Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.859
Filtrar
1.
Egypt J Immunol ; 30(1): 42-48, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36591957

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is usually associated with varying degrees of progressive disability. Chitinase-3-like protein-1 (CHI3L1) has attracted growing attention as a marker of ongoing inflammation and oncogenic transformation. The aim of this work was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CHI3L1 versus IgG oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of newly diagnosed relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients to throw light on a new simpler non subjective potential diagnostic marker in MS. This cross-sectional study of MS patients was carried at Ain Shams University Hospitals during the period from January 2021 till January 2022. Subjects included in this study were 40 patients diagnosed as having RRMS, based on their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, clinical presentation and according to the revised McDonald criteria 2017. The group included 10 males and 30 females; their ages ranged from 20 to 45 years. We found a significant correlation between CSF CHI3L1 levels and presence of oligoclonal bands (p=0.001), and that a cut off value of 30 ng/ml could be used for diagnosis of MS with sensitivity 84.85% and specificity 85.71%. A significant association was also found between CHI3L1 levels in CSF and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score (p=0.002). We concluded that there were high levels of CHI3L1 in the CSF of MS patients and there was a significant correlation between CHI3L1 and oligoclonal bands and that CHI3L1 may be considered a promising diagnostic marker of MS.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Bandas Oligoclonais , Biomarcadores , Quitinases/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos Transversais
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 188: 105279, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464383

RESUMO

Gray blight caused by Pestalotiopsis-like species is a major disease of tea crop worldwide including India, causes significant losses in tea production. Management of disease using fungal biocontrol agents is considered an alternative eco-friendly approach to synthetic fungicides. The present study explores the efficacy of Trichoderma reesei in the gray blight management in tea crop and activation of defense related enzymes against gray blight pathogen by developing a tri-trophic interaction system. Out of 16 isolates of Trichoderma species screened in laboratory against Pseudopestalotiopsis theae, a gray blight pathogen, isolate TRPATH01 had highest antagonistic activity (81.2%) against Ps. theae and was found to produce inhibitory volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Based on ITS and TEF-1 alpha sequencing, the isolate TRPATH01 was recognised as T. reesei. The methanolic extract of T. reesei was also found effective against Ps. theae at 200 µg/mL also confirmed presence of highest volatile compounds. The isolate also produced hydrolytic enzymes such as chitinase, cellulase, protease, and lipase. Under nursery conditions, 2% and 5% concentrations with 2 × 106 conidia/ml of T. reesei were able to reduce 67.5% to 75.0% of disease severity over pathogen inoculated controls. Moreover, compared with positive and negative controls, T. reesei -treated tea plants showed increased shoot height, stem diameter, shoot and root fresh weight at 45 days after inoculation. Principal component analysis capturing 97.1% phenotypic variations, which revealed that the tea plants co-inoculated with Ps. theae and T. reesei exhibited significantly upregulated accumulation of defensive enzymes viz., polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, phenolics, ß-1, 3-glucanase, and chitinase when compared to both controls. Hence, T. reesei could provide an eco-friendly and viable mitigation option for gray blight in tea gardens by inducing defense-related enzymes.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Quitinases , Hypocreales , Chá
3.
Cells ; 11(23)2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497025

RESUMO

Chitinases and chitinase-like proteins are thought to play a role in innate inflammatory responses. Our study aimed to assess whether chitinase concentration and activity in induced sputum (IS) of patients exposed to tobacco smoke are related to the level of airway inflammation including the level and activity of chitinases and chitinase-like proteins. The study included 22 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 12 non-COPD smokers, and nine nonsmoking subjects. Sputum CHIT1 and YKL-40 levels and chitinolytic activity were compared with sputum IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and MMP-9 levels. A hierarchical cluster analysis was also performed. Sputum YKL-40 was higher in COPD patients than in the control groups. Sputum CHIT1 and YKL-40 levels correlated with IS inflammatory cell count as well as with MMP-9 and IL-8 levels. Two main clusters were revealed: Cluster 1 had lower chitinase levels and activity, lower IS macrophage and neutrophil count, and lower IS IL-8, IL-18, and MMP-9 than Cluster 2. Comparison of COPD patients from both clusters revealed significant differences in the IS inflammatory profile despite comparable clinical and functional data. Our findings seem to confirm the involvement of chitinases in smoking-associated chronic airway inflammation and show that airway chitinases may be a potential novel marker in COPD phenotyping.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , Interleucina-18 , Quitinases/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Interleucina-8 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Inflamação
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 102, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371583

