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2.
Cell Prolif ; 53(10): e12901, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the expression, prognostic value, and functionality of T-lymphokine-activated killer (T-LAK) cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) in chordoma pathogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TOPK expression in chordoma was assessed via immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray (TMA) and correlated with patient clinicopathology. TOPK expression in chordoma cell lines and fresh patient tissues was then evaluated by Western blot. TOPK small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the specific inhibitor OTS514 were applied to determine the roles of TOPK in chordoma pathogenicity. The effect of TOPK expression on chordoma cell clonogenicity was also investigated using clonogenic assays. A 3D cell culture model was utilized to mimic in vivo environment to validate the effect of TOPK inhibition on chordoma cells. RESULTS: TOPK was highly expressed in 78.2% of the chordoma specimens in the TMA and all chordoma cell lines. High TOPK expression significantly correlated with metastasis, recurrence, disease status and shorter overall survival. Knockdown of TOPK with specific siRNA resulted in significantly decrease chordoma cell viability. Inhibition of TOPK with OTS514 significantly inhibited chordoma cell growth and proliferation, colony-forming capacity and ex vivo spheroid growth. CONCLUSIONS: High expression of TOPK is an important predictor of poor prognosis in chordoma. Inhibition of TOPK resulted in significantly decrease chordoma cell proliferation and increase apoptosis. Our results indicate TOPK as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for chordoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Cordoma/patologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cordoma/metabolismo , Cordoma/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Tiofenos/farmacologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3946, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770055

RESUMO

Melanomas can switch to a dedifferentiated cell state upon exposure to cytotoxic T cells. However, it is unclear whether such tumor cells pre-exist in patients and whether they can be resensitized to immunotherapy. Here, we chronically expose (patient-derived) melanoma cell lines to differentiation antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells and observe strong enrichment of a pre-existing NGFRhi population. These fractions are refractory also to T cells recognizing non-differentiation antigens, as well as to BRAF + MEK inhibitors. NGFRhi cells induce the neurotrophic factor BDNF, which contributes to T cell resistance, as does NGFR. In melanoma patients, a tumor-intrinsic NGFR signature predicts anti-PD-1 therapy resistance, and NGFRhi tumor fractions are associated with immune exclusion. Lastly, pharmacologic NGFR inhibition restores tumor sensitivity to T cell attack in vitro and in melanoma xenografts. These findings demonstrate the existence of a stable and pre-existing NGFRhi multitherapy-refractory melanoma subpopulation, which ought to be eliminated to revert intrinsic resistance to immunotherapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA-Seq , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Nature ; 584(7820): 268-273, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728211

RESUMO

The ability of the skin to grow in response to stretching has been exploited in reconstructive surgery1. Although the response of epidermal cells to stretching has been studied in vitro2,3, it remains unclear how mechanical forces affect their behaviour in vivo. Here we develop a mouse model in which the consequences of stretching on skin epidermis can be studied at single-cell resolution. Using a multidisciplinary approach that combines clonal analysis with quantitative modelling and single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that stretching induces skin expansion by creating a transient bias in the renewal activity of epidermal stem cells, while a second subpopulation of basal progenitors remains committed to differentiation. Transcriptional and chromatin profiling identifies how cell states and gene-regulatory networks are modulated by stretching. Using pharmacological inhibitors and mouse mutants, we define the step-by-step mechanisms that control stretch-mediated tissue expansion at single-cell resolution in vivo.


