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1.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(9): 599-608, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025953

RESUMO

Ripasudil (K-115) is a novel Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. The Rho-ROCK pathway regulates key downstream effectors involved in many cellular functions, in particular in the actin cytoskeleton activity. The clinical effects of ripasudil expected on the eye include an intraocular pressure-lowering effect and a wound-healing activity on corneal endothelial cells, but many other functions are currently under investigation. To date, ripasudil has been approved in Japan (2014) for the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension, and several clinical trials are currently investigating its role in the treatment of Fuchs' corneal dystrophy. In this review, we will discuss its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical efficacy, focusing also on its safety and tolerability profile.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Japão , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(12): 1357-1376, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490513

RESUMO

Non-specific inhibition of Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) alleviated renal fibrosis in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model, while genetic deletion of ROCK1 did not affect renal pathology in mice. Thus, whether ROCK2 plays a role in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis needs to be clarified. In the present study, a selective inhibitor against ROCK2 or genetic approach was used to investigate the role of ROCK2 in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In the fibrotic kidneys of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) patients, we observed an enhanced expression of ROCK2 with a positive correlation with interstitial fibrosis. In mice, the ROCK2 protein level was time-dependently increased in the UUO model. By treating CKD animals with KD025 at the dosage of 50 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal injection, the renal fibrosis shown by Masson's trichrome staining was significantly alleviated along with the reduced expression of fibrotic genes. In vitro, inhibiting ROCK2 by KD025 or ROCK2 knockdown/knockout significantly blunted the pro-fibrotic response in transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-stimulated mouse renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (mPTCs). Moreover, impaired cellular metabolism was reported as a crucial pathogenic factor in CKD. By metabolomics analysis, we found that KD025 restored the metabolic disturbance, including the impaired glutathione metabolism in TGF-ß1-stimulated tubular epithelial cells. Consistently, KD025 increased antioxidative stress enzymes and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in fibrotic models. In addition, KD025 decreased the infiltration of macrophages and inflammatory response in fibrotic kidneys and blunted the activation of macrophages in vitro. In conclusion, inhibition of ROCK2 may serve as a potential novel therapy for renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in CKD.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Doenças Metabólicas/enzimologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fibrose , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Obstrução Ureteral/enzimologia , Obstrução Ureteral/patologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396545

RESUMO

Poor survival of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) following freezing, thawing, or passaging hinders the maintenance and differentiation of stem cells. Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) play a crucial role in hPSC survival. To date, a typical ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, has been the primary agent used in hPSC research. Here, we report that another ROCK inhibitor, fasudil, can be used as an alternative and is cheaper than Y-27632. It increased hPSC growth following thawing and passaging, like Y-27632, and did not affect pluripotency, differentiation ability, and chromosome integrity. Furthermore, fasudil promoted retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) differentiation and the survival of neural crest cells (NCCs) during differentiation. It was also useful for single-cell passaging of hPSCs and during aggregation. These findings suggest that fasudil can replace Y-27632 for use in stem research.


Assuntos
1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/farmacologia , Amidas/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Crista Neural/citologia , Crista Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco
4.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(5): 29, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421147

RESUMO

Purpose: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) maintenance and remodeling. The present study aimed to determine whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß2 regulates MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and activities in astrocytes derived from the optic nerve head (ONH) and the role of statins in such modulation. Methods: Primary astrocytes cultured from the lamina cribrosa of human donor ONHs were incubated with three types of statins (5 µg/mL) for 1 hour followed by recombinant TGF-ß2 (5 ng/mL) for various periods to test their effects. Levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in astrocytes in vitro were determined by western blotting and zymography, respectively. Levels of phosphorylated myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) in astrocyte lysates were determined by western blotting, and those of phosphorylated myosin light chain (MLC) were determined by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Results: MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were upregulated by TGF-ß2 in human ONH astrocytes. Prior incubation with simvastatin, lovastatin, and atorvastatin inhibited TGF-ß2-mediated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activities. Prior incubation with statins downregulated the TGF-ß2-induced phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC, which are downstream substrates of RhoA and ROCKs. Conclusions: Statins inhibited the TGF-ß2-mediated regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by inhibiting the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Considering the role of MMP in ECM remodeling, the present findings support the notion that statins positively impact ECM remodeling within the ONH.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Astrócitos/enzimologia , Atorvastatina/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lovastatina/farmacologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatase de Miosina-de-Cadeia-Leve/metabolismo , Disco Óptico/citologia , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/farmacologia
7.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(3): 192-198, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235252