RESUMO

Aphid (Aphis gossypii) is one of the important pests of papaya crop. In this work, applications of Trichoderma harzianum and Beauveria bassiana (biocontrol agents) and malathion (insecticide) were conducted in vitro and in agrifields for testing their anti-aphid efficacy and compared their efficacy. Furthermore, the enzymatic mechanism of T. harzianum with respect to biocontrolling the pest was unearthed. The LD50 dose of T. harzianum and B. bassiana was 1.2 × 105 spores mL-1 and 1.0 × 106 spores mL-1 respectively after 48 h of administration. The LT50 of T. harzianum also exhibited a lower effective time (47.70 h) than B. bassiana (57.53 h) for the same concentration of spores applied (1 × 105 spores mL-1). The pooled data analysis of two years (2019-2020) showed that the application of T. harzianum spores in agrifields exhibited 31.75 ± 13.00a percentage of reduction of aphid population whereas malathion exhibited 23.93 ± 1.30a%, in comparison to control. The statistical analysis indicated that the application of malathion exhibited the same efficacy as T. harzianum isolate and placed in the same category. In plate detection assay, T. harzianum produced a higher hydrolytic zone for chitinase (8.0 ± 0.4 cm diameter) and protease (7.0 ± 0.4 cm diameter) enzymes, than B. bassiana (1.3 ± 0.2 cm and 1.1 ± 0.2 cm respectively). Quantitative estimation of enzymes exhibited that T. harzianum produced 299 ± 11a µg mL-1 of chitinase, 519 ± 19a µg mL-1 of protease, and 65 ± 12a µg mL-1 of PR1, and on the other hand, B. bassiana yielded 124 ± 12b, 361 ± 23b, and 29 ± 18b µg mL-1 of chitinase, protease, and PR1 respectively. It indicated that T. harzianum was superior over the B. bassiana in terms of production capacity of all three enzymes. In conclusion, all the above experimental results suggested that T. harzianum showed better aphid-killing efficacy than B. bassiana. It also suggested that T. harzianum should replace hazardous chemical pesticide (malathion) for eco-friendly biocontrol of aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Quitinases , Trichoderma , Animais , Malation , Monitoramento Ambiental , Quitinases/farmacologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
5.
Redox Biol ; 58: 102538, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417796

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is prevalent in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and can adversely affect their outcomes. This study aims to explore the key mechanisms in the crosstalk between sarcopenia and HCC based on multi-omics profiling. A total of 136 male patients with HCC were enrolled. Sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for poor outcomes after liver transplantation (p < 0.05). Inflammatory cytokine and metabolomic profiling on these patients identified elevated plasma sTNF-R1/CHI3L1 and dysregulated lipid metabolism as related to sarcopenia and tumor recurrence risk concurrently (p < 0.05). Integrated analysis revealed close relationship between CHI3L1 and fatty acid metabolism. In mouse cachectic models by intraperitoneal injection of H22 cells, CHI3L1 was significantly elevated in the atrophic muscle tissue, as well as in circulation. In-vitro, CHI3L1 was up-regulated in muscle cells to protect itself from inflammatory damage through TNF-α/TNF-R1 signaling. CHI3L1 secreted by the muscle cells promoted the invasion of co-cultured HCC cells. Tumor tissue transcriptome data for 73 out of the 136 patients revealed that CHI3L1 may regulate fatty acid metabolism and oxidative stress. In vitro, CHI3L1 caused ROS and lipid accumulation. Targeted lipid profiling further proved that CHI3L1 was able to activate arachidonic acid metabolism, leading to lipid peroxide (LPO) accumulation. Meanwhile, LPO inhibition could compromise the remarkable pro-cancerous effects of CHI3L1. In conclusion, sarcopenia adversely affects the outcomes of liver transplantation for HCC. In sarcopenic patients, CHI3L1 was up-regulated and secreted by the skeletal muscle to protect itself through TNF-α/TNF-R1 signaling, which, in turn, can promote HCC tumor progression by inducing LPO accumulation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quitinases , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Sarcopenia , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Sarcopenia/genética , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral , Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos , Lipídeos
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 60(5): 345-352, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320111

