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1.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 125-128, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647984

RESUMO

The chigger, Euschoengastia pipistrelli Brennan, is a trombiculid mite that infests a variety of vespertilionid bats in North America. It has been reported from at least 9 species of bats from 18 U.S. states. However, nothing is available on the actual in situ infestation and ultrastructure of this chigger. Here we document some stereoscopic photographs of the infestation as well as a scanning electron micrograph of the mite from a common bat species. We also provide a summation of host and state records for this chigger.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Trombiculíase/veterinária , Trombiculidae/ultraestrutura , Animais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Trombiculíase/parasitologia , Estados Unidos
2.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(2): 255-264, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920651

RESUMO

Argasid ticks are a diverse group of acarines that parasitize numerous vertebrate hosts. Along with birds, bats serve as hosts for several argasid ticks, which are commonly found in bat caves. Argasid ticks have regained attention from tick taxonomists in recent decades, with a number of new species described in various zoogeographical regions. Nonetheless, studies on their ecology are still scarce. We conducted a 1-year longitudinal study to assess the presence of argasid ticks in a bat cave in the drylands of north-eastern Brazil and evaluate their possible response to abiotic factors. From July 2014 to June 2015, 490 ticks were collected (272 nymphs, 169 males and 49 females) in a cave chamber hosting a large colony of Pteronotus spp. bats, being relatively more frequent from July to December 2014. Adults were identified as Antricola guglielmonei, whereas nymphs were assigned to the genus Antricola. Almost all ticks (98%) were collected on the cave walls. Only 2% were on the ceiling and, surprisingly, no specimens were found on the floor and/or guano. Adults were usually clustered in the crevices and little mobile, whereas nymphs were dispersed and more active, moving over the walls or ceiling of the cave. Although present in most of the studied period, there was a significantly negative correlation between tick abundance and relatively humidity, and A. guglielmonei was more frequent during the dry season. Moreover, there was no evident correlation between the abundance of ticks and bats. Further long-term studies will be able to verify whether this pattern is repeated over time, and even whether other variables can influence the population dynamics of A. guglielmonei.


Assuntos
Argasidae , Cavernas , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
3.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e3, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501016

RESUMO

Sixty-four individuals of a macronyssid mite, Parasteatonyssus nyctinomi (Zumpt, Patterson 1951), were identified from Egyptian free-tailed bats Tadarida aegyptiaca (É. Geoffroy 1818) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) captured in the Kunene region of Namibia (southern Africa). This is the first report on P. nyctinomi in the country.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Ácaros/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Namíbia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 428-436, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458775

