Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.472
Filtrar
1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(10): 1678-1685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226285

RESUMO

An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, currently designated as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was reported recently. However, as SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging virus, we know little about it. In this review, we summarize the key events occurred during the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, the basic characteristics of the pathogen, the signs and symptoms of the infected patients as well as the possible transmission pathways of the virus. Furthermore, we also review the current knowledge on the origin and evolution of the SARS-CoV-2. We highlight bats as the potential natural reservoir and pangolins as the possible intermediate host of the virus, but their roles are waiting for further investigation. Finally, the advances in the development of chemotherapeutic options are also briefly summarized.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(10): 1686-1697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226286

RESUMO

Mutation and adaptation have driven the co-evolution of coronaviruses (CoVs) and their hosts, including human beings, for thousands of years. Before 2003, two human CoVs (HCoVs) were known to cause mild illness, such as common cold. The outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have flipped the coin to reveal how devastating and life-threatening an HCoV infection could be. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in central China at the end of 2019 has thrusted CoVs into the spotlight again and surprised us with its high transmissibility but reduced pathogenicity compared to its sister SARS-CoV. HCoV infection is a zoonosis and understanding the zoonotic origins of HCoVs would serve us well. Most HCoVs originated from bats where they are non-pathogenic. The intermediate reservoir hosts of some HCoVs are also known. Identifying the animal hosts has direct implications in the prevention of human diseases. Investigating CoV-host interactions in animals might also derive important insight on CoV pathogenesis in humans. In this review, we present an overview of the existing knowledge about the seven HCoVs, with a focus on the history of their discovery as well as their zoonotic origins and interspecies transmission. Importantly, we compare and contrast the different HCoVs from a perspective of virus evolution and genome recombination. The current CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is discussed in this context. In addition, the requirements for successful host switches and the implications of virus evolution on disease severity are also highlighted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , China , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Roedores/virologia , Vírus da SARS , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave
3.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(10): 1753-1766, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226295

RESUMO

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has thus far killed over 3,000 people and infected over 80,000 in China and elsewhere in the world, resulting in catastrophe for humans. Similar to its homologous virus, SARS-CoV, which caused SARS in thousands of people in 2003, SARS-CoV-2 might also be transmitted from the bats and causes similar symptoms through a similar mechanism. However, COVID-19 has lower severity and mortality than SARS but is much more transmissive and affects more elderly individuals than youth and more men than women. In response to the rapidly increasing number of publications on the emerging disease, this article attempts to provide a timely and comprehensive review of the swiftly developing research subject. We will cover the basics about the epidemiology, etiology, virology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of the disease. Although many questions still require answers, we hope that this review helps in the understanding and eradication of the threatening disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Quirópteros/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Viagem , Vacinação
5.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218151

RESUMO

During its first two and a half months, the recently emerged 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has already infected over one-hundred thousand people worldwide and has taken more than four thousand lives. However, the swiftly spreading virus also caused an unprecedentedly rapid response from the research community facing the unknown health challenge of potentially enormous proportions. Unfortunately, the experimental research to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the viral infection and to design a vaccine or antivirals is costly and takes months to develop. To expedite the advancement of our knowledge, we leveraged data about the related coronaviruses that is readily available in public databases and integrated these data into a single computational pipeline. As a result, we provide comprehensive structural genomics and interactomics roadmaps of SARS-CoV-2 and use this information to infer the possible functional differences and similarities with the related SARS coronavirus. All data are made publicly available to the research community.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Betacoronavirus/química , Sítios de Ligação , Evolução Biológica , Quirópteros/virologia , Biologia Computacional , Sequência Conservada , Infecções por Coronavirus , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/química , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Vírus da SARS , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 24, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As reported by the World Health Organization, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was identified as the causative virus of Wuhan pneumonia of unknown etiology by Chinese authorities on 7 January, 2020. The virus was named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses on 11 February, 2020. This study aimed to develop a mathematical model for calculating the transmissibility of the virus. METHODS: In this study, we developed a Bats-Hosts-Reservoir-People transmission network model for simulating the potential transmission from the infection source (probably be bats) to the human infection. Since the Bats-Hosts-Reservoir network was hard to explore clearly and public concerns were focusing on the transmission from Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market (reservoir) to people, we simplified the model as Reservoir-People (RP) transmission network model. The next generation matrix approach was adopted to calculate the basic reproduction number (R0) from the RP model to assess the transmissibility of the SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The value of R0 was estimated of 2.30 from reservoir to person and 3.58 from person to person which means that the expected number of secondary infections that result from introducing a single infected individual into an otherwise susceptible population was 3.58. CONCLUSIONS: Our model showed that the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was higher than the Middle East respiratory syndrome in the Middle East countries, similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome, but lower than MERS in the Republic of Korea.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Microbes Infect ; 22(2): 86-91, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088333