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Retinal detachment initiates a series of events that lead to degenerative changes in retinal synaptic architecture as well as the well-known phenomena of gliosis and photoreceptor apoptosis. Retinal reattachment does not always result in complete visual recovery, even if the fovea is not directly involved in the detachment. Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors may mitigate some of these deleterious changes including disruption of synaptic architecture, photoreceptor apoptosis, and initiation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition that characterizes proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). This review focuses on the use of ROCK inhibitors to modulate synaptic disjunction. RECENT FINDINGS: ROCK inhibition prevents retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor synaptic terminal retraction (i.e., synaptic disjunction), thereby diminishing the damage of the first synapse in the visual pathway. ROCK inhibition also reduces retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor apoptosis and suppresses PVR progression in preclinical models. SUMMARY: Inhibition of ROCK may help to optimize visual recovery after retinal detachment surgery or iatrogenic detachments during cell transplantation or viral subretinal injection and might play a role in reducing the risk of PVR after retinal detachment surgery.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Descolamento Retiniano/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitreorretinopatia Proliferativa/tratamento farmacológico , Vitreorretinopatia Proliferativa/metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 254: 117605, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278692

RESUMO

AIMS: Although chloroquine and diclofenac are not cardiovascular drugs, their chronic administration may trigger cardiotoxicity. We, therefore, evaluated the cardiotoxic impact of diclofenac in chloroquine-treated adjuvant arthritic rats and the protective role of Rho-kinase inhibitors. METHODS: 90 male rats were equally distributed into 9 groups including control. Arthritis was induced by S.C injection of Complete Freund's adjuvant in hind paw plantar surface. Arthritic rats were subdivided into 8 groups, orally treated with: no drug, chloroquine (50 mg/kg), diclofenac sodium (1 mg/kg) and chloroquine + diclofenac. To study the role of Rho-kinase in chloroquine/diclofenac-triggered cardiotoxicity, four arthritic groups were also co-treated with Rho-kinase inhibitors (fasudil or atorvastatin) along with diclofenac and chloroquine + diclofenac. KEY FINDINGS: All treatments significantly elevated serum cardiac injury and dysfunction markers as well as left ventricular malondialdehyde but depleted antioxidants with the greatest effect in the combination group. Chloroquine and/or diclofenac; in particular, their combination shifted the balance between left ventricular pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins towards myocardial apoptosis. Surprisingly, treatment with diclofenac or chloroquine/diclofenac markedly up-regulated cardiac RhoA and Rho-kinase1. Such up-regulation was coupled with a greater increase in cardiac oxidative damage biomarkers in the combination group than in individually-treated ones. However, Rho-kinase inhibition protected against diclofenac-induced increase in myocardial oxidative damage markers. SIGNIFICANCE: Diclofenac greatly amplified cardiac oxidative damage in chloroquine-treated arthritic rats via up-regulation of Rho-kinase1. However, Rho-kinase inhibitors provided cardioprotection against diclofenac toxicity. Overall, they could be used as safer adjuvants to diclofenac during the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with chloroquine.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
9.
Gene ; 737: 144474, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057928