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease that infects more than seven million people in Latin America. The parasite is transmitted by triatomine insects, of which some species are often associated with palms. The establishment of oil palm plantations (Elaeis guineensis) in the Orinoco region (Colombia) has been rapidly growing, possibly constituting a new environment for the establishment and increase in triatomine populations. In this study, the potential of Rhodnius prolixus to colonize E. guineensis plantations and maintain T. cruzi transmission was assessed. Fieldwork was conducted in two areas located in the department of Casanare for sampling E. guineensis and Attalea butyracea palms, sampling for triatomines to determine their abundance and prevalence of T. cruzi infection. To assess T. cruzi transmission potential in the area, sylvatic and domestic mammals were sampled. Results showed that palm infestation with triatomines was higher in A. butyracea than in E. guineensis palms and T. cruzi infection in triatomines varied between habitats for one study area, but was constant in the other site. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mammals in the E. guineensis plantations were mainly generalist rodents, suggesting that these mammals could have an important role in T. cruzi transmission in plantations. In conclusion, E. guineensis plantations in the Orinoco region are suitable habitats for R. prolixus and T. cruzi transmission.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Cães/parasitologia , Florestas , Gambás/parasitologia , Óleo de Palmeira , Roedores/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 23, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasites are able to alter numerous aspects of their hosts' life history, behaviour and distribution. One central question in parasitology is to determine the degree of impact that parasites have on their hosts. Laboulbeniales (Fungi: Ascomycota) are ectoparasitic fungi of arthropods. Even though these fungi are widely distributed, little is known about their ecology and their possible physiological effects on their hosts. We used a highly specific bat fly-fungi association to assess the effect of these fungal parasites on their dipteran hosts. METHODS: We collected bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) belonging to two species, Nycteribia schmidlii and Penicillidia conspicua from their bat host Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Miniopteridae). We experimentally tested the effect of infection on the lifespan of bat flies. RESULTS: The prevalence of Laboulbeniales fungi was 17.9% in N. schmidlii and 64.8% in P. conspicua. Two fungi species were identified, Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae and A. nycteribiae, both showing strict host specificity with N. schmidlii and P. conspicua, respectively. We found that fungal infection reduced by half the survival rate of P. conspicua regardless of sex, whereas N. schmidlii was not affected by the infection. Moreover, the intensity of infection showed negative correlation with the lifespan of P. conspicua. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first indication that fungal infection can alter bat fly survival and thus may play a significant role in the population dynamics of these bat ectoparasites.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Dípteros/microbiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Animais , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Micoses/microbiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Prevalência
6.
Gigascience ; 9(1)2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adapted to different ecological niches, moth species belonging to the Hyles genus exhibit a spectacular diversity of larval color patterns. These species diverged ∼7.5 million years ago, making this rather young genus an interesting system to study a wide range of questions including the process of speciation, ecological adaptation, and adaptive radiation. RESULTS: Here we present a high-quality genome assembly of the bat hawkmoth Hyles vespertilio, the first reference genome of a member of the Hyles genus. We generated 51× Pacific Biosciences long reads with an average read length of 8.9 kb. Pacific Biosciences reads longer than 4 kb were assembled into contigs, resulting in a 651.4-Mb assembly consisting of 530 contigs with an N50 value of 7.5 Mb. The circular mitochondrial contig has a length of 15,303 bp. The H. vespertilio genome is very repeat-rich and exhibits a higher repeat content (50.3%) than other Bombycoidea species such as Bombyx mori (45.7%) and Manduca sexta (27.5%). We developed a comprehensive gene annotation workflow to obtain consensus gene models from different evidence including gene projections, protein homology, transcriptome data, and ab initio predictions. The resulting gene annotation is highly complete with 94.5% of BUSCO genes being completely present, which is higher than the BUSCO completeness of the B. mori (92.2%) and M. sexta (90%) annotations. CONCLUSIONS: Our gene annotation strategy has general applicability to other genomes, and the H. vespertilio genome provides a valuable molecular resource to study a range of questions in this genus, including phylogeny, incomplete lineage sorting, speciation, and hybridization. A genome browser displaying the genome, alignments, and annotations is available at https://genome-public.pks.mpg.de/cgi-bin/hgTracks?db=HLhylVes1.


Assuntos
Genoma , Genômica , Mariposas/genética , Animais , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 10, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing molecular evidence supports that bats and/or their ectoparasites may harbor vector-borne bacteria, such as bartonellae and borreliae. However, the simultaneous occurrence of rickettsiae in bats and bat ticks has been poorly studied. METHODS: In this study, 54 bat carcasses and their infesting soft ticks (n = 67) were collected in Shihezi City, northwestern China. The heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine and large intestine of bats were dissected, followed by DNA extraction. Soft ticks were identified both morphologically and molecularly. All samples were examined for the presence of rickettsiae by amplifying four genetic markers (17-kDa, gltA, ompA and ompB). RESULTS: All bats were identified as Pipistrellus pipistrellus, and their ticks as Argas vespertilionis. Molecular analyses showed that DNA of Rickettsia parkeri, R. lusitaniae, R. slovaca and R. raoultii was present in bat organs/tissues. In addition, nine of the 67 bat soft ticks (13.43%) were positive for R. raoultii (n = 5) and R. rickettsii (n = 4). In the phylogenetic analysis, these bat-associated rickettsiae clustered together with conspecific sequences reported from other host and tick species, confirming the above results. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, DNA of R. parkeri, R. slovaca and R. raoultii was detected for the first time in bat organs/tissues. This is also the first molecular evidence for the presence of R. raoultii and R. rickettsii in bat ticks. To our knowledge, R. parkeri was not known to occur in Asia. Our results highlight the need to assess rickettsial agents in a broader range of bat species and associated tick species.


