Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.716
Filtrar
1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 87-96, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829048

RESUMO

Bats have populated earth for approximately 52 million years, serving as natural reservoirs for a variety of viruses through the course of evolution. Transmission of highly pathogenic viruses from bats has been suspected or linked to a spectrum of potential emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals worldwide. Examples of such viruses include Marburg, Ebolavirus, Nipah, Hendra, Influenza A, Dengue, Equine Encephalitis viruses, Lyssaviruses, Madariaga and Coronaviruses, involving the now pandemic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein, we provide a narrative review focused in selected emerging viral infectious diseases that have been reported from bats.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Ecossistema , /isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Humanos
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335073

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a major threat to global health. Although varied SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses have been isolated from bats and SARS-CoV-2 may infect bat, the structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 to utilize the human receptor counterpart bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (bACE2) for virus infection remains less understood. Here, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) could bind to bACE2 from Rhinolophus macrotis (bACE2-Rm) with substantially lower affinity compared with that to the human ACE2 (hACE2), and its infectivity to host cells expressing bACE2-Rm was confirmed with pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus and SARS-CoV-2 wild virus. The structure of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD with the bACE2-Rm complex was determined, revealing a binding mode similar to that of hACE2. The analysis of binding details between SARS-CoV-2 RBD and bACE2-Rm revealed that the interacting network involving Y41 and E42 of bACE2-Rm showed substantial differences with that to hACE2. Bats have extensive species diversity and the residues for RBD binding in bACE2 receptor varied substantially among different bat species. Notably, the Y41H mutant, which exists in many bats, attenuates the binding capacity of bACE2-Rm, indicating the central roles of Y41 in the interaction network. These findings would benefit our understanding of the potential infection of SARS-CoV-2 in varied species of bats.


Assuntos
/genética , Quirópteros , Substituição de Aminoácidos , /genética , Animais , Quirópteros/genética , Quirópteros/metabolismo , Quirópteros/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Pandemias , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , /genética , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 4(4): 353-369, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258903

RESUMO

Seven zoonoses - human infections of animal origin - have emerged from the Coronaviridae family in the past century, including three viruses responsible for significant human mortality (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) in the past twenty years alone. These three viruses, in addition to two older CoV zoonoses (HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63) are believed to be originally derived from wild bat reservoir species. We review the molecular biology of the bat-derived Alpha- and Betacoronavirus genera, highlighting features that contribute to their potential for cross-species emergence, including the use of well-conserved mammalian host cell machinery for cell entry and a unique capacity for adaptation to novel host environments after host switching. The adaptive capacity of coronaviruses largely results from their large genomes, which reduce the risk of deleterious mutational errors and facilitate range-expanding recombination events by offering heightened redundancy in essential genetic material. Large CoV genomes are made possible by the unique proofreading capacity encoded for their RNA-dependent polymerase. We find that bat-borne SARS-related coronaviruses in the subgenus Sarbecovirus, the source clade for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, present a particularly poignant pandemic threat, due to the extraordinary viral genetic diversity represented among several sympatric species of their horseshoe bat hosts. To date, Sarbecovirus surveillance has been almost entirely restricted to China. More vigorous field research efforts tracking the circulation of Sarbecoviruses specifically and Betacoronaviruses more generally is needed across a broader global range if we are to avoid future repeats of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Humanos
6.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 87(1): e1-e9, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354975

RESUMO

The first known severe disease caused by a coronavirus (CoV) in humans emerged with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in China, which killed 774 people during its 2002/2003 outbreak. The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) was the second human fatal disease, which started in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and resulted in 858 fatalities. In December 2019, a new virus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), originating from China, began generating headlines worldwide because of the unprecedented speed of its transmission; 5.2 million people were infected and 338 480 had been reported dead from December 2019 to May 2020. These human coronaviruses are believed to have an animal origin and had reached humans through species jump. Coronaviruses are well known for their high frequency of recombination and high mutation rates, allowing them to adapt to new hosts and ecological niches. This review summarises existing information on what is currently known on the role of wild and domesticated animals and discussions on whether they are the natural reservoir/amplifiers hosts or incidental hosts of CoVs. Results of experimental infection and transmission using different wild, domesticated and pet animals are also reviewed. The need for a One Health approach in implementing measures and practices is highlighted to improve human health and reduce the emergence of pandemics from these zoonotic viruses.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Zoonoses , Animais , /transmissão , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Vetores de Doenças , Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Única , Pandemias
7.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(4): 81-82, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295324