RESUMO

Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs) have various cellular functions, which include actin cytoskeleton remodeling and vesicular trafficking, and there are two major mammalian ROCK isotypes, namely, ROCK1 (ROKß) and ROCK2 (ROKα). The ROCK2-specific inhibitor KD025 (SLx-2119) is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials, but its cellular functions have not been fully explored. In this study, we investigated the functions of KD025 at the genomics level by bioinformatics analysis using the GSE8686 microarray dataset from the NCBI GEO database, in three different primary human cell lines. An initial microarray analysis conducted by Boerma et al. focused on the effects of KD025 on cell adhesion and blood coagulation, but did not provide comprehensive information on the functions of KD025. Our analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed ~70% coincidence with Boerma et al.'s findings, and newly identified that CCND1, CXCL2, NT5E, and SMOX were differentially expressed by KD025. However, due to low numbers of co-regulated DEGs, we were unable to extract the functions of KD025 with significance. To overcome this limitation, we used gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and the heatmap hierarchical clustering method. We confirmed KD025 regulated inflammation and adipogenesis pathways, as previously reported experimentally. In addition, we found KD025 has novel regulatory functions on various pathways, including oxidative phosphorylation, WNT signaling, angiogenesis, and KRAS signaling. Further studies are required to systematically characterize these newly identified functions of KD025.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
10.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 318(4): G781-G792, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090605

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease of newborns. Although incompletely understood, NEC is associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction. E-cadherin, an adherens junction, is a protein complex integral in maintaining normal barrier homeostasis. Rho-associated protein kinase-1 (ROCK1) is a kinase that regulates the E-cadherin complex, and p120-catenin is a subunit of the E-cadherin complex that has been implicated in stabilizing the cadherin complex at the plasma membrane. We hypothesized that E-cadherin is decreased in NEC and that inhibition of ROCK1 would protect against adherens junction disruption. To investigate this, a multimodal approach was used: In vitro Caco-2 model of NEC (LPS/TNFα), rap pup model (hypoxia + bacteria-containing formula), and human intestinal samples. E-cadherin was decreased in NEC compared with controls, with relocalization from the cell border to an intracellular location. ROCK1 exhibited a time-dependent response to disease, with increased early expression in NEC and decreased expression at later time points and disease severity. Administration of ROCK1 inhibitor (RI) resulted in preservation of E-cadherin expression at the cell border, preservation of intestinal villi on histological examination, and decreased apoptosis. ROCK1 upregulation in NEC led to decreased association of E-cadherin to p120 and increased intestinal permeability. RI helped maintain the stability of the E-cadherin-p120 complex, leading to improved barrier integrity and protection from experimental NEC.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This paper is the first to describe the effect of ROCK1 on E-cadherin expression in the intestinal epithelium and the protective effects of ROCK inhibitor on E-cadherin stability in necrotizing enterocolitis.


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Caderinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Enterocolite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células CACO-2 , Cronobacter sakazakii , Indutores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450 , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/microbiologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Intestinos/patologia , Ratos
11.
J Neurosci ; 40(13): 2776-2788, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098904

RESUMO

Oligophrenin-1 (Ophn1) encodes a Rho GTPase activating protein whose mutations cause X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) in humans. Loss of function of Ophn1 leads to impairments in the maturation and function of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, causing deficits in synaptic structure, function and plasticity. Epilepsy is a frequent comorbidity in patients with Ophn1-dependent XLID, but the cellular bases of hyperexcitability are poorly understood. Here we report that male mice knock-out (KO) for Ophn1 display hippocampal epileptiform alterations, which are associated with changes in parvalbumin-, somatostatin- and neuropeptide Y-positive interneurons. Because loss of function of Ophn1 is related to enhanced activity of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) and protein kinase A (PKA), we attempted to rescue Ophn1-dependent pathological phenotypes by treatment with the ROCK/PKA inhibitor fasudil. While acute administration of fasudil had no impact on seizure activity, seven weeks of treatment in adulthood were able to correct electrographic, neuroanatomical and synaptic alterations of Ophn1 deficient mice. These data demonstrate that hyperexcitability and the associated changes in GABAergic markers can be rescued at the adult stage in Ophn1-dependent XLID through ROCK/PKA inhibition.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study we demonstrate enhanced seizure propensity and impairments in hippocampal GABAergic circuitry in Ophn1 mouse model of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Importantly, the enhanced susceptibility to seizures, accompanied by an alteration of GABAergic markers were rescued by Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK)/protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor fasudil, a drug already tested on humans. Because seizures can significantly impact the quality of life of XLID patients, the present data suggest a potential therapeutic pathway to correct alterations in GABAergic networks and dampen pathological hyperexcitability in adults with XLID.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Neurônios GABAérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Convulsões/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 88, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900402