Assuntos
Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/citologia , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Junções Aderentes/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Mecanotransdução Celular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA-Seq , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Transativadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 7748-7766, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585002

RESUMO

Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) cultured with MEK/ERK and GSK3ß (2i) inhibitors transition to ground state pluripotency. Gene expression changes, redistribution of histone H3K27me3 profiles and global DNA hypomethylation are hallmarks of 2i exposure, but it is unclear whether epigenetic alterations are required to achieve and maintain ground state or occur as an outcome of 2i signal induced changes. Here we show that ESCs with three epitypes, WT, constitutively methylated, or hypomethylated, all undergo comparable morphological, protein expression and transcriptome changes independently of global alterations of DNA methylation levels or changes in H3K27me3 profiles. Dazl and Fkbp6 expression are induced by 2i in all three epitypes, despite exhibiting hypermethylated promoters in constitutively methylated ESCs. We identify a number of activated gene promoters that undergo 2i dependent loss of H3K27me3 in all three epitypes, however genetic and pharmaceutical inhibition experiments show that H3K27me3 is not required for their silencing in non-2i conditions. By separating and defining their contributions, our data suggest that repressive epigenetic systems play minor roles in mESC self-renewal and naïve ground state establishment by core sets of dominant pluripotency associated transcription factor networks, which operate independently from these epigenetic processes.


Assuntos
Repressão Epigenética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Histonas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/enzimologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2176, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358491

RESUMO

Cancer types with lower mutational load and a non-permissive tumor microenvironment are intrinsically resistant to immune checkpoint blockade. While the combination of cytostatic drugs and immunostimulatory antibodies constitutes an attractive concept for overcoming this refractoriness, suppression of immune cell function by cytostatic drugs may limit therapeutic efficacy. Here we show that targeted inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) does not impair dendritic cell-mediated T cell priming and activation. Accordingly, combining MEK inhibitors (MEKi) with agonist antibodies (Abs) targeting the immunostimulatory CD40 receptor results in potent synergistic antitumor efficacy. Detailed analysis of the mechanism of action of MEKi shows that this drug exerts multiple pro-immunogenic effects, including the suppression of M2-type macrophages, myeloid derived suppressor cells and T-regulatory cells. The combination of MEK inhibition with agonist anti-CD40 Ab is therefore a promising therapeutic concept, especially for the treatment of mutant Kras-driven tumors such as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Antígenos CD40/agonistas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/química , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/metabolismo , Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
7.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(6-7): 420-432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of cardiovascular adverse events from rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma B-type (BRAF) and mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors is not fully characterized. AIM: To evaluate the cardiovascular adverse events risks related to BRAF and/or MEK inhibitors in randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials and in the real-life setting. METHODS: We used two approaches. First, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials reporting the incidence of cardiovascular adverse events for BRAF and/or MEK inhibitors in cancer patients. Second, we performed a disproportionality analysis, using age- and sex-adjusted reporting odds ratios (arORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from the World Health Organization's pharmacovigilance database (VigiBase®) of anticancer drug-associated reports, to investigate real-life data. RESULTS: MEK inhibitors increased the risk of ejection fraction decrease (odds ratio [OR] 3.35, 95% CI 1.58-7.07), peripheral oedema (OR 2.87 95% CI 1.93-4.27) and syncope (OR 6.71, 95% CI 3.00-14.99) compared with placebo in randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials. BRAF and MEK inhibitor combination therapy further increased the risk of ejection fraction decrease. In the disproportionality analysis, we found over-reporting of ejection fraction decrease (arOR 8.42, 95% CI 7.03-10.09), peripheral oedema (arOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.17-1.66), syncope (arOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.22-1.99), torsade de pointes/QT prolongation (arOR 6.13, 95% CI 5.04-7.47) and supraventricular arrhythmias (arOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.21-1.85) for BRAF and MEK inhibitors. BRAF and MEK inhibitors were not associated with hypertension in either approach. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, MEK inhibitors increase the risk of ejection fraction decrease, peripheral oedema and syncope in randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials. Real-life data confirm these findings, and suggested additional risks of torsade de pointes/QT prolongation and supraventricular arrhythmias with BRAF/MEK inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Fibrossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fibrossarcoma/enzimologia , Fibrossarcoma/epidemiologia , Fibrossarcoma/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Segurança do Paciente , Farmacovigilância , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Cancer Res ; 80(12): 2676-2688, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291316

