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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 654998, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531848

RESUMO

HCV core protein is the first structural protein synthesized during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and replication. It is released from virus infected liver cells and mediates multiple functions to affect host cell response. The innate immune response is the first line of defense against viral infection. After HCV infection, Kupffer cells (KCs) which are liver macrophages play an important role in host innate immune response. Kupffer cells act as phagocytes and release different cytokines and chemokines to counter viral infection and regulate inflammation and fibrosis in liver. Earlier, we have demonstrated that HCV core protein interacts with gC1qR and activates MAPK, NF-κB and PI3K/AKT pathways in macrophages. In this study, we explored the effect of HCV core protein on CCL2 and CXCL10 expression in macrophages and the signaling pathways involved. Upon silencing of gC1qR, we observed a significant decrease expression of CCL2 and CXCL10 in macrophages in the presence of HCV core protein. Inhibiting NF-κB pathway, but not P38, JNK, ERK and AKT pathways greatly reduced the expression of CCL2 and CXCL10. Therefore, our results indicate that interaction of HCV core protein with gC1qR could induce CCL2 and CXCL10 secretion in macrophages via NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings may shed light on the understanding of how leukocytes migrate into the liver and exaggerate host-derived immune responses and may provide novel therapeutic targets in HCV chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Proteínas do Core Viral/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL10/genética , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hepacivirus/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C/imunologia , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Hepatite C/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Macrófagos do Fígado/imunologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos do Fígado/virologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células RAW 264.7 , Células THP-1 , Proteínas do Core Viral/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361797

RESUMO

Carpesium divaricatum Sieb. & Zucc., a traditional medicinal plant used as an inflammation-relieving remedy, is a rich source of terpenoids. At least 40 germacrane-type sesquiterpene lactones, representatives of four different structural groups, were isolated from the plant. Cytotoxicity against cancer cells in vitro is the most frequently described biological activity of the compounds. However, little is known about the selectivity of the cytotoxic effect. The anti-inflammatory activity of the germacranolides is also poorly documented. The objective of the present study was to assess the cytotoxic activity of selected C. divaricatum germacranolides-derivatives of 4,5,8,9-tetrahydroxy-3-oxo-germacran-6,12-olide towards cancer and normal cell lines (including cells of different p53 status). Moreover, to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of the compounds, the release of four proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines (IL-1ß, IL-8, TNF-α and CCL2) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human neutrophils was measured by ELISA. The investigated sesquiterpene lactones demonstrated nonselective activity towards prostate cancer (Du145 and PC3) and normal prostate epithelial cells (PNT2) as well as against melanoma cells (A375 and HTB140) and keratinocytes (HaCaT). Cytotoxic activity against osteosarcoma cells was independent of their p53 status. In sub-cytotoxic concentrations (0.5-2.5 µM) the studied compounds significantly decreased cytokine/chemokine release by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human leukocytes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/classificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/classificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/classificação , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Polônia , Cultura Primária de Células , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/classificação , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/imunologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445235

RESUMO

Chemokines are a small family of cytokines that were first discovered as chemotactic factors in leukocytes during inflammation, and reports on the relationship between chemokines and cancer progression have recently been increasing. The CCL2-CCR2 axis is one of the major chemokine signaling pathways, and has various functions in tumor progression, such as increasing tumor cell proliferation and invasiveness, and creating a tumor microenvironment through increased angiogenesis and recruitment of immunosuppressive cells. This review discusses the roles of the CCL2-CCR2 axis and the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression and their future roles in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores CCR2/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
4.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(9): 1098-1109, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We measured the production of cytokines, chemokines and antibodies involved in allergic responses and sCD23 levels during Schistosoma mansoni infection. METHODS: Individuals (n = 164) were selected using the ISAAC questionnaire and parasitological exams. The subjects were divided as follows: those infected individuals with allergy-related symptoms (A-I), those with allergy-related symptoms only (A-NI); those only infected (NA-I); and those non-infected individuals without allergy-related symptoms (NA-NI). We used supernatants from cell culture (mitogenic stimulation) to measure cytokine and chemokine levels using cytometric bead arrays. Serum levels of anti-Ascaris lumbricoides (Asc) and anti-Blomia tropicalis IgE were measured using ImmunoCAP, and sCD23 was measured using ELISA. RESULTS: Schistosoma mansoni infection was associated with a lower risk of allergy-related symptoms. In A-I, there were higher levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, IFN-γ and CXCL8 than in NA-NI group, with TNF-α and IL-6 also at higher levels compared to A-NI group. Levels of IL-6, CXCL8, total and anti-Asc IgE, as well as the numbers of eosinophils, were higher in NA-I than in NA-NI, and the antibodies were also lower in A-NI than in NA-I group. In AI and NA-I, there was less production of CCL2 than in NA-NI. There were no differences in the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17, CCL5, sCD23 and anti-Blomia IgE. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with allergy-related symptoms and infected (simultaneously) had higher levels of IL-10; due to the infection, there was increased production of IL-6 and CXCL8 and less CCL2. These data may characterize deviation to Th1 or attenuation of the Th2 response in allergy sufferers in areas endemic for schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocinas/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 646516, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079541