RESUMO

The accumulation of damaged mitochondria causes the death of dopaminergic neurons. The Parkin-mediated mitophagy pathway functions to remove these mitochondria from cells. Targeting this pathway represents a therapeutic strategy for several neurodegenerative diseases, most notably Parkinson's disease. We describe a discovery pipeline to identify small molecules that increase Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria and ensuing mitophagy. We show that ROCK inhibitors promote the activity of this pathway by increasing the recruitment of HK2, a positive regulator of Parkin, to mitochondria. This leads to the increased targeting of mitochondria to lysosomes and removal of damaged mitochondria from cells. Furthermore, ROCK inhibitors demonstrate neuroprotective effects in flies subjected to paraquat, a parkinsonian toxin that induces mitochondrial damage. Importantly, parkin and rok are required for these effects, revealing a signaling axis which controls Parkin-mediated mitophagy that may be exploited for the development of Parkinson's disease therapeutics.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dípteros , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Quinases Associadas a rho/genética , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
13.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 174: 113815, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972167

RESUMO

Diabetes is related to alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism, which are linked to endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), one of the major ingredient of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), possesses many of the biological activities. However, protective effect of Sal B against oxLDL induced ECs dysfunction under high glucose condition (high Glu) is not well known. Thus, in this study, we investigated the protective effects of Sal B against EC dysfunction induced by oxLDL and high Glu and examined the associated mechanisms. Our results showed that Sal B significantly and dose-dependently decreased oxLDL- and high Glu-mediated induction of lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 and significantly decreased oxLDL- and high Glu-induced mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) expression. In addition, oxLDL stimulation under high-Glu conditions activated the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in ECs. These effects were abolished by Sal B through reductions in mtROS and mtDNA. Furthermore, Sal B inhibited oxLDL- and high Glu-induced increases in fission protein (p-DRP 1 and FIS 1) levels. OxLDL and high Glu activated the ROCK1 pathway, which is involved in apoptosis and mitophagy, while Sal B significantly reduced ROCK1 protein levels. The protective effects of Sal B against oxLDL- and high Glu-induced endothelial dysfunction may be mediated by reductions in apoptosis-related proteins and fission proteins through suppression of the ROCK1-mediated pathway.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glucose/toxicidade , Lipoproteínas LDL/toxicidade , Mitofagia/fisiologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores
14.
Immunol Lett ; 219: 15-26, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904392

RESUMO

A Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) is identified as a critical downstream effector of GTPase RhoA which contains two isoforms, ROCK1 (also known as p160ROCK and ROKß) and ROCK2 (also known as Rho-kinase and ROKα), the gene of which is placed on chromosomes 18 (18q11.1) and 2 (2p24), respectively. ROCKs have a principal function in the generation of actin-myosin contractility and regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. They represent a chief role in regulating various cellular functions, such as apoptosis, growth, migration, and metabolism through modulation of cytoskeletal actin synthesis, and cellular contraction through phosphorylation of numerous downstream targets. Emerging evidence has indicated that ROCKs present a significant function in cardiac physiology. Of note, dysregulation of ROCKs involves in several cardiac pathological processes like cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, systemic blood pressure disorder, and pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, ROCKs, in addition to their role in regulating renal arteriolar contraction, glomerular blood flow, and filtration, can also play a role in controlling podocytes, tubular cells, and mesangial cell structure and function. Hyperactivity disorder and over-gene expression of Rho/ROCK have been indicated in different cancers. Furthermore, it seems that increasing the expression of mRNA or ROCK protein has an undesirable effect on patient survival and has a positive impact on the progression and worsening of disease prognosis. This review focuses on the physiological and pathological functions of ROCKs with a particular view on its possible value of ROCK inhibitors as a new therapy in cancers and non-cancer diseases.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Transdução de Sinais , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo , Animais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Família Multigênica , Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Associadas a rho/química , Quinases Associadas a rho/genética
15.
Neurobiol Aging ; 89: 41-54, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982202