Assuntos
Argas/genética , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Argas/classificação , Argas/fisiologia , China , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Rim/microbiologia , Rim/parasitologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Filogenia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 97-104, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735993

RESUMO

Blastocystis spp. are common intestinal parasites found worldwide in humans and a wide range of animals. They exhibit extensive genetic diversity; currently, 17 subtypes (STs) and some groups called non-mammalian and avian STs (NMASTs) have been proposed. In addition, a large variety of animals have been reported as hosts of the parasite, and new hosts and STs are still being described. In this study, Blastocystis infection of wild animals in two sylvatic areas of Mexico was surveyed. Of one hundred twenty-four fecal samples, six were positive for Blastocystis: specifically, one sample from an opossum, one sample from a bat, and four samples from different species of rodents. ST4, ST17, and nucleotide sequences similar to Blastocystis lapemi were identified based on SSU rDNA sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate species poorly or not previously evaluated for Blastocystis infection. Mammals having different niches and geographical distribution were infected with similar genetic type of Blastocystis, so that we suggest that local water or food sources could play an important role in Blastocystis transmission and ST maintenance in wild animals. Additionally, there are STs with scarce genetic variation, suggesting that they could be highly adapted to their hosts. These data contribute to our understanding of the host range and genetic diversity of Blastocystis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Animais , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , México , Tipagem Molecular , Gambás/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia
9.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 145: 106705, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821880

RESUMO

Understanding geographic patterns of interaction between hosts and parasites can provide useful insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. However, poor taxon sampling often hinders meaningful phylogenetic descriptions of groups of parasites. Trypanosome parasites that constitute the Trypanosoma cruzi clade are worldwide distributed infecting several mammalian species, especially bats. Diversity in this clade has been recently expanded by newly discovered species, but the common ancestor and geographical origins of this group of blood parasites are still debated. We present here results based on the molecular characterization of trypanosome isolates obtained from 1493 bats representing 74 species and sampled over 16 countries across four continents. After estimating the appropriate number of hypothetical species in our data set using GMYC models in combination with Poisson Tree Processes (mPTP) and ABGD, the 18S rRNA and gGAPDH genes were used for phylogenetic analyses to infer the major evolutionary relationships in the T. cruzi clade. Then, biogeographical processes influencing the distribution of this cosmopolitan group of parasites was inferred using BioGeoBEARS. Results revealed a large lineages diversity and the presence of trypanosomes in all sampled regions which infected 344 individuals from 31 bat species. We found eight Trypanosoma species, including: five previously known; one subspecies of Trypanosoma livingstonei (Trypanosoma cf. livingstonei); and two undescribed taxa (Trypanosoma sp. 1, Trypanosoma sp. 2), which were found exclusively in bats of the genus Miniopterus from Europe and Africa. The new taxa discovered have both an unexpected position in the global phylogeny of the T. cruzi clade. Trypanosoma sp. 1 is a sister lineage of T. livingstonei which is located at the base of the tree, whereas Trypanosoma sp. 2 is a sister lineage of the Shizotrypanum subclade that contains T. c. cruzi and T. dionisii. Ancestral areas reconstruction provided evidence that trypanosomes of the T. cruzi clade have radiated from Africa through several dispersion events across the world. We discuss the impact of these findings on the biogeography and taxonomy of this important clade of parasites and question the role played by bats, especially those from the genus Miniopterus, on the dispersal of these protozoan parasites between continents.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação , África , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Europa (Continente) , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (Fosforiladora)/classificação , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (Fosforiladora)/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 605, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasites may actively seek for hosts and may use a number of adaptive strategies to promote their reproductive success and host colonization. These strategies will necessarily influence their host specificity and seasonality. Ticks are important ectoparasites of vertebrates, which (in addition to directly affecting their hosts) may transmit a number of pathogens. In Europe, three hard tick species (Ixodidae: Ixodes ariadnae, I. simplex and I. vespertilionis) and at least two soft tick species (Argasidae: Argas transgariepinus and A. vespertilionis) are specialized for bats. METHODS: Here we report data on the host range of these ticks and the seasonality of tick infestation on wild caught bats in south-east Europe. We collected 1803 ticks from 30 species of bats living in underground shelters (caves and mines) from Romania and Bulgaria. On the basis of tick-host associations, we tested several hypotheses on host-parasite evolutionary adaptations regulating host specificity, seasonality and sympatric speciation. RESULTS: We observed significant differences in host specificity and seasonality of abundance between the morphologically different bat specialist ticks (I. simplex and I. vespertilionis) likely caused by their host choice and their respective host-seeking behavior. The two highly generalist, but morphologically similar tick species (I. ariadnae and I. vespertilionis) showed temporal differences in occurrence and activity, thus exploiting significantly different host communities while occurring in geographical sympatry. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that bat-specialist ticks show a wide range of adaptations to their hosts, with differences in specificity, seasonality of occurrence, the prevalence and intensity of infestation and all these contribute to a successful division of temporal niches of ticks sharing morphologically similar hosts occurring in geographical sympatry.


