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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7855-7868, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274310

RESUMO

Bee pollen (BP) collected from different floras possesses various potential bioactivities, but the mechanism-related research on anti-inflammatory effects is limited. Here, three types of BP originating from Camellia sinensis L. (BP-Cs), Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (BP-Nn), and Brassica campestris L. (BP-Bc) were assessed using molecular and metabolomics methods to determine their anti-inflammatory effects. The differences in polyphenolic abundance of three types of BP extracts were determined by HPLC-DAD/Q-TOF-MS. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of three BP extracts were evaluated in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells model. BP-Cs extract with the most abundant polyphenols was found to be the most effective in reducing inflammation by downregulating inflammatory-related genes expression and blocking the activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Polyphenol-rich BP-Cs was further evaluated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory effect in a LPS-induced acute lung injury mouse model. An UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based metabolomics approach was applied to analyze metabolite changes in mouse serum. Weshowed that the pretreated BP-Cs extract alleviated inflammation and regulated glycerophospholipid metabolism significantly. Our findings provide a foundation for developing and justifying BP as a potential anti-inflammatory ingredient in functional foods or nutraceutical formulations.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pólen/química , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/genética , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Abelhas , Brassica/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Nelumbo/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , Células RAW 264.7
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2919, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266962

RESUMO

Oncogenic mutations in KRAS or BRAF are frequent in colorectal cancer and activate the ERK kinase. Here, we find graded ERK phosphorylation correlating with cell differentiation in patient-derived colorectal cancer organoids with and without KRAS mutations. Using reporters, single cell transcriptomics and mass cytometry, we observe cell type-specific phosphorylation of ERK in response to transgenic KRASG12V in mouse intestinal organoids, while transgenic BRAFV600E activates ERK in all cells. Quantitative network modelling from perturbation data reveals that activation of ERK is shaped by cell type-specific MEK to ERK feed forward and negative feedback signalling. We identify dual-specificity phosphatases as candidate modulators of ERK in the intestine. Furthermore, we find that oncogenic KRAS, together with ß-Catenin, favours expansion of crypt cells with high ERK activity. Our experiments highlight key differences between oncogenic BRAF and KRAS in colorectal cancer and find unexpected heterogeneity in a signalling pathway with fundamental relevance for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/enzimologia , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 934-945, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237474

RESUMO

Cytoskeletal rearrangement and acute cytotoxicity occur in Vibrio vulnificus-infected host cells. RtxA1 toxin, a multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX), is essential for the pathogenesis of V. vulnificus and the programmed necrotic cell death. In this study, HeLa cells expressing RtxA1 amino acids 1491-1971 fused to GFP were observed to be rounded. Through yeast two-hybrid screening and subsequent immunoprecipitation validation assays, we confirmed the specific binding of a RtxA11491-1971 fragment with host-cell filamin A, an actin cross-linking scaffold protein. Downregulation of filamin A expression decreased the cytotoxicity of RtxA1 toward host cells. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPKs was induced by the RtxA1-filamin A interaction during the toxin-mediated cell death. However, the phosphorylation of these MAPKs was not observed during the RtxA1 intoxication of filamin A-deficient M2 cells. In addition, the depletion of pak1, which appeared to be activated by the RtxA1-filamin A interaction, inhibited RtxA1-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38, and the cells treated with a pak1 inhibitor exhibited decreased RtxA1-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangement and cytotoxicity. Thus, the binding of filamin A by the RtxA11491-1971 domain appears to be a requisite to pak1-mediated MAPK activation, which contributes to the cytoskeletal reorganization and host cell death.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Filaminas/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Vibrioses/metabolismo , Vibrio vulnificus/metabolismo , Quinases Ativadas por p21/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Morte Celular , Citoesqueleto/genética , Filaminas/genética , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Ligação Proteica , Vibrioses/genética , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/fisiopatologia , Vibrio vulnificus/química , Vibrio vulnificus/genética , Quinases Ativadas por p21/genética
4.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(6): 674-686, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160712