RESUMO

Targeting the MAPK pathway by combined inhibition of BRAF and MEK has increased overall survival in advanced BRAF-mutant melanoma in both therapeutic and adjuvant clinical settings. However, a significant proportion of tumors develop acquired resistance, leading to treatment failure. We have previously shown p63 to be an important inhibitor of p53-induced apoptosis in melanoma following genotoxic drug exposure. Here, we investigated the role of p63 in acquired resistance to MAPK inhibition and show that p63 isoforms are upregulated in melanoma cell lines chronically exposed to BRAF and MEK inhibition, with consequent increased resistance to apoptosis. This p63 upregulation was the result of its reduced degradation by the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXW7. FBXW7 was itself regulated by MDM2, and in therapy-resistant melanoma cell lines, nuclear accumulation of MDM2 caused downregulation of FBXW7 and consequent upregulation of p63. Consistent with this, both FBXW7-inactivating mutations and MDM2 upregulation were found in melanoma clinical samples. Treatment of MAPK inhibitor-resistant melanoma cells with MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3A restored FBXW7 expression and p63 degradation in a dose-dependent manner and sensitized these cells to apoptosis. Collectively, these data provide a compelling rationale for future investigation of Nutlin-3A as an approach to abrogate acquired resistance of melanoma to MAPK inhibitor targeted therapy. SIGNIFICANCE: Upregulation of p63, an unreported mechanism of MAPK inhibitor resistance in melanoma, can be abrogated by treatment with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3A, which may serve as a strategy to overcome resistance.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD/genética , Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Oncogene ; 39(21): 4170-4182, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277233

RESUMO

Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is caused by solar ultraviolet (SUV) exposure and is the most common cancer in the United States. T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), a serine-threonine kinase is activated by SUV irradiation and involved in skin carcinogenesis. Strategies with research focusing on the TOPK signaling pathway and targeted therapy in skin carcinogenesis may helpful for the discovery of additional treatments against skin cancer. In this study, we found that TOPK can directly bind to and phosphorylate c-Jun (as one of the core member of AP-1) at Ser63 and Ser73 after SSL exposure in a JNKs-independent manner. TOPK knocking down, or HI-TOPK-032 (TOPK specific inhibitor) attenuated colony formation and cell proliferation of skin cancer cells. Phosphorylated levels of c-Jun were overexpressed in human AK and cSCC compared with normal skin tissues, and HI-TOPK-032 inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun in SCC cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, HI-TOPK-032 decreased SSL-induced AP-1 transactivation activity. Moreover, acute SSL-induced inflammation was attenuated by the topical application of HI-TOPK-032 in SKH1 hairless mice. Importantly, HI-TOPK-032 suppressed chronic SSL-induced skin carcinogenesis and c-Jun phosphorylation levels in SKH1 hairless mice. Our results demonstrate that TOPK can phosphorylate and activate c-Jun at Ser63 and Ser73 in the process of skin carcinogenesis and HI-TOPK-032 could be used as a potential chemopreventive drug against cSCC development.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Indolizinas/farmacologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Camundongos Knockout , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
10.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 374(1): 134-140, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284325