Assuntos
Argas/fisiologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Ixodes/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Argas/classificação , Argas/genética , Bulgária , Quirópteros/classificação , Ixodes/classificação , Ixodes/genética , Filogenia , Romênia , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180436, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778450

RESUMO

Fifty-five adult Dicrocoelium rileyi Macy, 1931 parasitizing Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824) from Durango, Nuevo Leon, Puebla, Zacatecas and Mexico State were morphologically described and morphometrically analyzed. To evaluate the degree of variation among populations from the five localities, 27 morphometric measures of this species were transformed into an orthogonal factor by principal component analysis (PCA), and a posterior comparison among populations was performed using discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC). Significant differences were observed with exceptions between the Puebla - Zacatecas and Nuevo Leon - Mexico State populations when forming three groups with an 88 % assignation. The Durango population was the most dissimilar population. These results show that the morphological traits of D. rileyi are variable among the populations in this study due to local intraspecific variation; however, some of the specimens present in the distinct localities may represent different species. Molecular analysis is necessary to accurately define whether the populations involved in our study constitute one or several species.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Dicrocoelium/anatomia & histologia , Dicrocoelium/classificação , Animais , Dicrocoelium/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Masculino , México , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
J Parasitol ; 105(5): 783-792, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633437

RESUMO

The nematode genus Bidigiticauda has 2 species (Bidigiticauda vivipara and Bidigiticauda embryophilum), which are parasites of bats from the Neotropical region. The present paper describes a new species of Bidigiticauda from a male Artibeus planirostris specimen collected in the Pratigi Environmental Protection Area in Bahia state, Brazil. The new species, Bidigiticauda serrafreirei n. sp., differs from B. embryophilum by having longer spicules, rays 5 and 6 arising from a common trunk and bifurcating in its first third, rays 3 and 4 emerging slightly separated from each other, and dorsal rays reaching the margin of the caudal bursa. The new species also differs from B. vivipara by the dorsal ray bifurcating at the extremity of the trunk. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted to determine the evolutionary affinities of Bidigiticauda serrafreirei n. sp. within the Strongylida, which identified a clade that grouped Bidigiticauda with the other members of the Anoplostrongylinae. However, the molineid subfamilies did not group together, indicating that the family Molineidae is polyphyletic. Further analyses, which include additional taxa and genetic markers, should elucidate the complex relationships within the Molineidae, in particular its subfamilies and the evolution of the traits that define these groups.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Filogenia , Trichostrongyloidea/classificação , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/veterinária , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Trichostrongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Trichostrongyloidea/genética , Trichostrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Tricostrongiloidíase/parasitologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3972, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481692

RESUMO

Genetic exchange enables parasites to rapidly transform disease phenotypes and exploit new host populations. Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasitic agent of Chagas disease and a public health concern throughout Latin America, has for decades been presumed to exchange genetic material rarely and without classic meiotic sex. We present compelling evidence from 45 genomes sequenced from southern Ecuador that T. cruzi in fact maintains truly sexual, panmictic groups that can occur alongside others that remain highly clonal after past hybridization events. These groups with divergent reproductive strategies appear genetically isolated despite possible co-occurrence in vectors and hosts. We propose biological explanations for the fine-scale disconnectivity we observe and discuss the epidemiological consequences of flexible reproductive modes. Our study reinvigorates the hunt for the site of genetic exchange in the T. cruzi life cycle, provides tools to define the genetic determinants of parasite virulence, and reforms longstanding theory on clonality in trypanosomatid parasites.