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate vascular macrophage phenotype as well as vascular and peripheral chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) expression during different stages of disease progression in patients with Takayasu Arteritis (TA). Methods: In this study, 74 patients with TA and 50 controls were recruited. TA disease activity was evaluated with Kerr scores. Macrophage phenotype and CCL2 expression were examined by immunohistochemistry in vascular specimens from 8 untreated and 7 treated TA patients, along with 4 healthy controls. Serum CCL2 were quantified by enzyme-linked immune-absorbent assay from TA patients at baseline (n=59), at 6-months (n=38), and from 46 healthy volunteers. Vascular macrophage phenotype, vascular CCL2 expression and serum CCL2 levels during different stages, as well as the relationship between serum CCL2 and disease activity or other inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (IL-6)) were investigated. Results: In untreated patients, vascular M1 macrophages and CCL2 showed increased expression, mainly in the adventitia. In contrast, in treated patients, vascular adventitial M1 and CCL2 expression were decreased, while vascular medial M2 macrophages and CCL2 levels were increased. Distribution of macrophages and CCL2 was consistent within the TA vascular lesions regardless of the disease stage. Furthermore, peripheral CCL2 was elevated in patients with TA (TA: 160.30 ± 120.05 vs. Control: 65.58 ± 54.56 pg/ml, P < 0.001). CCL2 levels were found to correlate with ESR, CRP, and IL-6 (all R values between 0.55 and 0.6, all P < 0.001). Receiver operating curve analysis demonstrated that CCL2 (at the cut-off value of 100.36 pg/ml) was able to predict disease activity (area under the curve = 0.74, P = 0.03). Decrease in CCL2 level was observed in patients with clinical remission (CR), but not in patients without CR, after 6 months of treatment (CR patients: baseline 220.18 ± 222.69 vs. post-treatment 88.71 ± 55.89 pg/ml, P = 0.04; non-CR patients: baseline 142.45 ± 104.76 vs. post-treatment 279.49 ± 229.46 pg/ml, P = 0.02). Conclusions: Macrophages contribute to vascular pathological changes in TA by undergoing phenotype transformation. CCL2 is an important factor for recruiting macrophages and a potential biomarker for disease activity.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Arterite de Takayasu/imunologia , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Macrófagos/classificação , Masculino , Fenótipo , Arterite de Takayasu/patologia , Arterite de Takayasu/terapia
6.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 904: 174165, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979652

RESUMO

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is elevated in inflammatory bowel disease. However, the role of IL-6 deficiency in colitis is not well-defined. Some IL-6 and IL-6 receptor antagonists are associated with severe gastrointestinal immune adverse effects, but the mechanisms of the effects are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of IL-6 in ulcerative colitis in Il6-/- mice. Results indicated that physiological deficiency of IL-6 promoted the development of colitis. Moreover, IL-6 deficiency significantly increased the mRNA levels of monocytes chemokine Ccl2 and its receptor Ccr2 in colon tissues. Similarly, the percentage of Ly6Chigh monocytes and neutrophils were increased in the colon of Il6-/- mice. Intestinal crypts more strongly increased the migration of Il6-/- macrophages than wild-type ones. Moreover, Il6-/- macrophages promoted the migration of neutrophils. Most importantly, RS102895, an antagonist of CCR2, diminished chemotaxis of macrophages and inhibited colitis in Il6-/- mice. Collectively, these results indicate that Il6-/- macrophages migrate to inflamed colon tissues and recruit neutrophils, thereby promoting the effect of Il6-/- on colitis. This study expands our understanding on the effect of IL-6 deficiency in colitis and the development of gastrointestinal immune adverse effects.