RESUMO

In vertebrates, multipotent progenitors located in the pharyngeal mesoderm form cardiomyocytes and branchiomeric head muscles, but the dynamic gene expression programmes and mechanisms underlying cardiopharyngeal multipotency and heart versus head muscle fate choices remain elusive. Here, we used single-cell genomics in the simple chordate model Ciona to reconstruct developmental trajectories forming first and second heart lineages and pharyngeal muscle precursors and characterize the molecular underpinnings of cardiopharyngeal fate choices. We show that FGF-MAPK signalling maintains multipotency and promotes the pharyngeal muscle fate, whereas signal termination permits the deployment of a pan-cardiac programme, shared by the first and second heart lineages, to define heart identity. In the second heart lineage, a Tbx1/10-Dach pathway actively suppresses the first heart lineage programme, conditioning later cell diversity in the beating heart. Finally, cross-species comparisons between Ciona and the mouse evoke the deep evolutionary origins of cardiopharyngeal networks in chordates.


Assuntos
Ciona intestinalis/genética , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculos Faríngeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Ciona intestinalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Genômica , Mesoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(22): 6169-6176, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117553

RESUMO

Dietary choline and its containing foods are biotransformed to trimethylamine (TMA) via gut microbial metabolism. Subsequently, as an intermediate molecule, TMA is quickly transported and oxidized in the liver by hepatic flavin monooxygenases to form trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). TMAO was treated as a waste byproduct from choline metabolism, but recent convincing evidence demonstrated the association between the small molecule TMAO and inflammation-related diseases, including blood vessel inflammation and vascular diseases. The scope of this study is to investigate the preventive effect of nobiletin on TMAO-induced blood vessel inflammation. Our results from Western blot showed that the inhibition of TMAO-induced cardiovascular inflammation was correlated with nobiletin-mediated inhibitory effects on NF-κB and MAPK/ERK related pathways. More specifically, nobiletin prevented the oxidative damage of vascular sites (proximal aorta), inhibited the activity of MAPK/ERK, reduced the expression of NF-κB p65 and phospho-NF-κB p65, and consequently decreased the inflammatory response. Flow cytometry analyses showed that nobiletin decreased TMAO-induced apoptosis of HUVEC cells and counteracted TMAO-induced HUVEC cell proliferation. Results from HE staining and immunohistochemical results also showed that nobiletin reduced the degree of inflammation of the proximal aorta in Sprague-Dawley rats. In summary, nobiletin significantly reduced TMAO-induced vascular inflammation via inhibition of the NF-κB/MAPK pathways.


Assuntos
Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/imunologia , Doenças Vasculares/prevenção & controle , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/imunologia , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Masculino , Metilaminas/efeitos adversos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Doenças Vasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Doenças Vasculares/imunologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048017

RESUMO

Long-term exposure of triclosan (TCS), an important antimicrobial agent, can lead to deleterious effects on liver growth and development. However, the related mechanisms on TCS-induced hepatocyte injury remain unclear. Herein, we found that after long-time TCS exposure to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) from 6 hpf (hours post-fertilization) to 90 dpf (days post-fertilization), the body weight and hepatic weight were significantly increased in concomitant with a large amount of lipid droplet accumulation in liver. Also, TCS exposure resulted in occurrence of oxidative stress by increasing the concentrations of malondialdehyde and reducing the activity of superoxide dismutase both in zebrafish larvae (120 hpf) and adult liver. By H&E staining, we observed a series of abnormal phenomena such as severely hepatocellular atrophy and necrosis, as well as prominently increased hepatic plate gap in TCS-exposure treatment groups. Through AO staining, TCS induced obvious apoptosis in larval heart and liver; through TUNEL assay, a concentration-dependent apoptosis was found to mainly occur in adult liver and its surrounding tissues. The mRNA and protein expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 decreased, while that of pro-apoptosis protein Bax significantly increased, identifying that liver injury was closely related to hepatocyte apoptosis. The significant up-regulation of MAPK and p53 at both mRNA and protein levels proved that TCS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis was closely related to activating the MAPK/p53 signaling pathway. These results strongly suggest that long-term TCS-exposure may pose a great injury to zebrafish liver development by means of activating MAPK/p53 apoptotic signaling pathway, also lay theoretical foundation for further assessing TCS-induced ecological healthy risk.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Triclosan/toxicidade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(18): 5122-5134, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995031

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation has been intensively demonstrated to be related to various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A natural polymethoxylated flavone, nobiletin (NOB) has been reported to alleviate oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and obesity. In this study, we evaluated the protection effects of NOB on neuroinflammation and memory deficit. Three-month mice were administrated with NOB by oral gavage every day for 6 weeks (100 mg/kg/day); subsequently mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 7 days. Results of behavioral tests revealed that NOB dramatically ameliorated LPS-triggered memory deficit regarding synaptic dysfunctions and neuronal loss. Also, NOB suppressed the microglial activation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion, such as COX-2, IL-1ß, TNF-α, and iNOS. Similarly, upon LPS stimulation, pretreatment NOB diminished the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines in BV-2 microglia cells by exposure to LPS via modulating MAPKs, PI3K/AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways. In addition, NOB alleviated LPS-amplified redox imbalance, disturbance of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and dampening of the expression of protein related to mitochondrial respiration. The present study provides compelling evidence that NOB decreased LPS-stimulated neuroinflammation and memory impairment through maintaining cellular oxidative balance and blocking the NF-κB transcriptional pathway, illustrating that the nutritional compound NOB may serve as a potential approach to alleviate neuroinflammation-related diseases.


Assuntos
Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/complicações , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/imunologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Transtornos da Memória/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/imunologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
8.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 55(5): 355-367, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993557

RESUMO

N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) refers to the acetylation of the free α-amino group at the N-terminus of a polypeptide. While the effects of Nt-acetylation are multifaceted, its most known function is in the acetylation-dependent N-end rule protein degradation pathway (Ac/N-end rule pathway), where Nt-acetylation is recognized as a degron by designated E3 ligases, eventually leading to target degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Naa10 is the catalytic subunit of the major Nt-acetylation enzyme NatA, which Nt-acetylates proteins whose second amino acid has a small side chain. In humans, NAA10 is the responsible mutated gene in Ogden syndrome and is thought to play important roles in development. However, it is unclear how the Ac/N-end rule pathway affects the differentiation ability of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We hypothesized that the balance of pluripotency factors may be maintained by the Ac/N-end rule pathway. Thus, we established Naa10 knockout mESCs to test this hypothesis. We found that Naa10 deficiency attenuated differentiation towards the epiblast lineage, deviating towards primitive endoderm. However, this was not caused by disturbing the balance of pluripotency factors, rather by augmenting FGF/MAPK signaling.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula/genética , Camadas Germinativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/genética , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/genética , Acetilação , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Endoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endoderma/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Camadas Germinativas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/metabolismo , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Proteólise , Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
9.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 178, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pioglitazone, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ) ligand, is known as an antidiabetic drug included in the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) class. It regulates the lipid and glucose cell metabolism and recently a role in the inhibition of numerous cancer cell processes has been described. METHODS: In our work we investigate the anti-tumor effects of pioglitazone in in vitro models of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and also, we generated ex-vivo three-dimensional (3D) cultures from human lung adenocarcinoma (ADK) as a model to test drug efficacy observed in vitro. The inhibitory effect of pioglitazone on cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell invasion in a panel of human NSCLC cell lines was evaluated by multiple assays. RESULTS: Pioglitazone reduced proliferative and invasive abilities with an IC50 ranging between 5 and 10 µM and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells. mRNA microarray expression profiling showed a down regulation of MAPK, Myc and Ras genes after treatment with pioglitazone; altered gene expression was confirmed by protein analysis in a dose-related reduction of survivin and phosphorylated proteins levels of MAPK pathway. Interestingly mRNA microarray analysis showed also that pioglitazone affects TGFß pathway, which is important in the epithelial-to-mesenchimal transition (EMT) process, by down-regulating TGFßR1 and SMAD3 mRNA expression. In addition, extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and a proportional reduction of markers of altered glucose metabolism in treated cells demonstrated also cell bioenergetics modulation by pioglitazone. CONCLUSIONS: Data indicate that PPAR-γ agonists represent an attractive treatment tool and by suppression of cell growth (in vitro and ex vivo models) and of invasion via blockade of MAPK cascade and TGFß/SMADs signaling, respectively, and its role in cancer bioenergetics and metabolism indicate that PPAR-γ agonists represent an attractive treatment tool for NSCLC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR gama/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/genética , Proteína Smad3/genética , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , PPAR gama/agonistas , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética
10.
Int J Oncol ; 54(5): 1785-1796, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864683