Assuntos
Genoma de Protozoário , Meiose , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Equador , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Recombinação Genética , Reprodução/genética , Roedores/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Triatominae/parasitologia
14.
Parasitol Res ; 118(11): 3185-3189, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473856

RESUMO

A total of 482 bats representing 32 species and two families were captured in the Amazon forests of the Amapá state in northern Brazil. Nineteen Artibeus planirostris bats (3.9 %) were infested with 160 ticks, all identified as Ornithodoros hasei. Three pools of larvae were screened for rickettsial DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes: gltA, ompA and htrA. Only one of them yielded an amplicons of the expected size for all three molecular assays. Comparisons of the obtained sequences including a phylogenetic analysis confirmed the occurrence of "Candidatus Rickettsia wissemanii" in Brazil.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/microbiologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Ornithodoros/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Proteínas Periplásmicas/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rickettsia/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
15.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2919-2924, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493064

RESUMO

The transmission of diseases through parasites is a key mechanism in the regulation of plant and animal populations in ecosystems. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the relative effect of the variables that can shape the specificity of host-parasite interactions. Previous studies have found that specialization of antagonistic interactions between fly ectoparasites and bats changes according to forest type, host richness, and roosting ecology of bats. In this study, we tested these hypotheses using data from 48 bat communities. In general, our results support previous findings that bat-fly interactions are specialized, resulting in lower niche overlap among bat flies species. In addition, we found that the specificity of bat-fly interactions is lower in tropical mountain forests and is positively related with the richness of bat host species of each study site. Finally, there was a higher bat flies niche overlap in smaller bat-fly interaction networks recorded in bat roosts in caves. We conclude that the roosting ecology of bats could be a key factor to understand the mechanisms related to the horizontal transmission of ectoparasitic flies among bats.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Parasitos/fisiologia , Animais , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Florestas
16.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(7): 595-602, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367960

RESUMO

In South America, early descriptions of soft tick species were based on examination of the external morphology of the larval stages. In many cases, specimens were collected only once as it is the case of some bat-associated Ornithodoros spp. If we are to understand the systematic scenario of South American soft ticks, these species become axial questions to be re-studied from a morphological and molecular point of view. The objective of this study was to assess the taxonomic identity of soft tick larvae collected on bats inhabiting crevices of a large rock in the Rondônia State (RO), Brazilian Amazon. After a detailed morphological analysis using light microscopy, three large engorged larvae sharing the same phenotype were identified as Ornithodoros setosus Kohls, Clifford & Jones, 1969, a species collected in 1964 on bats in RO. Remarkably, maximum parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on tick 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequences obtained from two of these specimens showed that O. setosus indeed corresponds to a species of Nothoaspis Keirans & Clifford, 1975. Therefore, a new combination, Nothoaspis setosus (Kohls, Clifford & Jones, 1969), is herein proposed. While an elongated triangular dorsal plate with a curvy-notched posterior margin, and bulges in the lateral margins of basis capitulum correspond to common characters in larvae of the genus Nothoaspis, polymorphic traits are represented by minute cornua in the basis of the capitulum, the dentition of the hypostomal tip, triangular spurs on coxae I, and the number of dorsal and circumanal setae.


Assuntos
Argasidae/classificação , Argasidae/fisiologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Animais , Argasidae/citologia , Argasidae/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007527, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291252

RESUMO

We studied infection by Trypanosomatidae in bats captured in two areas with different degradation levels in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro state: Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçu (REGUA) and Estação Fiocruz Mata Atlântica (EFMA). Furthermore, we evaluated whether the diversity of trypanosomatids changes according to bat diversity and the different levels of preservation in the region. The results showed no influence of the level of preservation on bat species richness (15 and 14 species, respectively), with similar chiropterofauna and higher abundance of two common fruit-eating bat species in the tropics: Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus lituratus. Of the 181 bat specimens analyzed by LIT/Schneider hemoculture, we detected 24 infected individuals (13%), including one positive Sturnira lilium individual that was also positive by fresh blood examination. Molecular characterization using nested PCR targeting the 18 SSU rRNA-encoding gene fragment showed similar trypanosomatid infection rates in bats from the two areas: 15% in REGUA and 11% in EFMA (p = 0.46). Trypanosoma dionisii was the most frequently detected parasite (54%), followed by T. cruzi DTUs TcI and TcIV and Trypanosoma sp., in Neotropical phyllostomid bats (RNMO63 and RNMO56); mixed infections by T. dionisii/T. cruzi TcIII and T. dionisii/T. cruzi TcI were also observed. The T. cruzi DTUs TcI and TcIV are the genotypes currently involved in cases of acute Chagas disease in Brazil, and T. dionisii was recently found in the heart tissue of an infected child. Surprisingly, we also describe for the first time Crithidia mellificae, a putative monoxenous parasite from insects, infecting a vertebrate host in the Americas. Bats from the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro state harbor a great diversity of trypanosomatids, maintaining trypanosomatid diversity in this sylvatic environment.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Crithidia/genética , Crithidia/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma/genética , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Florestas , Genótipo , Masculino , Filogenia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
18.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(7): 617-624, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332673