RESUMO

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung cancer most commonly arises through EML4 (Echinoderm Microtuble Like 4)-ALK chromosomal fusion. We have previously demonstrated that combination of the ALK inhibitor crizotinib with the MEK inhibitor selumetinib was highly effective at reducing cell viability of ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (H3122) cells. In this study, we further investigated the efficacy of crizotinib and selumetinib combination therapy in an in vivo xenograft model of ALK-positive lung cancer. Crizotinib decreased tumor volume by 52% compared with control, and the drug combination reduced tumor growth compared with crizotinib. In addition, MEK inhibition alone reduced tumor growth by 59% compared with control. Crizotinib and selumetinib alone and in combination were nontoxic at the dose of 25 mg/kg, with values for ALT (<80 U/l) and creatinine (<2 mg/dl) within the normal range. Our results support the combined use of crizotinib with selumetinib in ALK-positive lung cancer but raise the possibility that a sufficient dose of an MEK inhibitor alone may be as effective as adding an MEK inhibitor to an ALK inhibitor. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study contains in vivo evidence supporting the use of combination MEK inhibitors in ALK+ lung cancer research, both singularly and in combination with ALK inhibitors. Contrary to previously published reports, our results suggest that it is possible to gain much of the benefit from combination treatment with an MEK inhibitor alone, at a tolerable dose.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Crizotinibe/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Camundongos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
N Engl J Med ; 382(15): 1430-1442, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No approved therapies exist for inoperable plexiform neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, phase 2 trial of selumetinib to determine the objective response rate among patients with plexiform neurofibromas and to assess clinical benefit. Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 and symptomatic inoperable plexiform neurofibromas received oral selumetinib twice daily at a dose of 25 mg per square meter of body-surface area on a continuous dosing schedule (28-day cycles). Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome assessments (pain, quality of life, disfigurement, and function) were performed at least every four cycles. Children rated tumor pain intensity on a scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). RESULTS: A total of 50 children (median age, 10.2 years; range, 3.5 to 17.4) were enrolled from August 2015 through August 2016. The most frequent neurofibroma-related symptoms were disfigurement (44 patients), motor dysfunction (33), and pain (26). A total of 35 patients (70%) had a confirmed partial response as of March 29, 2019, and 28 of these patients had a durable response (lasting ≥1 year). After 1 year of treatment, the mean decrease in child-reported tumor pain-intensity scores was 2 points, considered a clinically meaningful improvement. In addition, clinically meaningful improvements were seen in child-reported and parent-reported interference of pain in daily functioning (38% and 50%, respectively) and overall health-related quality of life (48% and 58%, respectively) as well as in functional outcomes of strength (56% of patients) and range of motion (38% of patients). Five patients discontinued treatment because of toxic effects possibly related to selumetinib, and 6 patients had disease progression. The most frequent toxic effects were nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea; an asymptomatic increase in the creatine phosphokinase level; acneiform rash; and paronychia. CONCLUSIONS: In this phase 2 trial, most children with neurofibromatosis type 1 and inoperable plexiform neurofibromas had durable tumor shrinkage and clinical benefit from selumetinib. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01362803.).


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/tratamento farmacológico , Neurofibromatose 1/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/complicações , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/patologia , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Dor/etiologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 6978784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104537

RESUMO

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a leading cause of death in neonates with no effective treatments. Recent advancements in hydrogen (H2) gas offer a promising therapeutic approach for ischemia reperfusion injury; however, the impact of this approach for HIE remains a subject of debate. We assessed the therapeutic effects of H2 gas on HIE and the underlying molecular mechanisms in a rat model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). H2 inhalation significantly attenuated neuronal injury and effectively improved early neurological outcomes in neonatal HIBI rats as well as learning and memory in adults. This protective effect was associated with initiation time and duration of sustained H2 inhalation. Furthermore, H2 inhalation reduced the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) and caspase-3 while promoting the expression of Bcl-2, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). H2 activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase and dephosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells. Inhibitors of MAPKs blocked H2-induced HO-1 expression. HO-1 small interfering RNA decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and reversed the protectivity of H2 against OGD/R-induced cell death. These findings suggest that H2 augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through activation of MAPK signaling pathways, leading to HO-1 expression and subsequent upregulation of PGC-1α and SIRT-1 expression. Thus, upregulation protects NGF-differentiated PC12 cells from OGD/R-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. In conclusion, H2 inhalation exerted protective effects on neonatal rats with HIBI. Early initiation and prolonged H2 inhalation had better protective effects on HIBI. These effects of H2 may be related to antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory responses. HO-1 plays an important role in H2-mediated protection through the MAPK/HO-1/PGC-1α pathway. Our results support further assessment of H2 as a potential therapeutic for neurological conditions in which oxidative stress and apoptosis are implicated.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Feminino , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células PC12 , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
13.
Cancer Res ; 80(4): 843-856, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911549