RESUMO

Chitinase AO-801 is a hydrolase secreted by Arthrobotrys oligospora during nematode feeding, while its role remained elusive. This study analyzed the molecular characteristics of recombinant chitinase of Arthrobotrys oligospora (reAO-801). AO-801 belongs to the typical glycoside hydrolase 18 family with conserved chitinase sequence and tertiary structure of (α/ß)8 triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel. The molecular weight of reAO-801 was 42 kDa. reAO-801 effectively degraded colloidal and powdered chitin, egg lysate, and stage I larval lysate of Caenorhabditis elegans. The activity of reAO-801 reached its peak at 40˚C and pH values between 4-7. Enzyme activity was inhibited by Zn2+, Ca2+, and Fe3+, whereas Mg2+ and K+ potentiated its activity. In addition, urea, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 2-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited enzyme activity. reAO-801 showed complete nematicidal activity against C. elegans stage I larvae. reAO-801 broke down the C. elegans egg shells, causing them to die or die prematurely by hatching the eggs. It also invoked degradation of Haemonchus contortus eggs, resulting in apparent changes in the morphological structure. This study demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of reAO-801, which laid the foundation for further dissecting the mechanism of nematode infestation by A. oligospora.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Quitinases , Nematoides , Animais , Quitinases/metabolismo , Quitinases/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Larva
7.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(12): 252, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316502

RESUMO

Chitinases are a group of enzymes that catalyze chitin hydrolysis and are present in all domains of life. Chitinases belong to different glycosyl hydrolase families with great diversity in their sequences. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi produce chitinases for nutrition, and energy, and to parasitize the chitinous hosts. But chitinases from bacteria are of special interest due to their ubiquitous nature and ability to perform under extreme conditions. Chitinases produced by bacteria have been explored for their use in agriculture and industry. In agriculture, their main role is to control chitin-containing insect pests, fungal pathogens, and nematodes. In the seafood industry, they found their role in the management of processing wastes which are mainly chitinous substances. Chitinases are also used to synthesize low molecular weight chitooligomers which are proven bioactive compounds with activities such as anti-tumour, antimicrobial, and immunity modulation. Considering their importance in ecology and biotechnological applications, several bacterial chitinases have been studied in the last two decades. Despite their potential, bacterial chitinases have a few limitations such as low production and lack of secretion systems which make the wild-type enzymes unfit for their applications in industries and other allied sectors. This review is an attempt to collate significant works in bacterial chitinases and their application in various industries and the employment of various tools and techniques for improvement to meet industrial requirements.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Quitinases , Bactérias/enzimologia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Quitina , Quitinases/biossíntese , Hidrólise
8.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421693