Assuntos
Antígenos Ly/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colo/imunologia , Interleucina-6/deficiência , Monócitos/imunologia , Receptores CCR2/imunologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Receptores CCR2/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 40(2): 427-445, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973098

RESUMO

Breast and prostate cancers have a great propensity to metastasize to long bones. The development of bone metastases is life-threatening, incurable, and drastically reduces patients' quality of life. The chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12 and their respective receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4, are central instigators involved in all stages leading to cancer cell dissemination and secondary tumor formation in distant target organs. They orchestrate tumor cell survival, growth and migration, tumor invasion and angiogenesis, and the formation of micrometastases in the bone marrow. The bone niche is of particular importance in metastasis formation, as it expresses high levels of CCL2 and CXCL12, which attract tumor cells and contribute to malignancy. The limited number of available effective treatment strategies highlights the need to better understand the pathophysiology of bone metastases and reduce the skeletal tumor burden in patients diagnosed with metastatic bone disease. This review focuses on the involvement of the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axes in the formation and development of bone metastases, as well as on therapeutic perspectives aimed at targeting these chemokine-receptor pairs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL12/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929199, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The goal of this study is to verify that the loss of speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) promotes the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells, and that this process is brought about by an increase in MCP-1. MATERIAL AND METHODS SPOP knockout C4-2 cells (C4-2 SPOP-/-) were verified by western blotting. Transwell and wound-healing assays were applied to verify different migration and invasion abilities between the C4-2 SPOP-/- and control cells. We used an antibody array to find different soluble chemokine factors in the C4-2 SPOP-/- cells. ELISA and qRT-PCR were applied for confirmation. To test MCP-1 function in conditioned medium, a transwell assay was applied with or without anti-MCP-1 antibody. RESULTS The western blot showed that SPOP was knocked out in sgSPOP-1 and sgSPOP-2 (different clones of C4-2 SPOP-/-). The transwell and wound-healing assays indicated that, compared with control cells, sgSPOP-1 and sgSPOP-2 had stronger migration and invasion abilities. The antibody array found that the expression of MCP-1 was upregulated in sgSPOP-1 and sgSPOP-2 conditioned medium. This result was verified by ELISA and qRT-PCR. In the prostate cancer cells, migration and invasion activity was greatly increased in C4-2 SPOP-/- conditioned medium, while this activity was decreased after anti-MCP-1 antibody neutralization. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the loss of SPOP in C4-2 cells promotes increased cell migration and invasion abilities. This may be realized by upregulating the expression of MCP-1. The inhibition of MCP-1 expression may be an effective treatment for SPOP-mutant prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Regulação para Cima , Cicatrização/genética
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649219

RESUMO

Infiltration of tumor-promoting immune cells is a strong driver of tumor progression. Especially the accumulation of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment is known to facilitate tumor growth and to correlate with poor prognosis in many tumor types. TAp73, a member of the p53/p63/p73 family, acts as a tumor suppressor and has been shown to suppress tumor angiogenesis. However, what role TAp73 has in regulating immune cell infiltration is unknown. Here, we report that low levels of TAp73 correlate with an increased NF-κB-regulated inflammatory signature in breast cancer. Furthermore, we show that loss of TAp73 results in NF-κB hyperactivation and secretion of Ccl2, a known NF-κB target and chemoattractant for monocytes and macrophages. Importantly, TAp73-deficient tumors display an increased accumulation of protumoral macrophages that express the mannose receptor (CD206) and scavenger receptor A (CD204) compared to controls. The relevance of TAp73 expression in human breast carcinoma was further accentuated by revealing that TAp73 expression correlates negatively with the accumulation of protumoral CD163+ macrophages in breast cancer patient samples. Taken together, our findings suggest that TAp73 regulates macrophage accumulation and phenotype in breast cancer through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Proteína Tumoral p73/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760886