RESUMO

Among malignant mesotheliomas (MM), the sarcomatoid subtype is associated with higher chemoresistance and worst survival. Due to its low incidence, there has been little progress in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms associated with sarcomatoid MM, which might help to define novel therapeutic targets. In this work, we show that loss of PTEN expression is frequent in human sarcomatoid MM and PTEN expression levels are lower in sarcomatoid MM than in the biphasic and epithelioid subtypes. Combined Pten and Trp53 deletion in mouse mesothelium led to nonepithelioid MM development. In Pten;Trp53-null mice developing MM, the Gαi2-coupled receptor subunit activated MEK/ERK and PI3K, resulting in aggressive, immune-suppressed tumors. Combined inhibition of MEK and p110ß/PI3K reduced mouse tumor cell growth in vitro. Therapeutic inhibition of MEK and p110ß/PI3K using selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) and AZD8186, two drugs that are currently in clinical trials, increased the survival of Pten;Trp53-null mice without major toxicity. This drug combination effectively reduced the proliferation of primary cultures of human pleural (Pl) MM, implicating nonepithelioid histology and high vimentin, AKT1/2, and Gαi2 expression levels as predictive markers of response to combined MEK and p110ß/PI3K inhibition. Our findings provide a rationale for the use of selumetinib and AZD8186 in patients with MM with sarcomatoid features. This constitutes a novel targeted therapy for a poor prognosis and frequently chemoresistant group of patients with MM, for whom therapeutic options are currently lacking. SIGNIFICANCE: Mesothelioma is highly aggressive; its sarcomatoid variants have worse prognosis. Building on a genetic mouse model, a novel combination therapy is uncovered that is relevant to human tumors.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromonas/farmacologia , Cromonas/uso terapêutico , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio/patologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/genética , Mesotelioma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Peritônio/patologia , Pleura/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/genética , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
14.
J Biol Chem ; 295(10): 3000-3016, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996375

RESUMO

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is an ancient and evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway involved in numerous physiological processes. Despite great advances in understanding MAPK-mediated regulation of adaptive immune responses in mammals, its contribution to T-cell immunity in early vertebrates remains unclear. Herein, we used Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to investigate the regulatory roles of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) signaling in ancestral T-cell immunity of jawed fish. We found that Nile tilapia possesses an evolutionarily conserved MAPK/Erk axis that is activated through a classical three-tier kinase cascade, involving sequential phosphorylation of RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (Raf), MAPK/Erk kinase 1/2 (Mek1/2), and Erk1/2. In Nile tilapia, MAPK/Erk signaling participates in adaptive immune responses during bacterial infection. Upon T-cell activation, the MAPK/Erk axis is robustly activated, and MAPK/Erk blockade by specific inhibitors severely impairs T-cell activation. Furthermore, signals from MAPK/Erk were indispensable for primordial T cells to proliferate and exert their effector functions. Mechanistically, activation of the MAPK/Erk axis promoted glycolysis via induction of the transcriptional regulator proto-oncogene c-Myc (c-Myc), to ensure the proper activation and proliferation of fish T cells. Our results reveal the regulatory mechanisms of MAPK/Erk signaling in T-cell immunity in fish and highlight a close link between immune signals and metabolic programs. We propose that regulation of T-cell immunity by MAPK/Erk is a basic and sophisticated strategy that evolved before the emergence of the tetrapod lineage. These findings shed light on the evolution of the adaptive immune system.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Aeromonas hydrophila/patogenicidade , Animais , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Evolução Molecular , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Glicólise , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/classificação , Fosforilação , Filogenia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/metabolismo , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 126: 93-103, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927215

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare and malignant intraocular tumour with a dismal prognosis. Despite a good control of the primary tumour by radiation or surgery, up to 50% of patients subsequently develop metastasis for which no efficient treatment is yet available. METHODOLOGY: To identify therapeutic opportunities, we performed an in vitro screen of 30 combinations of different inhibitors of pathways that are dysregulated in UM. Effects of drug combinations on viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed in eight UM cell lines. The best synergistic combinations were further evaluated in six UM patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). RESULTS: We demonstrated that the Bcl-2/XL/W inhibitor (ABT263) sensitised the UM cell lines to other inhibitors, mainly to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) inhibitors. mTOR (RAD001) and MEK1/2 (trametinib) inhibitors were efficient as single agents, but their combinations with ABT263 displayed no synergism in UM PDXs. In contrast, the combination of ABT263 with MDM2 inhibitor (HDM201) showed a trend for a synergistic effect. CONCLUSION: We showed that inhibition of Bcl-2/XL/W sensitised the UM cell lines to other treatments encouraging investigation of the underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, our findings highlighted Bcl-2/XL/W and MDM2 co-inhibition as a promising strategy in UM.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uveais/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uveais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uveais/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Proteína bcl-X/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 123: 109752, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924596

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is reported as a devastating disease, leading to tissue loss and neurologic dysfunction. However, there is no effective therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. Oleanolic acid (OA), as a triterpenoid, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. However, its regulatory effects on SCI have little to be elucidated, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we attempted to explore the role of OA in SCI progression. Behavior tests suggested that OA treatments markedly alleviated motor function in SCI mice. Evans blue contents up-regulated in spinal cords of SCI mice were significantly reduced by OA in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating the improved blood-spinal cord barrier. Moreover, we found that OA treatments significantly reduced the apoptotic cell death in spinal cord samples of SCI mice through decreasing the expression of cleaved Caspase-3. In addition, pro-inflammatory response in SCI mice was significantly attenuated by OA treatments. Furthermore, SCI mice exhibited higher activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways, but these effects were clearly blocked in SCI mice with OA treatments, as evidenced by the down-regulated phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun-NH 2 terminal kinase (JNK), IκB kinase α (IKKα), inhibitor of nuclear factor κB-α (IκBα) and NF-κB. The protective effects of OA against SCI were confirmed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse neurons mainly through the suppression of apoptosis and inflammatory response, which were tightly associated with the blockage of p38 and JNK activation. Together, our data demonstrated that OA treatments could dose-dependently ameliorate spinal cord damage through impeding p38- and JNK-regulated apoptosis and inflammation, and therefore OA might be served as an effective therapeutic agent for SCI treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Atividade Motora , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 258, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937753

RESUMO

BET bromodomain inhibitors (BETi), such as JQ1, have been demonstrated to effectively kill multiple types of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for BETi resistance remain largely unknown. Our evidences show that JQ1 treatment evicts BRD4 from the FOXD3-localized MIR548D1 gene promoter, leading to repression of miR-548d-3p. The loss of miRNA restores JunD expression and subsequent JunD-dependent transcription of RPS6KA2 gene. ERK1/2/5 kinases phosphorylate RSK3 (RPS6KA2), resulting in the enrichment of activated RSK3 and blockade of JQ1 killing effect. Dual inhibition of MEKs/ERKs or single EGFR inhibition are able to mimic the effect of JunD/RSK3-knockdown to reverse BETi resistance. Collectively, our study indicates that loss of BRD4/FOXD3/miR-548d-3p axis enhances JunD/RSK3 signalling and determines BET inhibition resistance, which can be reversed by targeting EGFR-MEK1/2/5-ERK1/2/5 signalling.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azepinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triazóis/farmacologia
18.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(7)2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932483