RESUMO

Depression is common among late-onset Alzheimer's Disease (LOAD) patients. Only a few studies investigated the genetic variability underlying the comorbidity of depression in LOAD. Moreover, the epigenetic and transcriptomic factors that may contribute to comorbid depression in LOAD have yet to be studied. Using transcriptomic and DNA-methylomic datasets from the ROSMAP cohorts, we investigated differential gene expression and DNA-methylation in LOAD patients with and without comorbid depression. Differential expression analysis did not reveal significant association between differences in gene expression and the risk of depression in LOAD. Upon sex-stratification, we identified 25 differential expressed genes (DEG) in males, of which CHI3L2 showed the strongest upregulation, and only 3 DEGs in females. Additionally, testing differences in DNA-methylation found significant hypomethylation of CpG (cg20442550) on chromosome 17 (log2FC = -0.500, p = 0.004). Sex-stratified differential DNA-methylation analysis did not identify any significant CpG probes. Integrating the transcriptomic and DNA-methylomic datasets did not discover relationships underlying the comorbidity of depression and LOAD. Overall, our study is the first multi-omics genome-wide exploration of the role of gene expression and epigenome alterations in the risk of comorbid depression in LOAD patients. Furthermore, we discovered sex-specific differences in gene expression underlying the risk of depression symptoms in LOAD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Metilação de DNA , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Quitinases/genética , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/genética , Epigênese Genética , Transcriptoma
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 489, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To advance the understanding of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) resistance to infection with the rust-causing fungus Uromyces vignae (Uv), we comprehensively analyzed histological events and the transcriptome of Uv-infected adzuki bean. RESULTS: Compared with the susceptible cv. Baoqinghong (BQH), the resistant cv. QH1 showed inhibition of uredospore germination and substomatal vesicle development, intense autofluorescence of cells around the infection site, and cell wall deposit formation in response to Uv infection. In cv. QH1, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed enrichment of chitin catabolic processes and responses to biotic stimuli at 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) and cell wall modification and structural constituent of cytoskeleton at 48 hpi. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis indicated enrichment of WRKY transcription factors (TFs), the calcium binding protein cml, and hydroquinone glucosyltransferase at both 24 and 48 hpi. In total, 1992 and 557 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at 24 and 48 hpi, respectively. Cell surface pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), WRKY TFs, defense-associated pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, and lignin and antimicrobial phenolic compound biosynthesis were significantly induced. Finally, we detected the chitinase (CHI) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were higher in QH1 and increased much earlier than in BQH. CONCLUSION: In cv. QH1, cell-surface PRRs rapidly recognize Uv invasion and activate the corresponding TFs to increase the transcription of defense-related genes and corresponding enzymatic activities to prevent fungal development and spread in host tissues.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Vigna , Basidiomycota , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Quitina , Quitinases/genética , Glucosiltransferases , Hidroquinonas , Lignina , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase , Fatores de Transcrição
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(40): 12897-12906, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184795

RESUMO

Sugar oxazolines, (GlcNAc)n-oxa (n = 2, 3, 4, and 5), were synthesized from a mixture of chitooligosaccharides, (GlcNAc)n (n = 2, 3, 4, and 5), and utilized for synthesis of (GlcNAc)7 with higher elicitor activity using plant chitinase mutants as the catalysts. From isothermal titration calorimetry, the binding affinity of (GlcNAc)2-oxa toward an inactive mutant obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana GH18 chitinase was found to be higher than those of the other (GlcNAc)n-oxa (n = 3, 4, and 5). To synthesize (GlcNAc)7, the donor/acceptor substrates with different size combinations, (GlcNAc)2-oxa/(GlcNAc)5 (1), (GlcNAc)3-oxa/(GlcNAc)4 (2), (GlcNAc)4-oxa/(GlcNAc)3 (3), and (GlcNAc)5-oxa/(GlcNAc)2 (4), were incubated with hypertransglycosylating mutants of GH18 chitinases from A. thaliana and Cycas revoluta. The synthetic activities of these plant chitinase mutants were lower than that of a mutant of Bacillus circulans chitinase A1. Nevertheless, in the plant chitinase mutants, the synthetic efficiency of combination (1) was higher than those of the other combinations (2), (3), and (4), suggesting that the synthetic reaction is mostly dominated by the binding affinities of (GlcNAc)n-oxa. In contrast, the Bacillus enzyme mutant with a different subsite arrangement synthesized (GlcNAc)7 from combination (1) in the lowest efficiency. Donor/acceptor-size dependency of the enzymatic synthesis appeared to be strongly related to the subsite arrangement of the enzyme used as the catalyst. The A. thaliana chitinase mutant was found to be useful when combination (1) is employed for the substrates.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Quitinases , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Quitina/química , Quitinases/química , Quitosana , Oligossacarídeos , Açúcares
11.
Biomed Res ; 43(5): 161-171, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244794