RESUMO

Despite fast-tracked research, the precise origin, transmission and evolution of COVID-19 are still unknown. While the bat genus Rhinolophus is likely the primary source of the zoonotic-origin pathogen SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19, its transmission route into the human population is still being studied.[1,2] Coronaviruses (CoV) affect humans and various animal species. Bats were the original hosts of the CoV that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), for example, with masked palm civet cats and dromedaries, respectively, the intermediate hosts of those two viruses. Research is ongoing regarding intermediate species for SARS-CoV-2, but one possibility is the large stray cat and dog population around the live animal market in Wuhan, China, where the pandemic is thought to have started.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Animais , Camelus/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Cães/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Vison/virologia , Viverridae/virologia
8.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302422

RESUMO

Bats are a host and reservoir for a large number of viruses, many of which are zoonotic. In North America, the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) is widely distributed and common. Big brown bats are a known reservoir for rabies virus, which, combined with their propensity to roost in human structures, necessitates testing for rabies virus following human exposure. The current pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, likely of bat origin, illustrates the need for continued surveillance of wildlife and bats for potentially emerging zoonotic viruses. Viral metagenomic sequencing was performed on 39 big brown bats and one hoary bat submitted for rabies testing due to human exposure in South Dakota. A new genotype of American bat vesiculovirus was identified in seven of 17 (41%) heart and lung homogenates at high levels in addition to two of 23 viscera pools. A second rhabdovirus, Sodak rhabdovirus 1 (SDRV1), was identified in four of 23 (17%) viscera pools. Phylogenetic analysis placed SDRV1 in the genus Alphanemrhavirus, which includes two recognized species that were identified in nematodes. Finally, a highly divergent rhabdovirus, Sodak rhabdovirus 2 (SDRV2), was identified in two of 23 (8.7%) big brown bats. Phylogenetic analysis placed SDRV2 as ancestral to the dimarhabdovirus supergroup and Lyssavirus. Intracranial inoculation of mouse pups with rhabdovirus-positive tissue homogenates failed to elicit clinical disease. Further research is needed to determine the zoonotic potential of these non-rabies rhabdoviruses.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Filogenia , Rhabdoviridae/classificação , Animais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Metagenômica , Camundongos , Vírus da Raiva , Rhabdoviridae/isolamento & purificação , South Dakota , /transmissão
9.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316899

RESUMO

Emerging infectious diseases are of great concern to public health, as highlighted by the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Such diseases are of particular danger during mass gathering and mass influx events, as large crowds of people in close proximity to each other creates optimal opportunities for disease transmission. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are two countries that have witnessed mass gatherings due to the arrival of Syrian refugees and the annual Hajj season. The mass migration of people not only brings exotic diseases to these regions but also brings new diseases back to their own countries, e.g., the outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Many emerging pathogens originate in bats, and more than 30 bat species have been identified in these two countries. Some of those bat species are known to carry viruses that cause deadly diseases in other parts of the world, such as the rabies virus and coronaviruses. However, little is known about bats and the pathogens they carry in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Here, the importance of enhanced surveillance of bat-borne infections in Jordan and Saudi Arabia is emphasized, promoting the awareness of bat-borne diseases among the general public and building up infrastructure and capability to fill the gaps in public health preparedness to prevent future pandemics.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Saúde Pública , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Jordânia , Arábia Saudita , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22366, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353955

RESUMO

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the emerged coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is spreading globally. The origin of SARS-Cov-2 and its evolutionary relationship is still ambiguous. Several reports attempted to figure out this critical issue by genome-based phylogenetic analysis, yet limited progress was obtained, principally owing to the disability of these methods to reasonably integrate phylogenetic information from all genes of SARS-CoV-2. Supertree method based on multiple trees can produce the overall reasonable phylogenetic tree. However, the supertree method has been barely used for phylogenetic analysis of viruses. Here we applied the matrix representation with parsimony (MRP) pseudo-sequence supertree analysis to study the origin and evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Compared with other phylogenetic analysis methods, the supertree method showed more resolution power for phylogenetic analysis of coronaviruses. In particular, the MRP pseudo-sequence supertree analysis firmly disputes bat coronavirus RaTG13 be the last common ancestor of SARS-CoV-2, which was implied by other phylogenetic tree analysis based on viral genome sequences. Furthermore, the discovery of evolution and mutation in SARS-CoV-2 was achieved by MRP pseudo-sequence supertree analysis. Taken together, the MRP pseudo-sequence supertree provided more information on the SARS-CoV-2 evolution inference relative to the normal phylogenetic tree based on full-length genomic sequences.