RESUMO

CCR2 is the major chemokine receptor that regulates appropriate trafficking of inflammatory monocytes, but the role of this chemokine receptor and its ligands during primary and secondary infection with intracellular infections remains incompletely understood. Here we used murine infection with the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) of Francisella tularensis to evaluate the role of CCR2 during primary and secondary parenteral responses to this prototype intracellular bacterium. We find that mice deficient in CCR2 are highly compromised in their ability to survive intradermal infection with LVS, indicating the importance of this receptor during primary parenteral responses. Interestingly, this defect could not be readily attributed to the activities of the known murine CCR2 ligands MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-3/CCL7, or MCP-5/CCL12. Nonetheless, CCR2 knockout mice vaccinated by infection with low doses of LVS generated optimal T cell responses that controlled the intramacrophage replication of Francisella, and LVS-immune CCR2 knockout mice survived maximal lethal Francisella challenge. Thus, fully protective adaptive immune memory responses to this intracellular bacterium can be readily generated in the absence of CCR2.


Assuntos
Francisella tularensis/fisiologia , Receptores CCR2/genética , Tularemia/imunologia , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL2/deficiência , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL7/deficiência , Quimiocina CCL7/genética , Quimiocina CCL7/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Francisella tularensis/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Receptores CCR2/deficiência , Taxa de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Tularemia/mortalidade , Tularemia/patologia , Tularemia/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
11.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 44(3): 422-430, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642550

RESUMO

Glucosyl hesperidin (GH) is a water-soluble derivative of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid. GH has various pharmacological effects, such as hypolipidemic and hypouricemic effects, and may therefore be a useful supplement or drug. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of long- and short-term intake of GH on hyperglycemia and macrophage infiltration into the adipose tissue of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Long-term (11-week) consumption of GH tended to reduce body weight and the fasting blood glucose concentration of the HFD-fed mice, and ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, according to glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Additionally, although GH did not affect fat pad weight, it reduced HFD-induced macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. Short-term (2-week) consumption of GH did not affect the HFD-induced increases in body weight or fasting blood glucose, and it did not ameliorate glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. However, short-term intake did reduce the HFD-induced macrophage infiltration and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) expression in adipose tissue. Furthermore, hesperetin, which is an aglycone of GH, inhibited MCP-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264 macrophages, and tumor necrosis factor-α-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present findings suggest that daily consumption of GH may have preventive and/or therapeutic effects on obesity-related diseases, such as diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hesperidina/análogos & derivados , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Células 3T3-L1 , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Hesperidina/uso terapêutico , Hiperglicemia/imunologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7
12.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 64, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune cell infiltration and neuroinflammation are heavily associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). C-C motif chemokine ligand 2/C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCL2/CCR2) axis has been identified as a critical role player during the invasion of immune cells to lesions in many diseases. γδ T cells, a subgroup of T cells, manage the course of inflammation response in various diseases; however, it remains unknown whether γδ T cells are recruited to injury site through CCL2/CCR2 signaling and exert the regulation effect on neuroinflammation after SCI. METHODS: Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), regularity index, cadence, max contact area, and motor-evoked potential testing (MEP) were measured to determine the neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury. Nissl staining was performed to identify the number of surviving motor neurons at lesion epicenter. Immunofluorescence, Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) also were employed to evaluate the expression of associated proteins and genes. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrated that TCRδ-/- mice present improved neurological recovery after SCI. γδ T cell recruitment to the SCI site was significantly reduced and motor functional improvement enhanced in CCL2-/- and CCR2-/- mouse strains. Furthermore, reconstitution of TCRδ-/- mice with γδ T cells extracted from CCR2-/- mice also showed similar results to CCL2 and CCR2 deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, γδ T cell recruitment to SCI site promotes inflammatory response and exacerbates neurological impairment. CCL2/CCR2 signaling is a vital recruitment mechanism of γδ T cells to the SCI site, and it may be taken as a novel therapeutic target for future SCI.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Receptores CCR2/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
13.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727362