RESUMO

Only a month after the outbreak of pneumonia caused by 2019-nCoV, more than forty-thousand people were infected. This put enormous pressure on the Chinese government, medical healthcare provider, and the general public, but also made the international community deeply nervous. On the 25th day after the outbreak, the Chinese government implemented strict traffic restrictions on the area where the 2019-nCoV had originated-Hubei province, whose capital city is Wuhan. Ten days later, the rate of increase of cases in Hubei showed a significant difference (p = 0.0001) compared with the total rate of increase in other provinces of China. These preliminary data suggest the effectiveness of a traffic restriction policy for this pandemic thus far. At the same time, solid financial support and improved research ability, along with network communication technology, also greatly facilitated the application of epidemic prevention measures. These measures were motivated by the need to provide effective treatment of patients, and involved consultation with three major groups in policy formulation-public health experts, the government, and the general public. It was also aided by media and information technology, as well as international cooperation. This experience will provide China and other countries with valuable lessons for quickly coordinating and coping with future public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Animais , China , Quirópteros/virologia , Comunicação , Governo , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Viagem , Zoonoses/virologia
9.
Nature ; 579(7798): 270-273, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015507

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1-4. Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5-7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor-angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)-as SARS-CoV.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/ultraestrutura , Linhagem Celular , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Filogenia , Vírus da SARS/classificação , Vírus da SARS/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Células Vero
11.
Infez Med ; 28(1): 3-5, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009128

RESUMO

Pathogen transmission from a vertebrate animal to a human, also known as zoonotic spillover, represents a global public health burden, which while associated with multiple outbreaks, still remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Coronaviruses, like influenza viruses, circulate in nature in various animal species. Alpha-coronaviruses and beta-coronaviruses can infect mammals and gamma-coronaviruses and delta-coronaviruses tend to infect birds, but some of them can also be transmitted to mammals. Although still preliminary, current data suggest that bats are the most probable initial source of the current 2019 novel CoV (2019nCoV) outbreak, that begun on December 2019 in Wuhan, China, apparently spreading from a "wet market" to multiple cities and provinces in China. This epidemic of 2019nCoV, already reaching more than 6,000 cases to-day (end of January 2020) (>90% in China), will not be the last one linked to zoonotic spillover events.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Zoonoses , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Epidemias , Humanos , Mamíferos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
12.
J Med Virol ; 92(5): 518-521, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022275

RESUMO

A novel Coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, has been identified as the causal pathogen of an ongoing epidemic, with the first cases reported in Wuhan, China, last December 2019, and has since spread to other countries worldwide, included Europe and very recently Italy. In this short report, phylogenetic reconstruction was used to better understand the transmission dynamics of the virus from its first introduction in China focusing on the more recent evidence of infection in a couple of Chinese tourists arrived in Italy on 23rd January 2020 and labeled as Coronavirus Italian cases. A maximum clade credibility tree has been built using a dataset of 54 genome sequences of 2019-nCoV plus two closely related bat strains (SARS-like CoV) available in GenBank. Bayesian time-scaled phylogenetic analysis was implemented in BEAST 1.10.4. The Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction showed that 2019-2020 nCoV firstly introduced in Wuhan on 25 November 2019, started epidemic transmission reaching many countries worldwide, including Europe and Italy where the two strains isolated dated back 19 January 2020, the same that the Chinese tourists arrived in Italy. Strains isolated outside China were intermixed with strains isolated in China as evidence of likely imported cases in Rome, Italy, and Europe, as well. In conclusion, this report suggests that further spread of 2019-nCoV epidemic was supported by human mobility and that quarantine of suspected or diagnosed cases is useful to prevent further transmission. Viral genome phylogenetic analysis represents a useful tool for the evaluation of transmission dynamics and preventive action.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Genoma Viral , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Humanos , Bloqueio Interatrial , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Genéticos , Taxa de Mutação , Pandemias , Filogenia
13.
J Med Virol ; 92(5): 522-528, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027036