RESUMO

Although treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has improved with the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), patients develop fatal blast crisis (BC) whilst receiving TKI treatment. Alternative treatments for cases resistant to TKIs are required. A serine/threonine protein kinase, T­lymphokine­activated killer cell­originated protein kinase (TOPK), is highly expressed in various malignant tumors. Binding of peptides to human leukocyte antigen was assessed via mass spectrometry in K562 CML cells. TOPK expression was assessed in various CML cell lines and in clinical samples obtained from patients with CML using reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays. It was observed that TOPK was expressed abundantly in BCR/ABL­positive cell lines and at significantly higher levels in CML clinical samples compared with healthy donor samples. Overexpression of BCR/ABL or the presence of its inhibitor imatinib upregulated and downregulated TOPK expression, respectively, indicating that TOPK may be a target of BCR/ABL. TOPK inhibitor OTS514 suppressed proliferation of BCR/ABL­positive cell lines and colony formation of CD34­positive cells from patients with CML compared with lymphoma patients without bone marrow involvement. Furthermore, phosphorylation of TOPK was increased by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor okadaic acid and was decreased in the presence of PP2A activator FTY720 compared with untreated samples. As constitutive BCR/ABL activity and inhibition of PP2A are key mechanisms of CML development, TOPK may be a crucial signaling molecule for this disease. Inhibition of TOPK may control disease status of CML, even in cases resistant to TKIs.


Assuntos
Crise Blástica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Crise Blástica/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno HLA-A24/genética , Antígeno HLA-A24/metabolismo , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosforilação , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871060

RESUMO

Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a bioactive component in the human diet, has been reported to improve hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and obesity in rats with metabolic syndrome. However, GA-specific target proteins and the mechanisms involved in the downstream signaling and cross-talk to improve insulin sensitivity have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the potential targets of GA were identified by chemical proteomics strategies using serial GA probes for target fishing and cell molecular imaging. Intracellular enzyme activity evaluation and insulin resistance models were used for validating the function of the target proteins on the downstream insulin signaling pathways. Collectively, our data demonstrate that GA improved the insulin-responsive pathway and glucose consumption levels via multiple diabetogenic factors that activated the insulin signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. GA improved Glucose transporter 4(GLUT4) expression by targeting the Ras protein to regulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. GA exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on IRS1ser307 phosphorylation in cells treated with the Protein kinase C (PKC) activator Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA.) Consistently, IRS1ser307 phosphorylation was also inhibited by GA in Free fatty acid (FFA)-treated HepG2 cells. GA also inhibited the PMA-induced phosphorylation of IκB kinase α/ß (IKKα/ß), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 proteins (P38), suggesting that IKKα/ß, JNK and P38 activation is dependent on PKC activity.