RESUMO

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the central nervous system (CNS) within a few days after primary infection, establishing viral reservoirs that persist even with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). We show that monocytes from people living with HIV (PLWH) on suppressive cART harboring integrated HIV, viral mRNA, and/or viral proteins preferentially transmigrate across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to CCL2 and are significantly enriched post-transmigration, and even more highly enriched posttransmigration than T cells with similar properties. Using HIV-infected ART-treated mature monocytes cultured in vitro, we recapitulate these findings and demonstrate that HIV+ CD14+ CD16+ ART-treated monocytes also preferentially transmigrate. Cenicriviroc and anti-JAM-A and anti-ALCAM antibodies significantly and preferentially reduce/block transmigration of HIV+ CD14+ CD16+ ART-treated monocytes. These findings highlight the importance of monocytes in CNS HIV reservoirs and suggest targets to eliminate their formation and reseeding.IMPORTANCE We characterized mechanisms of CNS viral reservoir establishment/replenishment using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of PLWH on cART and propose therapeutic targets to reduce/block selective entry of cells harboring HIV (HIV+) into the CNS. Using DNA/RNAscope, we show that CD14+ CD16+ monocytes with integrated HIV, transcriptionally active, and/or with active viral replication from PBMC of PLWH prescribed cART and virally suppressed, selectively transmigrate across a human BBB model. This is the first study to our knowledge demonstrating that monocytes from PLWH with HIV disease for approximately 22 years and with long-term documented suppression can still carry virus into the CNS that has potential to be reactivated and infectious. This selective entry into the CNS-and likely other tissues-indicates a mechanism of reservoir formation/reseeding in the cART era. Using blocking studies, we propose CCR2, JAM-A, and ALCAM as targets on HIV+ CD14+ CD16+ monocytes to reduce and/or prevent CNS reservoir replenishment and to treat HAND and other HIV-associated comorbidities.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Migração Transendotelial e Transepitelial/imunologia , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Asparaginase/uso terapêutico , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/virologia , Ensaios de Migração de Leucócitos , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL2/farmacologia , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Daunorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tioguanina/uso terapêutico
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(13): 5325-5336, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roasted peanut is widely loved as a kind of food with rich taste. However, peanut allergy is one of the major threats to human health, which affects about 5% of children and 1.4-2% of adults in the world. RESULTS: To evaluate the sensitization mechanism of peanut allergen Ara h 3, Caco-2 cells as the model, which has the similar structure and function to differentiated small intestinal epithelial cells. Compared with Ara h 3-raw (purified from raw peanut) group, more significant results such as the inhibited Caco-2 cell viability and proliferation, the increased secretion of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the decreased transepithelial electrical resistance were obtained in Ara h 3-roasted (purified from roasted peanut) group. Accordingly, oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway were more imbalanced, which lead to the increased of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Then, the gene expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and JAM-1 were reduced, which proved that the integrity of the Caco-2 monolayer barrier is severely damaged. CONCLUSION: These finding identify the mechanisms of the allergenicity of roasted peanut allergy proteins are probably associated with intestinal uptake and cytokine dependent allergies. The aggravated allergic reaction might be caused by the increment of TSLP, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 due to the activated NF-κB signaling pathway, and the enhanced transport of Ara h 3-roasted protein by Caco-2 monolayer. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Arachis/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Alérgenos/química , Alérgenos/imunologia , Antígenos de Plantas/química , Arachis/química , Células CACO-2 , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Sementes/química , Sementes/imunologia , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/imunologia
15.
Nanoscale Horiz ; 6(4): 319-329, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587080

RESUMO

Adipocytes are the primary cellular components within the tumor microenvironment (TME) of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Increasing evidence suggests that tumor-associated adipocytes (TAAs) can aggravate tumor progression, exacerbate the immunosuppressive TME and compromise therapeutic efficacy. In this study, the biological effect of TAAs within the breast cancer TME is first investigated, and the C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) which is mainly secreted by TAAs in the extracellular environment is identified as the key mediator. CCL2 recruits immune cells such as monocytes and macrophages that further differentiated into immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and M2 macrophages. To manipulate CCL2-mediated immune response, a protein trap that binds with CCL2 with high affinity and specificity is designed. The plasmid DNA encoding the CCL2 trap (pCCL2) is specifically delivered to the TME by using targeted lipid-protamine-DNA (LPD) nanoparticles to locally express the CCL2 trap and ameliorate the immunosuppressive TME. Significantly, compared with the commercially available CCL2 antibody, this strategy shows enhanced therapeutic efficacy and appreciable tumor growth inhibition. Furthermore, the pCCL2 trap treatment successfully suppresses TAAs, increases T cell infiltration and decreases the population of immunosuppressive M2 macrophages and MDSCs. Further studies show that the pCCL2 trap could facilitate PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy, demonstrating its translation potential.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , DNA/genética , Feminino , Terapia Genética , Imunoterapia , Lipídeos/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/uso terapêutico
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435371

RESUMO

Monocytes are components of the tumor microenvironment related to cancer progression and immune escape. Therapeutic strategies for reprogramming monocytes from a tumor-supporting phenotype towards a tumoricidal phenotype are of great interest. Artesunate (ART) may be an interesting option for cancer treatment; however, the role of ART in regulating the inflammatory tumor microenvironment has not yet been investigated. Our aim is to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of ART in vitro in human primary monocytes. ART treatment induced an increase in inflammatory monocytes (CD14highCD16-) with HLA-DR high expression and MCP-1/IL-1ß release. On the other hand, ART treatment reduced CD206 and CD163 expression, and abolished the monocyte population known as non-classical and intermediate. Leukemia cells in contact with monocytes programmed with ART presented enhanced in vitro apoptosis suggesting that monocytes acquired the ability to kill leukemic cells. ART induced changes in the monocyte phenotype were mediated by JAK2/STAT3 downregulation. The induction of immunosuppressive environment is an important step for cancer progression. ART showed an immunomodulatory activity, leading immune cells to an antitumor phenotype and could be a candidate for immunotherapy in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Artesunato/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Leucemia/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a chronic infection initiated by oral bacterial and their virulence factors, yet the severity of periodontitis is largely determined by the dysregulated host immuno-inflammatory response. Baicalein is a flavonoid extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis with promising anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims to clarify the anti-inflammatory and osteogenic effects of baicalein in periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). METHODS: Human PDLCs were incubated with baicalein (0-100 µM) for 2 h prior to LPS challenge for 24 h. MTT analysis was adopted to assess the cytoxicity of baicalein. The mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory and osteogenic markers were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as appropriate. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alizarin red S (ARS) staining were performed to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs. The expression of Wnt/ß-catenin and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling related proteins was assessed by western blot. RESULTS: MTT results showed that baicalein up to 100 µM had no cytotoxicity on PDLCs. Baicalein significantly attenuated the inflammatory factors induced by LPS, including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), matrix metalloprotein-1 (MMP-1), MMP-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) at both mRNA and protein level. Moreover, MAPK signaling (ERK, JNK and p38) was significantly inhibited by baicalein, which may account for the mitigated inflammatory response. Next, we found that baicalein effectively restored the osteogenic differentiation of LPS-treated PDLCs, as shown by the increased ALP and ARS staining. Accordingly, the protein and gene expression of osteogenic markers, namely runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), collagen-I, and osterix were markedly upregulated. Importantly, baicalein could function as the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling activator, which may lead to the increased osteoblastic differentiation of PDLCs. CONCLUSIONS: With the limitation of the study, we provide in vitro evidence that baicalein ameliorates inflammatory response and restores osteogenesis in PDLCs challenged with LPS, indicating its potential use as the host response modulator for the management of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligamento Periodontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Scutellaria baicalensis/química , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/imunologia , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Ligamento Periodontal/imunologia , Periodontite/genética , Periodontite/imunologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/imunologia
18.
Mol Cell ; 81(5): 953-968.e9, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503407