RESUMO

Mammals express a set of chitinase family proteins, comprising chitinases, which can hydrolyze chitin, and chitinase-like proteins without the chitinase activity but possessing chitin-binding properties. They act as endogenous lectins, regulating various physiological/pathological events. Ym1, originally identified as an eosinophil chemotactic factor or a macrophage-derived protein in parasite-infected mice, is a rodent-specific chitinase-like protein. Ym1 is also purified from eosinophilic crystals formed in the lung and urinary system in various disease models. We previously reported that major cellular sources of murine Ym1 are alveolar macrophages in the lung and neutrophils/monocytes lineage cells of the spleen and bone marrow under normal conditions. We here analyzed the detailed cellular expression of Ym1 in Mesocestoides corti (M. corti)-infected mice. Ym1 was significantly increased in the liver containing the larvae, lung, and peritoneal exudate cells in M. corti-infected mice, where activated macrophages expressed Ym1. Characteristic needle-shaped eosinophilic crystals appeared in the larvae-free lung, and Ym1 was localized to endoplasmic reticulum of activated alveolar macrophages. Moreover, swollen mesothelial cells covering the liver, spleen, and heart expressed Ym1 abundantly. Although the role of Ym1 in parasitic infection remains unclear, our findings focusing on an endogenous lectin may help in better understanding defense mechanism against parasites.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Mesocestoides , Animais , Camundongos , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases/metabolismo , Fatores Quimiotáticos , Quitina , Quitinases/química , Quitinases/genética , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Mesocestoides/metabolismo
12.
Discov Med ; 33(168): 41-49, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is the early pathological manifestation of various chronic liver diseases (including schistosomiasis, alcoholic, viral, nonalcoholic, fatty liver, etc.), which can progress to cirrhosis and even liver cancer. Out of the 7.7 billion world population, approximately 2 billion individuals have evidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection; of these, 350 to 400 million suffer from chronic HBV infection, accounting for about 5% of the global population. The global prevalence of hepatitis C is 3%. These figures indicate that liver fibrosis is quite common. METHODS: 98 patients with liver fibrosis were included in this study. The serum chitinase-3 Like Protein-1 (CHI3L1) level was measured by the double antibody Sandwich ELISA method. RESULTS: Serum levels of CHI3L1 were significantly different between no-fibrosis and fibrosis groups (P < 0.01). There was a strong correlation between the levels of CHI3L1, elastometry, hyaluronan, CIV (P < 0.01) and age and sex, TBIL, DBIL, ALB, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, PLT, LN, PIINP, FIB-4, and APRI (P < 0.05). The expression of CHI3L1 was different from fibrosis grades S1, S3, and S4 (P < 0.05, P < 0.001). The expression of CHI3L1 was significantly different between F1 and F4 (P < 0.05). Serum CHI3L1 expression level can be a valuable metric for diagnosing liver fibrosis, with an AUC value of 0.812. Out of the 98 patients who had undergone liver puncture, 79 patients (30.38%) had ALT ≤ 2ULN. CONCLUSIONS: The expression level of serum CHI3L1 was significantly higher in patients with liver fibrosis than that in patients without liver fibrosis. The expression levels of serum CHI3L1 were different in different grades of liver fibrosis and increased with the severity of liver fibrosis. Serum CHI3L1 can distinguish early stage (S1) of liver fibrosis from late stage (S3-4) of liver fibrosis. Serum CHI3L1 combined with HA is even more effective in the diagnosis of S2-4 hepatic fibrosis. The diagnostic efficacy of serum CHI3L1 in patients with ALT ≤ 2ULN was better than that of the other non-invasive diagnostic models.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Hepatite B Crônica , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Biomarcadores , Vírus da Hepatite B , Curva ROC , Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3
13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287942