Assuntos
/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Taxa de Mutação , Filogenia , /genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Genoma Viral , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Vírus da SARS/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
11.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(12): 1838-1842, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380405

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a total of 55 928 327 confirmed cases and 1 344 003 deaths as of November 19, 2020. But so far the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes this pandemic has remained undetermined. The purpose of this study is to review the current research of SARS-CoV-2 and the existing problems therein, which may provide inspiration for further researches. Existing evidence suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may be derived from bat coronavirus 40-70 years ago. During the evolution, this virus underwent extensive variations in the process of mutations and natural selection. Different genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2 may have different selection pressures, but all of which increase the difficulty of tracing the origin of this virus. A wide variety of animals have been considered as potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2, including cats, lions, tigers, dogs and minks. SARS-CoV-2 has a chance to transmit from humans to animals and can be transmitted among animals. Current research evidence has shown that China is not the original source of SARS-CoV-2. It is still unclear how the virus spreads to human, and efforts are still need to be made to explore the origin of SARS-CoV-2, its hosts and intermediate hosts, and the mechanism of its transmission across different species of animals.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Quirópteros/virologia , /classificação , Animais , Gatos , China , Vetores de Doenças , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Humanos
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20296, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219309

RESUMO

Bats are natural reservoirs for potential zoonotic viruses. In this study, next-generation sequencing was performed to obtain entire genome sequences of picornavirus from a picornavirus-positive bat feces sample (16BF77) and to explore novel viruses in a pooled bat sample (16BP) from samples collected in South Korea, 2016. Fourteen mammalian viral sequences were identified from 16BF77 and 29 from 16BP, and verified by RT-PCR. The most abundant virus in 16BF77 was picornavirus. Highly variable picornavirus sequences encoding 3Dpol were classified into genera Kobuvirus, Shanbavirus, and an unassigned group within the family Picornaviridae. Amino acid differences between these partial 3Dpol sequences were ≥ 65.7%. Results showed that one bat was co-infected by picornaviruses of more than two genera. Retrovirus, coronavirus, and rotavirus A sequences also were found in the BP sample. The retrovirus and coronavirus genomes were identified in nine and eight bats, respectively. Korean bat retroviruses and coronavirus demonstrated strong genetic relationships with a Chinese bat retrovirus (RfRV) and coronavirus (HKU5-1), respectively. A co-infection was identified in one bat with a retrovirus and a coronavirus. Our results indicate that Korean bats were multiply infected by several mammal viruses.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Boca/virologia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Intestinos/virologia , Fígado/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/genética , Picornaviridae/fisiologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , República da Coreia , Retroviridae/classificação , Retroviridae/genética , Retroviridae/fisiologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/fisiologia
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(12): 3025-3029, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219796

RESUMO

Epidemiology of bat Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus is largely unknown, especially outside China. We detected a sarbecovirus phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from Rhinolophus cornutus bats in Japan. The sarbecovirus' spike protein specifically recognizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 of R. cornutus, but not humans, as an entry receptor.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , /metabolismo , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , /fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5951, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230120

RESUMO

Rabies is a viral zoonosis transmitted by vampire bats across Latin America. Substantial public health and agricultural burdens remain, despite decades of bats culls and livestock vaccinations. Virally vectored vaccines that spread autonomously through bat populations are a theoretically appealing solution to managing rabies in its reservoir host. We investigate the biological and epidemiological suitability of a vampire bat betaherpesvirus (DrBHV) to act as a vaccine vector. In 25 sites across Peru with serological and/or molecular evidence of rabies circulation, DrBHV infects 80-100% of bats, suggesting potential for high population-level vaccine coverage. Phylogenetic analysis reveals host specificity within neotropical bats, limiting risks to non-target species. Finally, deep sequencing illustrates DrBHV super-infections in individual bats, implying that DrBHV-vectored vaccines might invade despite the highly prevalent wild-type virus. These results indicate DrBHV as a promising candidate vector for a transmissible rabies vaccine, and provide a framework to discover and evaluate candidate viral vectors for vaccines against bat-borne zoonoses.


