cu-ZnSOD) in keratinocytes. Further, excess accumulation of ROS, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and increased the mitochondrial mass with increasing dose of CEES. CEES exposure provoked the decrease in expression of transcription factor A mitochondrial (TFAM), augmented mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and altered the mtDNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits. Moreover, fragmented mtDNA translocated into cytosol, where it activated cGAS-STING and interferon regulatory factor3 (IRF3), coinciding with the increased expression of inflammatory mediators and alteration of cell-to-cell communication markers. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or L-Nω-nitroarginine methyl ester (NAME), hydralazine hydrochloride (Hyd·HCl) or ERK1/2 or phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt inhibitors in keratinocyte cells significantly restored the CEES effect. Our findings suggest that CEES-induced mitochondrial ROS production and accumulation leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory response in keratinocytes. However, treatment of antioxidants or ERK1/2 or PI3-K/Akt inhibitors is a novel therapeutic option for the keratinocytes complication.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Gás de Mostarda/análogos & derivados , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Irritantes/toxicidade , Queratinócitos/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Gás de Mostarda/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1862(8): 183273, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171739

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role in the host defense against various microbes. One of the most efficient human AMPs is the human beta defensin-3 (hBD-3) which is produced by, e.g. keratinocytes and lung epithelial cells. However, the structure-function relationship for AMPs and in particular for defensins with their typical three disulfide bonds is still poorly understood. In this study the importance of the three disulfide bonds for the activity of the AMPs is investigated with biological assays and with biophysical experiments utilizing different membrane reconstitution systems. The activities of natural hBD-3, hBD-3-c (cyclic variant with one disulfide bond), and hBD-3-l (linear variant without disulfide bonds) and fragments thereof were tested against specific Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities were analyzed as well as the potency to neutralize immune cell stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Experiments using reconstituted lipid matrices composed of phospholipids or LPS purified from the respective Gram-negative bacteria, showed that the membrane activity of all three hBD-3 peptides is decisive for their capability to kill bacteria and to neutralize LPS. In most of the test systems the linear hBD-3-l showed the highest activity. It was also the only peptide significantly active against polymyxin B-resistant Proteus mirabilis R45. However, the stability of hBD-3 against protease activity decreases with decreasing number of disulfide bonds. This study demonstrates that the refining of AMP structures can generate more active compounds against certain strains.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Defensinas/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Dissulfetos/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patogenicidade , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Polimixina B/efeitos adversos , Polimixina B/farmacologia , Domínios Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteus mirabilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteus mirabilis/patogenicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , beta-Defensinas/farmacologia
17.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 208-218, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114881

RESUMO

Context: It is common sense that chewing a mint leaf can cause a cooling feeling, while chewing ginger root will produce a burning feeling. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), this phenomenon is referred to as 'cold/hot' properties of herbs. Herein, it is reported that TCM with different "cold/hot" properties have different effects on the variation of cells.Objective: To explore the intrinsic 'cold/hot' properties of TCM from the perspective of cellular and molecular biology.Materials and methods: A375 cells were selected using Cancer Cell Line Encyclopaedia (CCLE) analysis and western blots. Hypaconitine and baicalin were selected by structural similarity analysis from 56 and 140 compounds, respectively. A wireless thermometry system was used to measure cellular temperature change induced by different compounds. Alteration of intracellular calcium influx was investigated by means of calcium imaging.Results: The IC50 values of GSK1016790A, HC067047, hypaconitine, and baicalin for A375 cells are 8.363 nM, 816.4 µM, 286.4 µM and 29.84 µM, respectively. And, 8 µM hypaconitine induced obvious calcium influx while 8 µM baicalin inhibited calcium influx induced by TRPV4 activation. Cellular temperature elevated significantly when treated with GSK1016790A or hypaconitine, while the results were reversed when cells were treated with HC067047 or baicalin.Discussion and conclusions: The changes in cellular temperature are speculated to be caused by the alteration of intracellular calcium influx mediated by TRPV4. In addition, the 'cold/hot' properties of compounds in TCM can be classified by using cellular temperature detection.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Aconitina/análogos & derivados , Aconitina/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Leucina/análogos & derivados , Leucina/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
18.
Soft Matter ; 16(13): 3325-3337, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196025

RESUMO

Surface tension governed by differential adhesion can drive fluid particle mixtures to sort into separate regions, i.e., demix. Does the same phenomenon occur in confluent biological tissues? We begin to answer this question for epithelial monolayers with a combination of theory via a vertex model and experiments on keratinocyte monolayers. Vertex models are distinct from particle models in that the interactions between the cells are shape-based, as opposed to distance-dependent. We investigate whether a disparity in cell shape or size alone is sufficient to drive demixing in bidisperse vertex model fluid mixtures. Surprisingly, we observe that both types of bidisperse systems robustly mix on large lengthscales. On the other hand, shape disparity generates slight demixing over a few cell diameters, a phenomenon we term micro-demixing. This result can be understood by examining the differential energy barriers for neighbor exchanges (T1 transitions). Experiments with mixtures of wild-type and E-cadherin-deficient keratinocytes on a substrate are consistent with the predicted phenomenon of micro-demixing, which biology may exploit to create subtle patterning. The robustness of mixing at large scales, however, suggests that despite some differences in cell shape and size, progenitor cells can readily mix throughout a developing tissue until acquiring means of recognizing cells of different types.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Caderinas/química , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229613, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084249

RESUMO

Mucus form H. aspersa muller has been reported to have several therapeutic proprieties, such as antimicrobial activity, skin protection and wound repair. In this study, we have analyzed H. aspersa mucus (Helixcomplex) bio-adhesive efficacy and its defensive properties against the ozone (O3) (0.5 ppm for 2 hours) exposure in human keratinocytes and reconstructed human epidermis models. Cytotoxicity, tissue morphology and cytokine levels were determined. We confirmed HelixComplex regenerative and bio-adhesive properties, the latter possibly via the characteristic mucopolysaccharide composition. In addition, HelixComplex was able to protect from O3 exposure by preventing oxidative damage and the consequent pro-inflammatory response in both 2D and 3D models. Based on this study, it is possible to suggest HelixComplex as a potentially new protective technology against pollution induced skin damage.


Assuntos
Caracois Helix/metabolismo , Muco/química , Muco/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Muco/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(2): 263-274, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003270

RESUMO

Suspensions of the UV filter, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP), are widely used in sunscreen products. This paper compared the relative disposition and local cytotoxicity of ZnO NP, and zinc ions formed on its dissolution, against keratinocyte cultures and in the human epidermis (ex vivo) after application of suspensions of ZnO NP. HaCaT keratinocyte cytotoxicities were found to be related to labile intra-cellular zinc but also total zinc and extra-cellular concentrations in cell culture media and to a degree ameliorated by the presence of a zinc chelating agent. Secondly, the zinc species were then dosed onto exposed ex vivo viable human epidermis and it was found that an increase in labile zinc level correlated with a shift in the metabolic state of the viable epidermis. This study highlights that excised viable skin acts as a more relevant model for determining cutaneous toxicity over keratinocyte monolayers in vitro.


Assuntos
Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Protetores Solares/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/metabolismo , Humanos , Íons , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores Solares/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/metabolismo
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