RESUMO

Neurofibrillary tangles, one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, consist of highly phosphorylated tau proteins. Tau protein binds to microtubules and is best known for its role in regulating microtubule dynamics. However, if tau protein is phosphorylated by activated major tau kinases, including glycogen synthase kinase 3ß or cyclin-dependent kinase 5, or inactivated tau phosphatase, including protein phosphatase 2A, its affinity for microtubules is reduced, and the free tau is believed to aggregate, thereby forming neurofibrillary tangles. We previously reported that pitavastatin decreases the total and phosphorylated tau protein using a cellular model of tauopathy. The reduction of tau was considered to be due to Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase (ROCK) inhibition by pitavastatin. ROCK plays important roles to organize the actin cytoskeleton, an expected therapeutic target of human disorders. Several ROCK inhibitors are clinically applied to prevent vasospasm postsubarachnoid hemorrhage (fasudil) and for the treatment of glaucoma (ripasudil). We have examined the effects of ROCK inhibitors (H1152, Y-27632, and fasudil [HA-1077]) on tau protein phosphorylation in detail. A human neuroblastoma cell line (M1C cells) that expresses wild-type tau protein (4R0N) by tetracycline-off (TetOff) induction, primary cultured mouse neurons, and a mouse model of tauopathy (rTG4510 line) were used. The levels of phosphorylated tau and caspase-cleaved tau were reduced by the ROCK inhibitors. Oligomeric tau levels were also reduced by ROCK inhibitors. After ROCK inhibitor treatment, glycogen synthase kinase 3ß, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, and caspase were inactivated, protein phosphatase 2A was activated, and the levels of IFN-γ were reduced. ROCK inhibitors activated autophagy and proteasome pathways, which are considered important for the degradation of tau protein. Collectively, these results suggest that ROCK inhibitors represent a viable therapeutic route to reduce the pathogenic forms of tau protein in tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Tauopatias/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tauopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases Associadas a rho/fisiologia
16.
Prostate ; 80(3): 256-266, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because androgen receptor (AR) signaling is essential for prostate cancer (PCa) initiation and progression, castration is the main approach for treatment. Unfortunately, patients tend to enter a stage called castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) despite the initial response to castration. For various reasons, AR signaling is reactivated in CRPC. As such, AR signaling inhibitors, such as enzalutamide, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat CRPC in the clinic. However, the limited success of these new drugs suggests an immediate unmet need to understand the underlying mechanisms for resistance so novel targets can be identified to enhance their efficacy. METHODS: An unbiased bioinformatics analysis was performed with the existing human patient dataset and RNA-seq results of in-house PCa cell lines to identify new targets to overcome enzalutamide resistance. Cell viability and growth were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and colony formation assay. Cell invasion and migration were detected by transwell assay. Protein levels were detected by Western blot or immunofluorescence. RESULTS: We found that the noncanonical Wnt signaling was activated in enzalutamide-resistant PCa cells and that the activation of noncanonical Wnt signaling was correlated with AR expression and disease progression. This was validated by the elevated expression of noncanonical Wnt pathway members such as Wnt5a, RhoA, and ROCK in enzalutamide-resistant PCa cells in comparison to their enzalutamide-sensitive counterparts. And, both Y27632, an inhibitor of ROCK, and depletion of ROCK enhanced the efficacy of enzalutamide in enzalutamide-resistant PCa cells. Of significance, a combination of Y27632 and enzalutamide inhibited 22RV1-derived xenograft tumor growth synergistically. Finally, ROCK depletion plus enzalutamide treatment inhibited invasion and migration of enzalutamide-resistant PCa cells via inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. CONCLUSIONS: The noncanonical Wnt pathway is activated in enzalutamide-resistant PCa and inhibition of noncanonical Wnt pathway overcomes enzalutamide resistance and enhances its efficacy in CRPC.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
17.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(1): 254-266, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237697