Assuntos
Betaherpesvirinae/fisiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Betaherpesvirinae/classificação , Betaherpesvirinae/genética , Coevolução Biológica , Bovinos , Quirópteros/classificação , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Mamíferos/classificação , Mamíferos/virologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/transmissão , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Superinfecção/veterinária , Superinfecção/virologia
15.
Epidemics ; 33: 100410, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152622

RESUMO

An accurate understanding of why zoonoses such as SARS-CoV-2 are emerging at an increased rate, is vital to prevent future pandemics from the approximately 700,000 viruses with zoonotic potential. Certain authors have argued that the consumption of wildlife, or human contact with bats was responsible for the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Others argue that a range of anthropogenic environmental degradations have played a vital role in the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and other zoonoses. In this opinion piece, I argue that these divergent viewpoints stem, in part, from different foundational conceptual frameworks - biomedical individualist and eco-social frameworks, respectively. Based on the fact that the eco-social framework provides a more complete account of the different types of causal factors underpinning the emergence of zoonoses, I propose that the COVID-19 pandemic provides an additional reason for the health sciences to ground its theory of health and disease in an eco-social conceptual framework.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Ecossistema , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , /transmissão , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Sociobiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
PLoS Biol ; 18(11): e3000947, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166274

RESUMO

Human perturbation of natural systems is accelerating the emergence of infectious diseases, mandating integration of disease and ecological research. Bats have been associated with recent zoonoses, but our bibliometric analysis of coauthor relationships identified a separation of bat ecologists and infectious disease researchers with few cross-disciplinary relationships. Of 5,645 papers, true interdisciplinary collaborations occurred primarily in research focused on White Nose Syndrome (WNS). This finding is important because it illustrates how research with outcomes favoring both bat conservation and disease mitigation promotes domain integration and network connectivity. We advocate for increased engagement between ecology and infectious researchers to address such common causes and suggest that efforts focus on leveraging existing activities, building interdisciplinary projects, and networking individuals and networks to integrate domains and coordinate resources. We provide specific opportunities for pursuing these strategies through the Bat One Health Research Network (BOHRN).


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Animais , /virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Vetores de Doenças , Ecossistema , Humanos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Pandemias , /virologia
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7234961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102591

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a single-stranded RNA genome that encodes 14 open reading frames (ORFs), eight of which encode accessory proteins that allow the virus to infect the host and promote virulence. The genome expresses around 29 structural and nonstructural protein products. The accessory proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are not essential for virus replication but do affect viral release, stability, and pathogenesis and finally contribute to virulence. This paper has attempted the structure prediction and functional analysis of two such accessory proteins, 9b and ORF14, in the absence of experimental structures. Sequence analysis, structure prediction, functional characterization, and evolutionary analysis based on the UniProtKB reviewed the amino acid sequences of SARS-CoV-2 9b (P0DTD2) and ORF14 (P0DTD3) proteins. Modeling has been presented with the introduction of hybrid comparative and ab initio modeling. QMEANDisCo 4.0.0 and ProQ3 for global and local (per residue) quality estimates verified the structures as high quality, which may be attributed to structure-based drug design targets. Tunnel analysis revealed the presence of 1-2 highly active tunneling sites, perhaps which will able to provide certain inputs for advanced structure-based drug design or to formulate potential vaccines in the absence of a complete experimental structure. The evolutionary analysis of both proteins of human SARS-CoV-2 indicates close relatedness to the bat coronavirus. The whole-genome phylogeny indicates that only the new bat coronavirus followed by pangolin coronaviruses has a close evolutionary relationship with the novel SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Coronavirus/química , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , /metabolismo , Análise de Sequência , Replicação Viral
20.
Virus Res ; 290: 198175, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007342

RESUMO

The outbreak and spread of new strains of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) remain a global threat with increasing cases in affected countries. The evolutionary tree of SARS-CoV-2 revealed that Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus 2, which belongs to the Beta arterivirus genus from the Arteriviridae family is possibly the most ancient ancestral origin of SARS-CoV-2 and other Coronaviridae. This review focuses on phylogenomic distribution and evolutionary lineage of zoonotic viral cross-species transmission of the Coronaviridae family and the implications of bat microbiome in zoonotic viral transmission and infection. The review also casts light on the role of the human microbiome in predicting and controlling viral infections. The significance of microbiome-mediated interventions in the treatment of viral infections is also discussed. Finally, the importance of synthetic viruses in the study of viral evolution and transmission is highlighted.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Infecções por Coronaviridae/transmissão , Coronaviridae/genética , Microbiota , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , /virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronaviridae/classificação , Coronaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronaviridae/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , /genética , Zoonoses/virologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA