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1.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943923

RESUMO

Developing new adjuvants/vaccines and better understanding their mode-of-action is an important task. To specifically improve birch pollen allergy treatment, we designed a fusion protein consisting of major birch pollen allergen Betv1 conjugated to the TLR5-ligand flagellin (rFlaA:Betv1). This study investigates the immune-modulatory effects of rFlaA:Betv1 on airway epithelial cells. LA-4 mouse lung epithelial cells were stimulated with rFlaA:Betv1 in the presence/absence of various inhibitors with cytokine- and chemokine secretion quantified by ELISA and activation of intracellular signaling cascades demonstrated by Western blot (WB). Either LA-4 cells or LA-4-derived supernatants were co-cultured with BALB/c bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). Compared to equimolar amounts of flagellin and Betv1 provided as a mixture, rFlaA:Betv1 induced higher secretion of IL-6 and the chemokines CCL2 and CCL20 from LA-4 cells and a pronounced MAPK- and NFκB-activation. Mechanistically, rFlaA:Betv1 was taken up more strongly and the induced cytokine production was inhibited by NFκB-inhibitors, while ERK- and p38-MAPK-inhibitors only suppressed IL-6 and CCL2 secretion. In co-cultures of LA-4 cells with mDCs, rFlaA:Betv1-stimulated LA-4 cells p38-MAPK- and COX2-dependently secreted PGE2, which modulated DC responses by suppressing pro-inflammatory IL-12 and TNF-α secretion. Taken together, these results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the strong immune-modulatory effects of flagellin-containing fusion proteins.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL20/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Biológicos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Solubilidade , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo
2.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6803510, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603560

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the most significant public health threat worldwide. Patients with severe COVID-19 usually have pneumonia concomitant with local inflammation and sometimes a cytokine storm. Specific components of the SARS-CoV-2 virus trigger lung inflammation, and recruitment of immune cells to the lungs exacerbates this process, although much remains unknown about the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Our study of lung type II pneumocyte cells (A549) demonstrated that ORF7, an open reading frame (ORF) in the genome of SARS-CoV-2, induced the production of CCL2, a chemokine that promotes the chemotaxis of monocytes, and decreased the expression of IL-8, a chemokine that recruits neutrophils. A549 cells also had an increased level of IL-6. The results of our chemotaxis Transwell assay suggested that ORF7 augmented monocyte infiltration and reduced the number of neutrophils. We conclude that the ORF7 of SARS-CoV-2 may have specific effects on the immunological changes in tissues after infection. These results suggest that the functions of other ORFs of SARS-CoV-2 should also be comprehensively examined.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia , Monócitos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta/fisiologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Células A549 , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5725, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593796

RESUMO

Although psycho-social stress is a well-known factor that contributes to the development of cancer, it remains largely unclear whether and how environmental eustress influences malignant diseases and regulates cancer-related therapeutic responses. Using an established eustress model, we demonstrate that mice living in an enriched environment (EE) are protected from carcinogen-induced liver neoplasia and transplantable syngeneic liver tumors, owning to a CD8+ T cell-dependent tumor control. We identify a peripheral Neuro-Endocrine-Immune pathway in eustress, including Sympathetic nervous system (SNS)/ß-adrenergic receptors (ß-ARs)/CCL2 that relieves tumor immunosuppression and overcomes PD-L1 resistance to immunotherapy. Notably, EE activates peripheral SNS and ß-ARs signaling in tumor cells and tumor infiltrated myeloid cells, leading to suppression of CCL2 expression and activation of anti-tumor immunity. Either blockade of CCL2/CCR2 or ß-AR signaling in EE mice lose the tumor protection capability. Our study reveales that environmental eustress via EE stimulates anti-tumor immunity, resulting in more efficient tumor control and a better outcome of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroimunomodulação , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Tetracloreto de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Quimiocina CCL2/antagonistas & inibidores , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Dietilnitrosamina/administração & dosagem , Dietilnitrosamina/toxicidade , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Organoides , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Receptores CCR2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638857

RESUMO

IL-8/MCP-1 act as neutrophil/monocyte chemoattractants, respectively. Oxidative stress emerges as a key player in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, it remains unclear whether the TNF-α/oxidative stress interplay can trigger IL-8/MCP-1 expression and, if so, by which mechanism(s). IL-8/MCP-1 adipose expression was detected in lean, overweight, and obese individuals, 15 each, using immunohistochemistry. To detect the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/TNF-α synergy as a chemokine driver, THP-1 cells were stimulated with TNF-α, with/without H2O2 or hypoxia. Target gene expression was measured by qRT-PCR, proteins by flow cytometry/confocal microscopy, ROS by DCFH-DA assay, and signaling pathways by immunoblotting. IL-8/MCP-1 adipose expression was significantly higher in obese/overweight. Furthermore, IL-8/MCP-1 mRNA/protein was amplified in monocytic cells following stimulation with TNF-α in the presence of H2O2 or hypoxia (p ˂ 0.0001). Synergistic chemokine upregulation was related to the ROS levels, while pre-treatments with NAC suppressed this chemokine elevation (p ≤ 0.01). The ROS/TNF-α crosstalk involved upregulation of CHOP, ERN1, HIF1A, and NF-κB/ERK-1,2 mediated signaling. In conclusion, IL-8/MCP-1 adipose expression is elevated in obesity. Mechanistically, ROS/TNF-α crosstalk may drive expression of these chemokines in monocytic cells by inducing ER stress, HIF1A stabilization, and signaling via NF-κB/ERK-1,2. NAC had inhibitory effect on oxidative stress-driven IL-8/MCP-1 expression, which may have therapeutic significance regarding meta-inflammation.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Interleucina-8/genética , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células THP-1
5.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21851, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547121

RESUMO

It has been known that moderate mechanical loading, like that caused by exercise, promotes bone formation. However, its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we showed that moderate running dramatically improved trabecular bone in mice tibias with an increase in bone volume fraction and trabecular number and a decrease in trabecular pattern factor. Results of immunohistochemical and histochemical staining revealed that moderate running mainly increased the number of osteoblasts but had no effect on osteoclasts. In addition, we observed a dramatic increase in the number of colony forming unit-fibroblast in endosteal bone marrow and the percentage of CD45- Leptin receptor+ (CD45- LepR+ ) endosteal mesenchymal progenitors. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptional data from gene expression omnibus (GEO) database identified chemokine c-c-motif ligands (CCL2) as a critical candidate induced by mechanical loading. Interestingly, we found that CCL2 was up-regulated mainly in osteoblastic cells in the tibia of mice after moderate running. Further, we found that mechanical loading up-regulated the expression of CCL2 by activating ERK1/2 pathway, thereby stimulating migration of endosteal progenitors. Finally, neutralizing CCL2 abolished the recruitment of endosteal progenitors and the increased bone formation in mice after 4 weeks running. These results therefore uncover an unknown connection between osteoblasts and endosteal progenitors recruited in the increased bone formation induced by mechanical loading.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso/citologia , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteogênese , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Osso Esponjoso/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoblastos/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502071

RESUMO

We evaluated the role of allicin in periodontitis using an in silico and in vitro design. An in silico docking analysis was performed to assess the plausible interactions between allicin and PD-L1. The cytokine profile of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples obtained from periodontitis patients was estimated by cytometric bead array. CD3+ lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood were sorted and characterized using immunomagnetic techniques. Cultured and expanded lymphocytes were treated with the GCF samples to induce T-cell exhaustion. Optimum concentrations of allicin were added to exhausted lymphocytes to compare the expression of TIM-3 and LAG-3 gene expression at baseline and post-treatment. Allicin was found to bind to the PD-L1 molecule as revealed by the in-silico experiment, which is possibly an inhibitory interaction although not proven. GCF from periodontitis patients had significantly higher concentrations of TNF-α, CCL2, IL-6, IFN-γ, and CXCL8 than controls. GCF treatment of CD3+ lymphocytes from the periodontitis patients significantly increased expression of T-cell exhaustion markers TIM-3 and LAG-3. Allicin administration with GCF treatment resulted in significant lowering of the expression of exhaustion markers. Allicin may exert an immunostimulatory role and reverse immune-destructive mechanisms such as T-cell exhaustion.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Periodontite/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfínicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/química , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL6/genética , Quimiocina CXCL6/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/química , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Ácidos Sulfínicos/química , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502120

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a main risk factor for delayed fracture healing and fracture non-unions. Successful fracture healing requires stimuli from different immune cells, known to be affected in diabetics. Especially, application of mononuclear cells has been proposed to promote wound and fracture healing. Thus, aim was to investigate the effect of pre-/diabetic conditions on mononuclear cell functions essential to promote osteoprogenitor cell function. We here show that pre-/diabetic conditions suppress the expression of chemokines, e.g., CCL2 and CCL8 in osteoprogenitor cells. The associated MCP-1 and MCP-2 were significantly reduced in serum of diabetics. Both MCPs chemoattract mononuclear THP-1 cells. Migration of these cells is suppressed under hyperglycemic conditions, proposing that less mononuclear cells invade the site of fracture in diabetics. Further, we show that the composition of cytokines secreted by mononuclear cells strongly differ between diabetics and controls. Similar is seen in THP-1 cells cultured under hyperinsulinemia or hyperglycemia. The altered secretome reduces the positive effect of the THP-1 cell conditioned medium on migration of osteoprogenitor cells. In summary, our data support that factors secreted by mononuclear cells may support fracture healing by promoting migration of osteoprogenitor cells but suggest that this effect might be reduced in diabetics.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Consolidação da Fratura , Monócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL8/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/imunologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Monócitos/imunologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Células THP-1
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 654998, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531848

RESUMO

HCV core protein is the first structural protein synthesized during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and replication. It is released from virus infected liver cells and mediates multiple functions to affect host cell response. The innate immune response is the first line of defense against viral infection. After HCV infection, Kupffer cells (KCs) which are liver macrophages play an important role in host innate immune response. Kupffer cells act as phagocytes and release different cytokines and chemokines to counter viral infection and regulate inflammation and fibrosis in liver. Earlier, we have demonstrated that HCV core protein interacts with gC1qR and activates MAPK, NF-κB and PI3K/AKT pathways in macrophages. In this study, we explored the effect of HCV core protein on CCL2 and CXCL10 expression in macrophages and the signaling pathways involved. Upon silencing of gC1qR, we observed a significant decrease expression of CCL2 and CXCL10 in macrophages in the presence of HCV core protein. Inhibiting NF-κB pathway, but not P38, JNK, ERK and AKT pathways greatly reduced the expression of CCL2 and CXCL10. Therefore, our results indicate that interaction of HCV core protein with gC1qR could induce CCL2 and CXCL10 secretion in macrophages via NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings may shed light on the understanding of how leukocytes migrate into the liver and exaggerate host-derived immune responses and may provide novel therapeutic targets in HCV chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Proteínas do Core Viral/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL10/genética , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hepacivirus/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C/imunologia , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Hepatite C/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Macrófagos do Fígado/imunologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos do Fígado/virologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células RAW 264.7 , Células THP-1 , Proteínas do Core Viral/metabolismo
10.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(9): 2274-2288, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403650

RESUMO

Heart injury has been reported in up to 20% of COVID-19 patients, yet the cause of myocardial histopathology remains unknown. Here, using an established in vivo hamster model, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in cardiomyocytes of infected animals. Furthermore, we found damaged cardiomyocytes in hamsters and COVID-19 autopsy samples. To explore the mechanism, we show that both human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-derived CMs) and adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) can be productively infected by SARS-CoV-2, leading to secretion of the monocyte chemoattractant cytokine CCL2 and subsequent monocyte recruitment. Increased CCL2 expression and monocyte infiltration was also observed in the hearts of infected hamsters. Although infected CMs suffer damage, we find that the presence of macrophages significantly reduces SARS-CoV-2-infected CMs. Overall, our study provides direct evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infects CMs in vivo and suggests a mechanism of immune cell infiltration and histopathology in heart tissues of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Traumatismos Cardíacos/virologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células Vero
11.
Exp Cell Res ; 407(1): 112792, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454924

RESUMO

Traumatic optic neuropathy results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to unavoidable visual impairment. However, there is no effective therapy by far. Accumulated studies support the perception that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete exosomes that serve as a protective paracrine factor. The study aimed to explore and evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of intravitreal transplantation of MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-exos) in an experimental model of optic nerve crush (ONC). Exosomes were isolated from rat MSCs and characterized by transmission electron microscope and western blotting. At the onset of ONC, a single intravitreal injection of exosomes or PBS was administered to the rats. At day 30, hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, and ßIII-tubulin staining were performed to evaluate the survival of RGCs. Moreover, TUNEL assay was used to examine the apoptosis of RGCs. Inflammation-relevant factors were identified via quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of cell apoptosis-related molecules and key members of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway were determined via western blot analysis. We found that MSC-exos exhibited typical characteristic morphologies (cup-shaped) and sizes (peak size of 93 nm). Furthermore, they exhibited substantial expression of the exosome markers CD63 and TSG101, but lacked the expression of the cellular marker GM130. Treatment with intravitreal MSC-exos notably promoted the survival of RGCs in ONC rats. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, were reduced, whereas those of the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 were increased. Moreover, the apoptosis induced by ONC was decreased by the administration of MSC-exos via upregulation of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and downregulation of caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, MSC-exos significantly stimulated AKT phosphorylation, whereas LY294002 restored the apoptosis-preventing effects of MSC-exos. The results of our results demonstrated that intravitreal administration of MSC-exos ameliorates ONC-induced injury in a rat model. These findings might aid in the development of effective exosome-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of optic nerve degeneration.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Traumatismos do Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Traumatismos do Nervo Óptico/terapia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Modelos Teóricos , Compressão Nervosa/métodos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo
12.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356595

RESUMO

Infectious and many non-infectious diseases share common molecular mechanisms. Among them, oxidative stress and the subsequent inflammatory reaction are of particular note. Metabolic disorders induced by external agents, be they bacterial or viral pathogens, excessive calorie intake, poor-quality nutrients, or environmental factors produce an imbalance between the production of free radicals and endogenous antioxidant systems; the consequence being the oxidation of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Oxidation and inflammation are closely related, and whether oxidative stress and inflammation represent the causes or consequences of cellular pathology, both produce metabolic alterations that influence the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we highlight two key molecules in the regulation of these processes: Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). PON1 is an enzyme bound to high-density lipoproteins. It breaks down lipid peroxides in lipoproteins and cells, participates in the protection conferred by HDL against different infectious agents, and is considered part of the innate immune system. With PON1 deficiency, CCL2 production increases, inducing migration and infiltration of immune cells in target tissues and disturbing normal metabolic function. This disruption involves pathways controlling cellular homeostasis as well as metabolically-driven chronic inflammatory states. Hence, an understanding of these relationships would help improve treatments and, as well, identify new therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Arildialquilfosfatase/fisiologia , Quimiocina CCL2/fisiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação , Ligantes , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/imunologia , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
13.
Cell Prolif ; 54(10): e13115, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464477

RESUMO

The chemokine ligand CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 are implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers. CCL2 can activate tumour cell growth and proliferation through a variety of mechanisms. By interacting with CCR2, CCL2 promotes cancer cell migration and recruits immunosuppressive cells to the tumour microenvironment, favouring cancer development. Over the last several decades, a series of studies have been conducted to explore the CCL2-CCR2 signalling axis function in malignancies. Therapeutic strategies targeting the CCL2- CCR2 axis have also shown promising effects, enriching our approaches for fighting against cancer. In this review, we summarize the role of the CCL2-CCR2 signalling axis in tumorigenesis and highlight recent studies on CCL2-CCR2 targeted therapy, focusing on preclinical studies and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Humanos
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 707287, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394108

RESUMO

Background: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an international public health crisis, and the number of cases with dengue co-infection has raised concerns. Unfortunately, treatment options are currently limited or even unavailable. Thus, the aim of our study was to explore the underlying mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic targets for co-infection. Methods: To further understand the mechanisms underlying co-infection, we used a series of bioinformatics analyses to build host factor interaction networks and elucidate biological process and molecular function categories, pathway activity, tissue-specific enrichment, and potential therapeutic agents. Results: We explored the pathologic mechanisms of COVID-19 and dengue co-infection, including predisposing genes, significant pathways, biological functions, and possible drugs for intervention. In total, 460 shared host factors were collected; among them, CCL4 and AhR targets were important. To further analyze biological functions, we created a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and performed Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) analysis. In addition, common signaling pathways were acquired, and the toll-like receptor and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways exerted a significant effect on the interaction. Upregulated genes were identified based on the activity score of dysregulated genes, such as IL-1, Hippo, and TNF-α. We also conducted tissue-specific enrichment analysis and found ICAM-1 and CCL2 to be highly expressed in the lung. Finally, candidate drugs were screened, including resveratrol, genistein, and dexamethasone. Conclusions: This study probes host factor interaction networks for COVID-19 and dengue and provides potential drugs for clinical practice. Although the findings need to be verified, they contribute to the treatment of co-infection and the management of respiratory disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Dengue/patologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/fisiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Coinfecção , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genisteína/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 321(3): H599-H611, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415189

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive mediator in inflammation. Dysregulated S1P is demonstrated as a cause of heart failure (HF). However, the time-dependent and integrative role of S1P interaction with receptors in HF is unclear after myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, the sphingolipid mediators were quantified in ischemic human hearts. We also measured the time kinetics of these mediators post-MI in murine spleen and heart as an integrative approach to understand the interaction of S1P and respective S1P receptors in the transition of acute (AHF) to chronic HF (CHF). Risk-free 8-12 wk male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to MI surgery, and MI was confirmed by echocardiography and histology. Mass spectrometry was used to quantify sphingolipids in plasma, infarcted heart, spleen of mice, and ischemic and healthy human heart. The physiological cardiac repair was observed in mice with a notable increase of S1P quantity (pmol/g) in the heart and spleen significantly reduced in patients with ischemic HF. The circulating murine S1P levels were increased during AHF and CHF despite lowered substrate in CHF. The S1PR1 receptor expression was observed to coincide with the respective S1P quantity in mice and human hearts. Furthermore, selective S1P1 agonist limited inflammatory markers CCL2 and TNF-α and accelerated reparative markers ARG-1 and YM-1 in macrophages in the presence of Kdo2-Lipid A (KLA; potent inflammatory stimulant). This report demonstrated the importance of S1P/S1PR1 signaling in physiological inflammation during cardiac repair in mice. Alteration in these axes may serve as the signs of pathological remodeling in patients with ischemia.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previous studies indicate that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has some role in cardiovascular disease. This study adds quantitative and integrative systems-based approaches that are necessary for discovery and bedside translation. Here, we quantitated sphinganine, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in mice and human cardiac pathobiology. Interorgan S1P quantity and respective systems-based receptor activation suggest cardiac repair after myocardial infarction. Thus, S1P serves as a therapeutic target for cardiac protection in clinical translation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Baço/metabolismo , Animais , Arginase/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Humanos , Lectinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Regeneração , Esfingosina/metabolismo , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/genética , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443321

RESUMO

Berberine (BBR), a plant alkaloid, is known for its therapeutic properties of anticancer, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. The present study was to determine the molecular mechanism of BBR's pharmacological activity in human monocytic (THP-1) cells induced by arachidonic acid (AA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effect of BBR on AA/LPS activated proinflammatory markers including TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-8 and COX-2 was measured by ELISA or quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, the effect of BBR on LPS-induced NF-κB translocation was determined by immunoblotting and confocal microscopy. AA/ LPS-induced TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8, and COX-2 markers were markedly attenuated by BBR treatment in THP-1 cells by inhibiting NF-κB translocation into the nucleus. Molecular modeling studies suggested the direct interaction of BBR to IKKα at its ligand binding site, which led to the inhibition of the LPS-induced NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. Thus, the present study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory potential of BBR via NF-κB in activated monocytes, whose interplay is key in health and in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic development in blood vessel walls. The present study findings suggest that BBR has the potential for treating various chronic inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Berberina/farmacologia , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6630232, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195274

RESUMO

Background: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the most critical phenomena in lung transplantation and causes primary graft failure. Its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood, although the inflammatory response and apoptosis play key roles. Lidocaine has anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of intravenous lidocaine on the inflammatory and apoptotic responses in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: We studied the histological and immunohistochemical changes in an experimental model of lung transplantation in pigs. Twelve pigs underwent left pneumonectomy, cranial lobectomy, caudal lobe reimplantation, and 60 minutes of graft reperfusion. Six of the pigs made up the control group, while six other pigs received 1.5 mg/kg of intravenous lidocaine after induction and a 1.5 mg/kg/h intravenous lidocaine infusion during surgery. In addition, six more pigs underwent simulated surgery. Lung biopsies were collected from the left caudal lobe 60 minutes after reperfusion. We conducted a double study on these biopsies and assessed the degree of inflammation, predominant cell type (monocyte-macrophage, lymphocytes, or polymorphous), the degree of congestion, and tissue edema by hematoxylin and eosin stain. We also conducted an immunohistochemical analysis with antibodies against CD68 antigens, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Bcl-2, and caspase-9. Results: The lungs subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury exhibited a higher degree of inflammatory infiltration. The predominant cell type was monocyte-macrophage cells. Both findings were mitigated by intravenous lidocaine administration. Immunohistochemical detection of anti-CD68 and anti-MCP-1 showed higher infiltration in the lungs subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury, while intravenous lidocaine decreased the expression. Ischemia-reperfusion induced apoptotic changes and decreased Bcl-2 expression. The group treated with lidocaine showed an increased number of Bcl-2-positive cells. No differences were observed in caspase-9 expression. Conclusions: In our animal model, intravenous lidocaine was associated with an attenuation of the histological markers of lung damage in the early stages of reperfusion.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções Intravenosas , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/cirurgia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Biópsia , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Suínos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208383

RESUMO

Hereditary retinal degenerations like retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are among the leading causes of blindness in younger patients. To enable in vivo investigation of cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for photoreceptor cell death and to allow testing of therapeutic strategies that could prevent retinal degeneration, animal models have been created. In this study, we deeply characterized the transcriptional profile of mice carrying the transgene rhodopsin V20G/P23H/P27L (VPP), which is a model for autosomal dominant RP. We examined the degree of photoreceptor degeneration and studied the impact of the VPP transgene-induced retinal degeneration on the transcriptome level of the retina using next generation RNA sequencing (RNASeq) analyses followed by weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). We furthermore identified cellular subpopulations responsible for some of the observed dysregulations using in situ hybridizations, immunofluorescence staining, and 3D reconstruction. Using RNASeq analysis, we identified 9256 dysregulated genes and six significantly associated gene modules in the subsequently performed WGCNA. Gene ontology enrichment showed, among others, dysregulation of genes involved in TGF-ß regulated extracellular matrix organization, the (ocular) immune system/response, and cellular homeostasis. Moreover, heatmaps confirmed clustering of significantly dysregulated genes coding for components of the TGF-ß, G-protein activated, and VEGF signaling pathway. 3D reconstructions of immunostained/in situ hybridized sections revealed retinal neurons and Müller cells as the major cellular population expressing representative components of these signaling pathways. The predominant effect of VPP-induced photoreceptor degeneration pointed towards induction of neuroinflammation and the upregulation of neuroprotective pathways like TGF-ß, G-protein activated, and VEGF signaling. Thus, modulation of these processes and signaling pathways might represent new therapeutic options to delay the degeneration of photoreceptors in diseases like RP.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Neuroproteção/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Transcrição Genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/complicações , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/patologia , Rodopsina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14120, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239022

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) is the main cytokine responsible for the induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells, which is a hallmark of tumor transformation to the metastatic phenotype. Recently, research demonstrated that the chemokine CCL2 gene expression level directly correlates with the TGF-ß activity in breast cancer patients. CCL2 attracts tumor-associated macrophages and is, therefore, considered as an important inductor of breast cancer progression; however, the precise mechanisms underlying its regulation by TGF-ß are unknown. Here, we studied the behavior of the CCL2 gene in MDA-MB-231 and HCC1937 breast cancer cells representing mesenchymal-like phenotype activated by TGF-ß. Using bioinformatics, deletion screening and point mutagenesis, we identified binding sites in the CCL2 promoter and candidate transcription factors responsible for its regulation by TGF-ß. Among these factors, only the knock-down of EGR1 and RXRA made CCL2 promoter activity independent of TGF-ß. These factors also demonstrated binding to the CCL2 promoter in a TGF-ß-dependent manner in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and point mutations in the EGR1 and RXRA binding sites totally abolished the effect of TGF-ß. Our results highlight the key role of EGR1 and RXRA transcription factors in the regulation of CCL2 gene in response to TGF-ß pathway.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação Puntual/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14950, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294770

RESUMO

The inflammatory chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and IL-8, are produced by normal trabecular meshwork cells (TM) and elevated in the aqueous humor of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and hypertensive anterior uveitis associated with viral infection. However, their role in TM cells and aqueous humor outflow remains unclear. Here, we explored the possible involvement of MCP-1 and IL-8 in the physiology of TM cells in the context of aqueous outflow, and the viral anterior uveitis. We found that the stimulation of human TM cells with MCP-1 and IL-8 induced significant increase in the formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and the contraction of TM cells. MCP-1 and IL-8 also demonstrated elevation of extracellular matrix proteins, and the migration of TM cells. When TM cells were infected with HSV-1 and CMV virus, there was a significant increase in cytoskeletal contraction and Rho-GTPase activation. Viral infection of TM cells revealed significantly increased expression of MCP-1 and IL-8. Taken together, these results indicate that MCP-1 and IL-8 induce TM cell contractibility, fibrogenic activity, and plasticity, which are presumed to increase resistance to aqueous outflow in viral anterior uveitis and POAG.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Infecções Oculares Virais/imunologia , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/citologia , Uveíte Anterior/virologia , Adulto , Humor Aquoso/imunologia , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Infecções Oculares Virais/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-8A/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/imunologia , Malha Trabecular/virologia , Uveíte Anterior/imunologia , Uveíte Anterior/patologia
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