Assuntos
Ácido Glicirretínico/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Glucose/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas ras/genética
12.
Cell Prolif ; 52(3): e12593, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The evolutionary conserved JNK pathway plays crucial role in cell death, yet factors that modulate this signalling have not been fully disclosed. In this study, we aim to identify additional factors that regulate JNK signalling in cell death, and characterize the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Drosophila were raised on standard media, and cross was carried out at 25°C. The Gal4/UAS system was used to express proteins or RNAi in a specific temporal and spatial pattern. Gene expression was revealed by GFP fluorescence, X-gal staining or immunostaining of 3rd instar larval eye and wing discs. Cell death was visualized by acridine orange (AO) staining. Images of fly eyes and wings were taken by OLYMPUS microscopes. RESULTS: We found that licorne (lic) encoding the Drosophila MKK3 is an essential regulator of JNK-mediated cell death. Firstly, loss of lic suppressed ectopic Egr-triggered JNK activation and cell death in eye and wing development. Secondary, lic is necessary for loss-of-cell polarity-induced, physiological JNK-dependent cell death in wing development. Thirdly, Lic overexpression is sufficient to initiate JNK-mediated cell death in developing eyes and wings. Furthermore, ectopic Lic activates JNK signalling by promoting JNK phosphorylation. Finally, genetic epistatic analysis confirmed that Lic acts in parallel with Hep in the Egr-JNK pathway. CONCLUSIONS: This study not only identified Lic as a novel component of the JNK signalling, but also disclosed the crucial roles and mechanism of Lic in cell death.


Assuntos
Morte Celular , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Morte Celular/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Epistasia Genética , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olho/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes de Insetos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Interferência de RNA , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
13.
Gene ; 696: 95-104, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779945

RESUMO

The high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway regulates the adaptation of fungi to environmental stressors. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) PBS2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as a scaffold protein in the HOG pathway. We characterized the pgpbs gene of Pyrenophora graminea, which encodes a MAPKK that is 56% orthologous to PBS2 of S. cerevisiae. A cloning technique based on homology was applied to amplify the pgpbs gene. Specific silent mutations then were generated in pgpbs. We evaluated the potential roles of PGPBS in the osmotic response, vegetative differentiation, cell wall integrity, drug resistance, and pathogenicity. Our findings indicated that the pgpbs coding region comprises 2075 base pairs and encodes a protein of 676 amino acids. Mutants deficient in pgpbs expression had significant reductions in vegetative growth and were sensitive to calcofluor white (CFW), an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis. Mutants also lost pathogenicity and were sensitive to an osmotic stress-inducing medium containing NaCl and sorbitol. Moreover, mutants had increased resistance to the dicarboximide fungicide iprodione and the triazole fungicide tebuconazole. These findings suggest that pgpbs is involved in the osmotic and ionic stress responses, vegetative differentiation, cell wall integrity, virulence, and tolerance to iprodione and tebuconazole. We expect that our findings will help elucidate the pathogenesis of barley leaf stripe and will inform strategies for breeding resistance to this disease.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Hordeum/microbiologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análogos & derivados , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Benzenossulfonatos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Hidantoínas/farmacologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Virulência/genética
14.
Food Funct ; 10(2): 1132-1145, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724927

RESUMO

Multiple articles have confirmed that an imbalance of the intestinal microbiota is closely related to aberrant immune responses of the intestines and to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Probiotic strains have been identified for the treatment and prevention of IBDs. The aim of this study was to screen a new probiotic strain with anti-inflammatory activity and investigate the potential mechanisms underlying its activity. We identified a new probiotic strain, L. lactis ML2018, that has anti-inflammatory properties and was isolated from traditional fermented food. In an in vitro experiment, L. lactis ML2018 prevented the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the production of inflammatory factors induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in RAW264.7 cells. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of L. lactis ML2018 were evaluated using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced animal model of colitis. Oral administration of L. lactis ML2018 significantly ameliorated colitis induced by DSS, which included preventing a decrease in body weight, shortening of the colon length and apoptosis of epithelial cells. L. lactis ML2018 could inhibit DSS-induced intestinal inflammation by preventing the overproduction of proinflammatory factors, suppressing the infiltration of macrophages, controlling the fibrosis, improving the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier and upregulating the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Moreover, L. lactis ML2018 could prevent inflammation by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. These data suggest that L. lactis ML2018 could have therapeutic potential for treating IBDs.


Assuntos
Colite/induzido quimicamente , Lactococcus lactis , Probióticos , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Colite/terapia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
15.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 42(2): 197-209, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645729

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recurrence is a major cause of colorectal cancer (CRC)-related death. As yet, the accurate identification of CRC patients at high risk of recurrence is still a major clinical challenge. Previously, we found that an estrogen receptor (ER) pathway gene signature may predict disease recurrence in CRC patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential application of additional pathway-specific gene signatures in the prediction of CRC recurrence. METHODS: The activities of 26 cancer-related pathways in CRC were semi-quantified using gene signature-based Bayesian binary regression analysis, and putative associations of the pathways with cancer recurrence risk were assessed using survival analysis. RESULTS: Among the 26 pathways tested, inactivation of the estrogen receptor (ER) pathway was found to be one of the most common events in CRC. Inactivation of this pathway was found to be frequently accompanied by over-activation of the BRAF/MEK pathway, and these two pathways were found to be associated with opposite effects on several clinicopathological CRC features, including microsatellite instability, subsite location, advanced stage and recurrence. Survival analysis of four independent CRC patient cohorts revealed that while the BRAF/MEK pathway was more strongly associated with recurrence than the ER pathway in mixed-stage CRCs, the ER pathway was a better predictor of recurrence than the BRAF/MEK pathway in stage II CRC. A combined use of these two pathways improved the prediction of CRC recurrence in both mixed stage CRC (n = 1122; overall HR: 2.518, 95% CI: 1.570-4.038, p < 0.001) and stage II CRC (n = 535; overall HR: 1.976, 95% CI: 1.306-2.989, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Combined activity of the ER and BRAF/MEK pathways may represent a novel biomarker for CRC prognosis and clinical management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 67: 465-472, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597292

RESUMO

Rosmarinic acid (RA) has antioxidation, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and various biological functions. In our study, we aim to evaluate effects of RA on acute liver injury caused by LPS and d-galactosamine (d-GalN) and its underlying molecular mechanism in mice. Our findings showed that RA could protect C57BL/6 mice from LPS/d-GalN-induced acute liver injury, which not only reflected on declining aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of the serum, but also restrained the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 protein expression and the content of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) elevation. Moreover, RA could enhance the level of glutathione-dependent peroxidase (GSH-PX). Furthermore, RA promoted that nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transported into nucleus, and then up-regulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC), glutamate cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM) and quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1). These results indicated that RA could protect the mice from acute liver injury induced by LPS/d-GalN.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Galactosamina/toxicidade , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo
17.
Mar Drugs ; 17(1)2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626153

RESUMO

Chitooligosaccharides (COS), the hydrolyzed products of chitin and chitosan, can be obtained by various methods. In this study, water-soluble COS were prepared from α- and ß-chitosan by microwave-assisted degradation and their immunostimulatory effects were investigated in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that α-COS were more active than ß-COS in promoting the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting indicated that COS also enhanced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α. Further analyses demonstrated that COS induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, p85 and Akt, and the nuclear translocation of p65, indicating that they are able to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways dependent on nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. In conclusion, COS activate RAW 264.7 cells via the MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and are potential novel immune potentiators.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Quitina/análogos & derivados , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Quitina/química , Quitina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(3): 311-319, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552452