RESUMO

Metadelphis tkachi n. sp. is described based on material from the gall-bladder of Molossus molossus (Pallas) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in the Brazilian eastern Amazon. The main differentiating characters of the new species include lobed, tandem testes and elongated clusters of vitelline follicles commencing at the level of the seminal receptacle. The new species can be distinguished from Metadelphis lenti (Santos & Gibson, 1998) and Metadelphis apharyngotrema (Marshall & Miller, 1979) by the shape and position of the testes; from Metadelphis evandroi Travassos, 1944 by having tandem, lobed testes and shorter clusters of vitelline follicles; from Metadelphis compactus Travassos, 1955 by having tandem testes and more elongated clusters of vitelline follicles, and from Metadelphis alverangai Travassos, 1955 by having smaller testes and body, and vitellarium with large follicles. New morphological data are reported for M. lenti based on light and scanning electron microscopy; intraspecific variation was observed.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Dicrocoeliidae/classificação , Dicrocoeliidae/fisiologia , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Dicrocoeliidae/anatomia & histologia , Dicrocoeliidae/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Infect Genet Evol ; 75: 103978, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352147

RESUMO

Phylogenetic inference of Hepatocystis, a haemosporidian parasite of diverse primate and bat hosts, revealed that the parasites from Australasian Pteropus bat species form a distinct clade to all other Hepatocystis parasites from Africa and Asia. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic placement of Hepatocystis in the Australian bat Pteropus poliocephalus for the first time and examine parasite morphology and prevalence from selected points across its range. Hepatocystis infections were detected in low prevalences in P. poliocephalus in contrast to high numbers in P. alecto and P. scapulatus. The prevalence in P. poliocephalus varied across its distribution range with 15% in the central biogeographic areas (central Queensland and New South Wales) and 1% in the southern-most edge (South Australia) of its range. Sequencing of five genes revealed high genetic similarity in Hepatocystis of P. poliocephalus independent of sampling location. Phylogenetic analysis placed these parasites with Hepatocystis from other Pteropus species from Australia and Asia. While numerous haplotypes were identified among sequences from the Pteropus hosts, no patterns of host specificity were recovered within the Pteropus-specific parasite group.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Ásia , Austrália , Haemosporida/genética , New South Wales , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Queensland
20.
J Parasitol ; 105(4): 555-566, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348717

RESUMO

Dispersal influences the evolution and adaptation of organisms, but it can be difficult to detect. Host-specific parasites provide information about the dispersal of their hosts and may be valuable for examining host dispersal that does not result in gene flow or that has low signals of gene flow. We examined the population connectivity of the buffy flower bat, Erophylla sezekorni (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), and its associated obligate ectoparasite, Trichobius frequens (Diptera: Streblidae), across a narrow oceanic channel in The Bahamas that has previously been implicated as a barrier to dispersal in bats. Due to the horizontal transmission of T. frequens, we were able to test the hypothesis that bats are dispersing across this channel, but this dispersal does not result in gene flow, occurs rarely, or started occurring recently. We developed novel microsatellite markers for the family Streblidae in combination with previously developed markers for bats to genotype individuals from 4 islands in The Bahamas. We provide evidence for a single population of the host, E. sezekorni, but 2 populations of its bat flies, potentially indicating a recent reduction of gene flow in E. sezekorni, rare dispersal, or infrequent transportation of bat flies with their hosts. Despite high population differentiation in bat flies indicated by microsatellites, mitochondrial DNA shows no polymorphism, suggesting that bacterial reproductive parasites may be contributing to mitochondrial DNA sweeps. Parasites, including bat flies, provide independent information about their hosts and can be used to test hypotheses of host dispersal that may be difficult to assess using host genetics alone.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Algoritmos , Alelos , Animais , Bahamas , Teorema de Bayes , Análise por Conglomerados , Sequência Consenso , DNA Mitocondrial/química , Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/microbiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/química , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Cadeias de Markov , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Wolbachia/fisiologia
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