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are more susceptible to infections compared to the general population. SARS-CoV-2 virus pathology is characterized by a cytokine storm responsible for the systemic inflammation typical of the COVID-19 disease. Since CKD patients have a reduced renal clearance, we decided to investigate whether they accumulate harmful mediators during the COVID-19 disease. We conducted a retrospective study on 77 COVID-19 hospitalized subjects in the acute phase of the illness. Thirteen different cytokines were assessed in plasma collected upon hospitalization. The patients were divided into three groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR &lt; 30 (n = 23), 30 &lt; eGFR &lt; 60 (n = 33), eGFR &gt; 60 mL/min (n = 21). We found that Tumor Necrosis Factor α and its receptors I and II, Interleukin-7, Leukemia Inhibitory Factor, FAS receptor, Chitinase 3-like I, and the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor showed an increased accumulation that negatively correlate with eGFR. Moreover, non-survivor patients with an impaired kidney function have significantly more elevated levels of the same mediators. In conclusion, there is a tendency in COVID-19 ESRD patients to accumulate harmful cytokines. The accumulation seems to associate with mortality outcomes and may be due to reduced clearance but also to increased biosynthesis in most severe cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quitinases , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Insuficiência Renal , Humanos , Quimiocinas , Receptor fas , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Interleucina-7 , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Citocinas/imunologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17908, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284170

RESUMO

In Alzheimer's disease pathology, several neuronal processes are dysregulated by excitotoxicity including neuroinflammation and oxidative stress (OS). New therapeutic agents capable of modulating such processes are needed to foster neuroprotection. Here, the effect of an optimised NMDA receptor antagonist, UB-ALT-EV and memantine, as a gold standard, have been evaluated in 5XFAD mice. Following treatment with UB-ALT-EV, nor memantine, changes in the calcineurin (CaN)/NFAT pathway were detected. UB-ALT-EV increased neurotropic factors (Bdnf, Vgf and Ngf) gene expression. Treatments reduced astrocytic and microglial reactivity as revealed by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) quantification. Interestingly, only UB-ALT-EV was able to reduce gene expression of Trem2, a marker of microglial activation and NF-κB. Pro-inflammatory cytokines Il-1ß, Ifn-γ, Ccl2 and Ccl3 were down-regulated in UB-ALT-EV-treated mice but not in memantine-treated mice. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory markers of the M2-migroglial phenotype, chitinase-like 3 (Ym1) and Arginase-1 (Arg1), were up-regulated after treatment with UB-ALT-EV. Since iNOS gene expression decreased after UB-ALT-EV treatment, a qPCR array containing 84 OS-related genes was performed. We found changes in Il-19, Il-22, Gpx6, Ncf1, Aox1 and Vim gene expression after UB-ALT-EV. Hence, our results reveal a robust effect on neuroinflammation and OS processes after UB-ALT-EV treatment, surpassing the memantine effect in 5XFAD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Quitinases , Animais , Camundongos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Arginase/metabolismo , Memantina/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microglia/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Quitinases/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234944

RESUMO

Cross-linking net aggregates of thermolabile thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases (CHIs) are the primary source of haze in white wines. Although bentonite fining is still routinely used in winemaking, alternative methods to selectively remove haze proteins without affecting wine organoleptic properties are needed. The availability of pure TLPs and CHIs would facilitate the research for the identification of such technological advances. Therefore, we proposed the usage of recombinant TLP (rTLP) and CHI (rCHI), expressed by Komagataella phaffii, as haze-protein models, since they showed similar characteristics (aggregation potential, melting point, functionality, glycosylation levels and bentonite adsorption) to the native-haze proteins from Vitis vinifera. Hence, rTLP and rCHI can be applied to study haze formation mechanisms on a molecular level and to explore alternative fining methods by screening proteolytic enzymes and ideal adsorptive resins.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Vitis , Vinho , Bentonita/metabolismo , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Vinho/análise
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1003094, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36211404