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: CLV3p-mediated phosphorylation of MPK3 and MPK6 occurs via CLV1 and BAM1 receptors to regulate the maintenance of SAM development. The CLAVATA peptide-receptor (CLV3p-CLV1) pathway modulates a homeodomain master regulator WUSCHEL (WUS) transcription factor in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) with poorly defined signaling mechanisms. Here, we report that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, also known as MPKs in plants) act in an intracellular signaling cascade to play an important role in the maintenance of SAM development. Interestingly, the application of exogenous CLV3p triggers rapid signaling in the SAM via dynamic activation of MPK3 and MPK6, which are positively regulated by both CLV1 and BARELY ANY MERISTEM 1 (BAM1) receptors. Surprisingly, the timing of MAPK activation is tightly correlated with the transcriptional repression of WUS expression in the SAM, indicating a fast CLV3p-CLV1/BAM1 signaling event. Furthermore, conditional mpk3,6 double mutants exhibited CLV3p insensitivity in stem cell maintenance manifested by the persistent SAM growth in the presence of exogenous CLV3p signals, as well as elevated WUS expression and repressed WUS-specific target genes. Taken together, these results suggest that MPK3 and MPK6 activated by CLV3p signals through mainly CLV1 and BAM1 receptors are key regulators controlling stem cell homeostasis in the SAM.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Homeostase/fisiologia , Meristema/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567287

RESUMO

Alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A), a natural triterpenoid, has been reported to exert hepatoprotective and antitumor activities. Aiming to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity, this study examined the effect of AB23A on mast cells and allergic reaction. AB23A inhibited the degranulation of mast cells stimulated by immunoglobulin E/antigen (IgE/Ag), and also decreased the synthesis of leukotriene C4 (LTC4), production of interlukin-6 (IL-6), and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a concentration-dependent manner with no significant cytotoxicity in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). AB23A inhibited spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and the downstream signaling molecules including phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ), serine-threonine protein kinase/inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase/nuclear factor kappa-B (Akt/IKK/NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinases/cytosolic phospholipase A2 (MAPK/cPLA2). Furthermore, AB23A blocked mobilization of Ca2+. Similar results were obtained in other mast cell lines Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells and a human mast cell line (HMC-1). In addition, AB23A attenuated allergic responses in an acute allergy animal model, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). Taken together, this study suggests that AB23A inhibits the activation of mast cells and ameliorates allergic reaction, and may become a lead compound for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Colestenonas/farmacologia , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Leucotrieno C4/biossíntese , Mastócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosfolipase C gama/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Ratos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/enzimologia , Quinase Syk
20.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007880, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586356

RESUMO

Signaling pathways that control the activities in non-photosynthetic plastids, important sites of plant metabolism, are largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that WRKY2 and WRKY34 transcription factors play an essential role in pollen development downstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6 in Arabidopsis. Here, we report that GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE/PHOSPHATE TRANSLOCATOR 1 (GPT1) is a key target gene of WRKY2/WRKY34. GPT1 transports glucose-6-phosphate (Glc6P) into plastids for starch and/or fatty acid biosynthesis depending on the plant species. Loss of function of WRKY2/WRKY34 results in reduced GPT1 expression, and concomitantly, reduced accumulation of lipid bodies in mature pollen, which leads to compromised pollen viability, germination, pollen tube growth, and male transmission in Arabidopsis. Pollen-specific overexpression of GPT1 rescues the pollen defects of wrky2 wrky34 double mutant. Furthermore, gain-of-function activation of MPK3/MPK6 enhances GPT1 expression; whereas GPT1 expression is reduced in mkk4 mkk5 double mutant. Together, this study revealed a cytoplasmic/nuclear signaling pathway capable of coordinating the metabolic activities in plastids. High-level expression of GPT1 at late stages of pollen development drives Glc6P from cytosol into plastids, where Glc6P is used for fatty acid biosynthesis, an important step of lipid body biogenesis. The accumulation of lipid bodies during pollen maturation is essential to pollen fitness and successful reproduction.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Lipogênese , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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