RESUMO

Accumulated evidence suggested the importance of the Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway in cancer proliferation and invasion. However, its role in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is not well understood. This study evaluated the effect of ROCK signaling pathway on CRC behavior on the basis of a novel Rho/ROCK inhibitor RKI-1447. Here, we found RKI-1447 could drastically suppress HCT-8 and HCT-116 cell growth and promoted apoptosis. Our in vitro data indicated suppressed cytoskeletal dynamics induced by RKI-1447 inhibition on mitochondrial respiration, which was evidenced by basal and maximal respiration rates, and ATP production. Simultaneously, cellular basal and maximal glycolytic rates, and glycolytic capacity were also reduced in response to RKI-1447. Moreover, RKI-1447 caused excessive reactive oxygen species generation and membrane depolarization as well as activated ER-stress. We also demonstrated CHOP is essential for RKI-1447 induced cell apoptosis. Finally, we proved inhibition of ROCK by RKI-1447 could effectively inhibit CRC growth in vivo. Taken together, this study demonstrated that inhibition of ROCK signaling pathway by RKI-1447 could suppress CRC via cytoskeleton associated mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular bioenergetics disruption. Our data suggest RKI-1447 may be an attractive antitumor drug candidate for the treatment of CRC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Ureia/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores
18.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 243, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the use of ripasudil as a trabeculotomy outcome marker in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: Between May 2015 and December 2018, 35 eyes underwent trabeculotomy and were postoperatively followed for over 3 months. Ripasudil was defined as effective if drug administration resulted in a greater than 10% reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP). Patients were divided into effective (effective group) or non-effective (non-effective group) ripasudil administration groups. The need for additional glaucoma surgery or an IOP ≥ 21 mmHg indicated surgical failure. In both groups, a Kaplan-Meier survival-analysis was used to evaluate success probabilities related to postoperative IOP levels. RESULTS: Effective IOP reduction occurred in 14 of 35 eyes after ripasudil administration, which was shown by a decrease of more than 10%. Postoperatively, both groups exhibited significant reductions of IOP and antiglaucoma medication use for up to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months after trabeculotomy, probabilities of success in the effective vs. non-effective group were 100% vs. 94.7 and 100% vs. 75.4%, respectively (P = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Trabeculotomy is effective for achieving an IOP < 21 mmHg in ripasudil effective POAG eyes. Examination of ripasudil's IOP-lowering effects may be useful in predicting surgical outcomes after trabeculotomy.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/cirurgia , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Trabeculectomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834925