RESUMO

It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 shares homology and cross-reacts with vaccines, other viruses, common bacteria and many human tissues. We were inspired by these findings, firstly, to investigate the reaction of SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody with different pathogens and vaccines, particularly DTaP. Additionally, since our earlier studies have shown immune reactivity by antibodies made against pathogens and autoantigens towards different food antigens, we also studied cross-reaction between SARS-CoV-2 and common foods. For this, we reacted monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleoprotein with 15 different bacterial and viral antigens and 2 different vaccines, BCG and DTaP, as well as with 180 different food peptides and proteins. The strongest reaction by SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were with DTaP vaccine antigen, E. faecalis, roasted almond, broccoli, soy, cashew, α+ß casein and milk, pork, rice endochitinase, pineapple bromelain, and lentil lectin. Because the immune system tends to form immune responses towards the original version of an antigen that it has encountered, this cross-reactivity may have its advantages with regards to immunity against SARS-CoV-2, where the SARS-CoV-2 virus may elicit a "remembered" immune response because of its structural similarity to a pathogen or food antigen to which the immune system was previously exposed. Our findings indicate that cross-reactivity elicited by DTaP vaccines in combination with common herpesviruses, bacteria that are part of our normal flora such as E. faecalis, and foods that we consume on a daily basis should be investigated for possible cross-protection against COVID-19. Additional experiments would be needed to clarify whether or not this cross-protection is due to cross-reactive antibodies or long-term memory T and B cells in the blood.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quitinases , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Antígenos Virais , Autoantígenos , Vacina BCG , Bromelaínas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Caseínas , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Humanos , Nucleoproteínas , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 6778352, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36199757

RESUMO

Phytophthora capsici is one of the most devastating fungal pathogens, causing severe diseases that lead to economic loss in the pepper industry. As a result of the infections, the chemical approach is becoming more popular. Biological control, on the other hand, is better suited to controlling fungal pathogens. The biological control approach significantly reduces the problems associated with chemical applications while restoring natural environmental balance. As a result, the overall findings indicate that certain bacterial isolates play a beneficial role in lytic enzyme production and biocontrol activities against P. capsici. Bacterial isolates obtained from the pepper plants were screened for lytic enzyme and anti-oomycete activity against Phytophthora capsici in Ethiopia. Sixty bacterial isolates were isolated and tested against Phytophthora capsici. From these bacterial isolates, different inhibition zones and hydrolytic enzyme production were detected. Biochemical tests using an automated machine (MALDI-TOF, VITEK 2 compact and 16S rRNA) revealed that three of them, AAUSR23, AAULE41, and AAULE51, showed a high inhibition zone and high production of hydrolytic enzymes and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae (AAUSR23), Pseudomonas fluorescens (AAULE41), and undetermined (AAULE51). The effects of diffusable metabolite isolate AAULE51 has a 66.7% inhibition zone against Phytophthora capsici, followed by AAULE41 and AAUSR23, which have 59.7% and 14.1% inhibition zones, respectively. These bacterial isolates showed high production of hydrolytic enzymes like protease, cellulase, chitinase, and lipase (5-34 diameter of inhibition zone). As a result, the overall findings show that selected bacterial isolates play a beneficial role in lytic enzyme production and for their biocontrol activities against P. capsici.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Celulases , Quitinases , Phytophthora , Piper nigrum , Capsicum/genética , Celulases/farmacologia , Lipase , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17334, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243791

RESUMO

The mammalian HMGB1 is a high-mobility-group B protein, which is both an architectural and functional element of chromatin. Nhp6p, the extensively studied fungal homologue of HMGB1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has pleiotropic physiological functions. Despite the existence of Nhp6p orthologues in filamentous ascomycetes, little is known about their physiological roles besides their contribution to sexual development. Here we study the function of HmbA, the Aspergillus nidulans orthologue of Nhp6p. We show that HmbA influences the utilization of various carbon- and nitrogen sources, stress tolerance, secondary metabolism, hyphae elongation and maintenance of polarized growth. Additionally, by conducting heterologous expression studies, we demonstrate that HmbA and Nhp6p are partially interchangeable. HmbA restores SNR6 transcription and fitness of nhp6AΔBΔ mutant and reverses its heat sensitivity. Nhp6Ap complements several phenotypes of hmbAΔ, including ascospore formation, utilization of various carbon- and nitrogen-sources, radial growth rate, hypha elongation by polarized growth. However, Nhp6Ap does not complement sterigmatocystin production in a hmbAΔ strain. Finally, we also show that HmbA is necessary for the normal expression of the endochitinase chiA, a cell wall re-modeller that is pivotal for the normal mode of maintenance of polar growth.


Assuntos
Aspergillus nidulans , Quitinases , Proteína HMGB1 , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Animais , Aspergillus nidulans/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Quitinases/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas HMGB/metabolismo , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Esterigmatocistina
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232348

RESUMO

The physiology of Prunus fruit ripening is a complex and not completely understood process. To improve this knowledge, postharvest behavior during the shelf-life period at the transcriptomic level has been studied using high-throughput sequencing analysis (RNA-Seq). Monitoring of fruits has been analyzed after different ethylene regulator treatments, including 1-MCP (ethylene-inhibitor) and Ethrel (ethylene-precursor) in two contrasting selected apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and Japanese plum (P. salicina L.) cultivars, 'Goldrich' and 'Santa Rosa'. KEEG and protein-protein interaction network analysis unveiled that the most significant metabolic pathways involved in the ripening process were photosynthesis and plant hormone signal transduction. In addition, previously discovered genes linked to fruit ripening, such as pectinesterase or auxin-responsive protein, have been confirmed as the main genes involved in this process. Genes encoding pectinesterase in the pentose and glucuronate interconversions pathway were the most overexpressed in both species, being upregulated by Ethrel. On the other hand, auxin-responsive protein IAA and aquaporin PIP were both upregulated by 1-MCP in 'Goldrich' and 'Santa Rosa', respectively. Results also showed the upregulation of chitinase and glutaredoxin 3 after Ethrel treatment in 'Goldrich' and 'Santa Rosa', respectively, while photosystem I subunit V psaG (photosynthesis) was upregulated after 1-MCP in both species. Furthermore, the overexpression of genes encoding GDP-L-galactose and ferredoxin in the ascorbate and aldarate metabolism and photosynthesis pathways caused by 1-MCP favored antioxidant activity and therefore slowed down the fruit senescence process.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Prunus armeniaca , Prunus domestica , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Quitinases/metabolismo , Ciclopropanos , Etilenos , Ferredoxinas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucuronatos/metabolismo , Glutarredoxinas/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados , Pentoses/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Prunus domestica/genética
20.
Microb Pathog ; 172: 105784, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122853

RESUMO

Wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. lycopersici, is a global threat to tomato production that needs to be addressed seriously. The current research envisages the use of two self-compatible Bacillus strains, Bacillus tequilensis PKDN31 and Bacillus licheniformis PKDL10, in a combinatorial approach. The spent supernatant of liquid cultures from strains PKDN31 and PKDL10 showed in vitro antifungal activity against Fusarium sp. attaining an inhibition percentage of 95.33% and 96.54%, respectively. The bacterial isolates lytic activity against Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated by scanning electron microscopic analysis and lytic enzyme production of amylase, lipase, protease and ß-1,3 glucanase. Furthermore, PKDN31 and PKDL10 produced siderophores and had root colonizing ability that enhanced the biocontrol efficiency. Combined in vivo inoculation of Bacillus tequilensis PKDN31 and Bacillus licheniformis PKDL10 on tomato seeds revealed that the strains could induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. lycopersici by increasing defence enzymes such as ß-1,3 glucanase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chitinase, and total phenol accumulations. Pot culture experiments also proved the biocontrol efficacy of the above dual culture supplementation as this treatment displayed a better growth as well as defense against Fusarium challenge compared to the controls. The obtained results suggest that rhizobacterial isolates could be employed as systemic resistance inducers and biocontrol agents in tomato plants to protect against Fusarium wilt disease.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus , Quitinases , Fusarium , /microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Sideróforos , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase , Fenóis , Catecol Oxidase , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Peroxidases , Lipase , Amilases
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...