RESUMO

Oxidation of a highly conserved cysteine (Cys) residue located in the kinase activation loop of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK) inactivates mammalian MKK6. This residue is conserved in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe MAPKK Wis1, which belongs to the H2O2-responsive MAPK Sty1 pathway. Here, we show that H2O2 reversibly inactivates Wis1 through this residue (C458) in vitro We found that C458 is oxidized in vivo and that serine replacement of this residue significantly enhances Wis1 activation upon addition of H2O2 The allosteric MAPKK inhibitor INR119, which binds in a pocket next to the activation loop and C458, prevented the inhibition of Wis1 by H2O2 in vitro and significantly increased Wis1 activation by low levels of H2O2 in vivo We propose that oxidation of C458 inhibits Wis1 and that INR119 cancels out this inhibitory effect by binding close to this residue. Kinase inhibition through the oxidation of a conserved Cys residue in MKK6 (C196) is thus conserved in the S. pombe MAPKK Wis1.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo , Cisteína/química , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Oxirredução , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 522(2): 512-517, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784089

RESUMO

Combined LXR ligand (T0901317) and MEK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) not only reduces atherosclerosis in apoE deficient mice, but also blocks LXR ligand-induced fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia. However, the atheroprotective function of combined T0901317 and U0126 should be further investigated in LDLR deficient (LDLR-/-) mice since deficiency of LDLR not apoE can occur to humans with a high frequency. Herein, we validated the effectiveness of this combinational therapy on the development of atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice to demonstrate its potential application in clinic. We found although T0901317 or U0126 alone reduced atherosclerotic plaques in en face and aortic root areas in HFD-fed LDLR-/- mice, their combination inhibited lesions in a synergistic manner. Combined U0126 and T0901317 had no effect on serum total cholesterol levels. T0901317 deceased HDL-cholesterol levels, which was restored by combined U0126. Meanwhile, U0126 alleviated T0901317-induced triglyceride accumulation, the major adverse effect of T0901317 which limits its clinical utility. Mechanistically, U0126 reduced fatty acid de novo synthesis by inhibiting hepatic fatty acid synthase (FASN) expression, thereby correcting T0901317-induced triglyceride overproduction. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that combination of MEK1/2 inhibitor and LXR ligand can synergistically reduce atherosclerosis in LDLR deficient mice without lipogenic side effects.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/complicações , Butadienos/farmacologia , Butadienos/uso terapêutico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Ligantes , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Placa Aterosclerótica/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo
20.
Cancer Res ; 80(4): 798-810, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882401

RESUMO

Patients with melanoma resistant to RAF/MEK inhibitors (RMi) are frequently resistant to other therapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), and individuals succumb to their disease. New drugs that control tumor growth and favorably modulate the immune environment are therefore needed. We report that the small-molecule CX-6258 has potent activity against both RMi-sensitive (RMS) and -resistant (RMR) melanoma cell lines. Haspin kinase (HASPIN) was identified as a target of CX-6258. HASPIN inhibition resulted in reduced proliferation, frequent formation of micronuclei, recruitment of cGAS, and activation of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway. In murine models, CX-6258 induced a potent cGAS-dependent type-I IFN response in tumor cells, increased IFNγ-producing CD8+ T cells, and reduced Treg frequency in vivo. HASPIN was more strongly expressed in malignant compared with healthy tissue and its inhibition by CX-6258 had minimal toxicity in ex vivo-expanded human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), proliferating TILs, and in vitro differentiated neurons, suggesting a potential therapeutic index for anticancer therapy. Furthermore, the activity of CX-6258 was validated in several Ewing sarcoma and multiple myeloma cell lines. Thus, HASPIN inhibition may overcome drug resistance in melanoma, modulate the immune environment, and target a vulnerability in different cancer lineages. SIGNIFICANCE: HASPIN inhibition by CX-6258 is a novel and potent strategy for RAF/MEK inhibitor-resistant melanoma and potentially other tumor types. HASPIN inhibition has direct antitumor activity and induces a favorable immune microenvironment.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Indóis/farmacologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Azepinas/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Quinases raf/antagonistas & inibidores
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