RESUMO

There is a rising global concern for the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Full genomic sequences have been released by the worldwide scientific community in the last few weeks to understand the evolutionary origin and molecular characteristics of this virus. Taking advantage of all the genomic information currently available, we constructed a phylogenetic tree including also representatives of other coronaviridae, such as Bat coronavirus (BCoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We confirm high sequence similarity (>99%) between all sequenced 2019-nCoVs genomes available, with the closest BCoV sequence sharing 96.2% sequence identity, confirming the notion of a zoonotic origin of 2019-nCoV. Despite the low heterogeneity of the 2019-nCoV genomes, we could identify at least two hypervariable genomic hotspots, one of which is responsible for a Serine/Leucine variation in the viral ORF8-encoded protein. Finally, we perform a full proteomic comparison with other coronaviridae, identifying key aminoacidic differences to be considered for antiviral strategies deriving from previous anti-coronavirus approaches.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral , Proteoma , RNA Viral/genética
14.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 68-76, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036774

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are the well-known cause of severe respiratory, enteric and systemic infections in a wide range of hosts including man, mammals, fish, and avian. The scientific interest on coronaviruses increased after the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) outbreaks in 2002-2003 followed by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). This decade's first CoV, named 2019-nCoV, emerged from Wuhan, China, and declared as 'Public Health Emergency of International Concern' on January 30th, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). As on February 4, 2020, 425 deaths reported in China only and one death outside China (Philippines). In a short span of time, the virus spread has been noted in 24 countries. The zoonotic transmission (animal-to-human) is suspected as the route of disease origin. The genetic analyses predict bats as the most probable source of 2019-nCoV though further investigations needed to confirm the origin of the novel virus. The ongoing nCoV outbreak highlights the hidden wild animal reservoir of the deadly viruses and possible threat of spillover zoonoses as well. The successful virus isolation attempts have made doors open for developing better diagnostics and effective vaccines helping in combating the spread of the virus to newer areas.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
16.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098422

RESUMO

After the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the world in 2003, human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been reported as pathogens that cause severe symptoms in respiratory tract infections. Recently, a new emerged HCoV isolated from the respiratory epithelium of unexplained pneumonia patients in the Wuhan seafood market caused a major disease outbreak and has been named the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus causes acute lung symptoms, leading to a condition that has been named as "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and of SARS-CoV caused widespread fear and concern and has threatened global health security. There are some similarities and differences in the epidemiology and clinical features between these two viruses and diseases that are caused by these viruses. The goal of this work is to systematically review and compare between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in the context of their virus incubation, originations, diagnosis and treatment methods, genomic and proteomic sequences, and pathogenic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Vírus da SARS , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Animais , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , China/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Eutérios/virologia , Genoma Viral , Saúde Global , Humanos , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteoma , Vírus da SARS/química , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Alinhamento de Sequência , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Proteínas Virais
18.
J Virol ; 94(7)2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996437