RESUMO

Myosin regulatory light chain (LC20) phosphorylation plays an important role in vascular smooth muscle contraction and cell migration. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates LC20 (its only known substrate) exclusively at S19. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) have been implicated in the regulation of LC20 phosphorylation via direct phosphorylation of LC20 at T18 and S19 and indirectly via phosphorylation of MYPT1 (the myosin targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase, MLCP) and Par-4 (prostate-apoptosis response-4). Phosphorylation of MYPT1 at T696 and T853 inhibits MLCP activity whereas phosphorylation of Par-4 at T163 disrupts its interaction with MYPT1, exposing the sites of phosphorylation in MYPT1 and leading to MLCP inhibition. To evaluate the roles of MLCK, ROCK and ZIPK in these phosphorylation events, we investigated the time courses of phosphorylation of LC20, MYPT1 and Par-4 in serum-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle cells (from coronary and umbilical arteries), and examined the effects of siRNA-mediated MLCK, ROCK and ZIPK knockdown and pharmacological inhibition on these phosphorylation events. Serum stimulation induced rapid phosphorylation of LC20 at T18 and S19, MYPT1 at T696 and T853, and Par-4 at T163, peaking within 30-120 s. MLCK knockdown or inhibition, or Ca2+ chelation with EGTA, had no effect on serum-induced LC20 phosphorylation. ROCK knockdown decreased the levels of phosphorylation of LC20 at T18 and S19, of MYPT1 at T696 and T853, and of Par-4 at T163, whereas ZIPK knockdown decreased LC20 diphosphorylation, but increased phosphorylation of MYPT1 at T696 and T853 and of Par-4 at T163. ROCK inhibition with GSK429286A reduced serum-induced phosphorylation of LC20 at T18 and S19, MYPT1 at T853 and Par-4 at T163, while ZIPK inhibition by HS38 reduced only LC20 diphosphorylation. We also demonstrated that serum stimulation induced phosphorylation (activation) of ZIPK, which was inhibited by ROCK and ZIPK down-regulation and inhibition. Finally, basal phosphorylation of LC20 in the absence of serum stimulation was unaffected by MLCK, ROCK or ZIPK knockdown or inhibition. We conclude that: (i) serum stimulation of cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells results in rapid phosphorylation of LC20, MYPT1, Par-4 and ZIPK, in contrast to the slower phosphorylation of kinases and other proteins involved in other signaling pathways (Akt, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and HSP27), (ii) ROCK and ZIPK, but not MLCK, are involved in serum-induced phosphorylation of LC20, (iii) ROCK, but not ZIPK, directly phosphorylates MYPT1 at T853 and Par-4 at T163 in response to serum stimulation, (iv) ZIPK phosphorylation is enhanced by serum stimulation and involves phosphorylation by ROCK and autophosphorylation, and (v) basal phosphorylation of LC20 under serum-free conditions is not attributable to MLCK, ROCK or ZIPK.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/metabolismo , Fosfatase de Miosina-de-Cadeia-Leve/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Artérias/citologia , Artérias/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/genética , Humanos , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/genética , Fosfatase de Miosina-de-Cadeia-Leve/genética , Fosforilação , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Soro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Associadas a rho/genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861195

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been implicated recently in the physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system including regulation of vascular tone. Pilot experiments showed that the vasoconstrictor effect of S1P was enhanced markedly in the presence of phenylephrine (PE). Based on this observation, we hypothesized that S1P might modulate α1-adrenergic vasoactivity. In murine aortas, a 20-minute exposure to S1P but not to its vehicle increased the Emax and decreased the EC50 of PE-induced contractions indicating a hyperreactivity to α1-adrenergic stimulation. The potentiating effect of S1P disappeared in S1P2 but not in S1P3 receptor-deficient vessels. In addition, smooth muscle specific conditional deletion of G12/13 proteins or pharmacological inhibition of the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) by Y-27632 or fasudil abolished the effect of S1P on α1-adrenergic vasoconstriction. Unexpectedly, PE-induced contractions remained enhanced markedly as late as three hours after S1P-exposure in wild-type (WT) and S1P3 KO but not in S1P2 KO vessels. In conclusion, the S1P-S1P2-G12/13-ROCK signaling pathway appears to have a major influence on α1-adrenergic vasoactivity. This cooperativity might lead to sustained vasoconstriction when increased sympathetic tone is accompanied by increased S1P production as it occurs during acute coronary syndrome and stroke.


Assuntos
Lisofosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/farmacologia , Amidas/farmacologia , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Esfingosina/farmacologia , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/genética , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/metabolismo , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores
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