RESUMO

While the role of transcription factors and coactivators in controlling enhancer activity and chromatin structure linked to gene expression is well established, the involvement of corepressors is not. Using inflammatory macrophage activation as a model, we investigate here a corepressor complex containing GPS2 and SMRT both genome-wide and at the Ccl2 locus, encoding the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1). We report that corepressors co-occupy candidate enhancers along with the coactivators CBP (H3K27 acetylase) and MED1 (mediator) but act antagonistically by repressing eRNA transcription-coupled H3K27 acetylation. Genome editing, transcriptional interference, and cistrome analysis reveals that apparently related enhancer and silencer elements control Ccl2 transcription in opposite ways. 4C-seq indicates that corepressor depletion or inflammatory signaling functions mechanistically similarly to trigger enhancer activation. In ob/ob mice, adipose tissue macrophage-selective depletion of the Ccl2 enhancer-transcribed eRNA reduces metaflammation. Thus, the identified corepressor-eRNA-chemokine pathway operates in vivo and suggests therapeutic opportunities by targeting eRNAs in immuno-metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Proteínas Correpressoras/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Correpressor 2 de Receptor Nuclear/genética , Obesidade/genética , Elementos Silenciadores Transcricionais , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Proteínas Correpressoras/imunologia , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/imunologia , Histonas/genética , Histonas/imunologia , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/genética , Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Correpressor 2 de Receptor Nuclear/imunologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/patologia , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA não Traduzido/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(2): 354-367, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926407

RESUMO

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) employs hypertonic glucose to remove excess water and uremic waste. Peritoneal membrane failure limits its long-term use. T-cell cytokines promote this decline. T-cell differentiation is critically determined by the microenvironment. We here study how PD-range hypertonic glucose regulates T-cell polarization and IL-17 production. In the human peritoneal cavity, CD3+ cell numbers increased in PD. Single cell RNA sequencing detected expression of T helper (Th) 17 signature genes RORC and IL23R. In vitro, PD-range glucose stimulated spontaneous and amplified cytokine-induced Th17 polarization. Osmotic controls l-glucose and d-mannose demonstrate that induction of IL-17A is a substance-independent, tonicity dose-dependent process. PD-range glucose upregulated glycolysis and increased the proportion of dysfunctional mitochondria. Blockade of reactive-oxygen species (ROS) prevented IL-17A induction in response to PD-range glucose. Peritoneal mesothelium cultured with IL-17A or IL17F produced pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, CCL2, and CX3CL1. In PD patients, peritoneal IL-17A positively correlated with CX3CL1 concentrations. PD-range glucose-stimulated, but neither identically treated Il17a-/- Il17f-/- nor T cells cultured with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine enhanced mesothelial CX3CL1 expression. Our data delineate PD-range hypertonic glucose as a novel inducer of Th17 polarization in a mitochondrial-ROS-dependent manner. Modulation of tonicity-mediated effects of PD solutions may improve membrane survival.


Assuntos
Epitélio/imunologia , Glucose/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Peritônio/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL1/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Manose/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
20.
JCI Insight ; 6(1)2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232303

RESUMO

Immune and inflammatory responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contribute to disease severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the utility of specific immune-based biomarkers to predict clinical outcome remains elusive. Here, we analyzed levels of 66 soluble biomarkers in 175 Italian patients with COVID-19 ranging from mild/moderate to critical severity and assessed type I IFN-, type II IFN-, and NF-κB-dependent whole-blood transcriptional signatures. A broad inflammatory signature was observed, implicating activation of various immune and nonhematopoietic cell subsets. Discordance between IFN-α2a protein and IFNA2 transcript levels in blood suggests that type I IFNs during COVID-19 may be primarily produced by tissue-resident cells. Multivariable analysis of patients' first samples revealed 12 biomarkers (CCL2, IL-15, soluble ST2 [sST2], NGAL, sTNFRSF1A, ferritin, IL-6, S100A9, MMP-9, IL-2, sVEGFR1, IL-10) that when increased were independently associated with mortality. Multivariate analyses of longitudinal biomarker trajectories identified 8 of the aforementioned biomarkers (IL-15, IL-2, NGAL, CCL2, MMP-9, sTNFRSF1A, sST2, IL-10) and 2 additional biomarkers (lactoferrin, CXCL9) that were substantially associated with mortality when increased, while IL-1α was associated with mortality when decreased. Among these, sST2, sTNFRSF1A, IL-10, and IL-15 were consistently higher throughout the hospitalization in patients who died versus those who recovered, suggesting that these biomarkers may provide an early warning of eventual disease outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/terapia , Calgranulina B/genética , Calgranulina B/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL9/genética , Quimiocina CXCL9/imunologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Ferritinas/genética , Ferritinas/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-15/genética , Interleucina-15/imunologia , Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Lactoferrina/genética , Lactoferrina/imunologia , Lipocalina-2/genética , Lipocalina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia
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