RESUMO

Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has emerged from Wuhan, China, causing symptoms in humans similar to those caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Since the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002, extensive structural analyses have revealed key atomic-level interactions between the SARS-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. Here, we analyzed the potential receptor usage by 2019-nCoV, based on the rich knowledge about SARS-CoV and the newly released sequence of 2019-nCoV. First, the sequence of 2019-nCoV RBD, including its receptor-binding motif (RBM) that directly contacts ACE2, is similar to that of SARS-CoV, strongly suggesting that 2019-nCoV uses ACE2 as its receptor. Second, several critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Gln493) provide favorable interactions with human ACE2, consistent with 2019-nCoV's capacity for human cell infection. Third, several other critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Asn501) are compatible with, but not ideal for, binding human ACE2, suggesting that 2019-nCoV has acquired some capacity for human-to-human transmission. Last, while phylogenetic analysis indicates a bat origin of 2019-nCoV, 2019-nCoV also potentially recognizes ACE2 from a diversity of animal species (except mice and rats), implicating these animal species as possible intermediate hosts or animal models for 2019-nCoV infections. These analyses provide insights into the receptor usage, cell entry, host cell infectivity and animal origin of 2019-nCoV and may help epidemic surveillance and preventive measures against 2019-nCoV.IMPORTANCE The recent emergence of Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV) puts the world on alert. 2019-nCoV is reminiscent of the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002 to 2003. Our decade-long structural studies on the receptor recognition by SARS-CoV have identified key interactions between SARS-CoV spike protein and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. One of the goals of SARS-CoV research was to build an atomic-level iterative framework of virus-receptor interactions to facilitate epidemic surveillance, predict species-specific receptor usage, and identify potential animal hosts and animal models of viruses. Based on the sequence of 2019-nCoV spike protein, we apply this predictive framework to provide novel insights into the receptor usage and likely host range of 2019-nCoV. This study provides a robust test of this reiterative framework, providing the basic, translational, and public health research communities with predictive insights that may help study and battle this novel 2019-nCoV.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , China , Quirópteros/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996413

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) of bat origin have caused two pandemics in this century. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV both originated from bats, and it is highly likely that bat coronaviruses will cause future outbreaks. Active surveillance is both urgent and essential to predict and mitigate the emergence of these viruses in humans. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently the preferred methodology for virus discovery to ensure unbiased sequencing of bat CoVs, considering their high genetic diversity. However, unbiased NGS is an expensive methodology and is prone to missing low-abundance CoV sequences due to the high background level of nonviral sequences present in surveillance field samples. Here, we employ a capture-based NGS approach using baits targeting most of the CoV species. Using this technology, we effectively reduced sequencing costs by increasing the sensitivity of detection. We discovered nine full genomes of bat CoVs in this study and revealed great genetic diversity for eight of them.IMPORTANCE Active surveillance is both urgent and essential to predict and mitigate the emergence of bat-origin CoV in humans and livestock. However, great genetic diversity increases the chance of homologous recombination among CoVs. Performing targeted PCR, a common practice for many surveillance studies, would not reflect this diversity. NGS, on the other hand, is an expensive methodology and is prone to missing low-abundance CoV sequences. Here, we employ a capture-based NGS approach using baits targeting all CoVs. Our work demonstrates that targeted, cost-effective, large-scale, genome-level surveillance of bat CoVs is now highly feasible.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Animais , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral
20.
J Med Virol ; 92(4): 433-440, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967321

RESUMO

The current outbreak of viral pneumonia in the city of Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel coronavirus designated 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organization, as determined by sequencing the viral RNA genome. Many initial patients were exposed to wildlife animals at the Huanan seafood wholesale market, where poultry, snake, bats, and other farm animals were also sold. To investigate possible virus reservoir, we have carried out comprehensive sequence analysis and comparison in conjunction with relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) bias among different animal species based on the 2019-nCoV sequence. Results obtained from our analyses suggest that the 2019-nCoV may appear to be a recombinant virus between the bat coronavirus and an origin-unknown coronavirus. The recombination may occurred within the viral spike glycoprotein, which recognizes a cell surface receptor. Additionally, our findings suggest that 2019-nCoV has most similar genetic information with bat coronovirus and most similar codon usage bias with snake. Taken together, our results suggest that homologous recombination may occur and contribute to the 2019-nCoV cross-species transmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Serpentes/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Bungarus/genética , Bungarus/virologia , Quirópteros/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Recombinação Homóloga , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Naja naja/genética , Naja naja/virologia , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Serpentes/genética , Zoonoses
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA