Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.451
Filtrar
1.
Zootaxa ; 4908(1): zootaxa.4908.1.1, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756630

RESUMO

Three new species of the Asian genus Mata Distant, 1906 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) viz. Mata lenonia sp.nov.; Mata ruffordii sp.nov. and Mata meghalayana sp.nov. are described from Indian state of Meghalaya. Keys and taxonomic descriptions of these species are provided with detailed accounts of their natural history and acoustics.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Acústica , Animais , Índia , Répteis
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530493

RESUMO

The impact of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the microbiomic and pathogenic phenomena occurring in humans and other warm-blooded animals is relatively well-recognized. At the same time, there are scant data concerning the role of E. coli strains in the health and disease of cold-blooded animals. It is presently known that reptiles are common asymptomatic carriers of another human pathogen, Salmonella, which, when transferred to humans, may cause a disease referred to as reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS). We therefore hypothesized that reptiles may also be carriers of specific E. coli strains (reptilian Escherichia coli, RepEC) which may differ in their genetic composition from the human uropathogenic strain (UPEC) and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Therefore, we isolated RepECs (n = 24) from reptile feces and compared isolated strains' pathogenic potentials and phylogenic relations with the aforementioned UPEC (n = 24) and APEC (n = 24) strains. To this end, we conducted an array of molecular analyses, including determination of the phylogenetic groups of E. coli, virulence genotyping, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis-Restriction Analysis (RA-PFGE) and genetic population structure analysis using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). The majority of the tested RepEC strains belonged to nonpathogenic phylogroups, with an important exception of one strain, which belonged to the pathogenic group B2, typical of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. This strain was part of the globally disseminated ST131 lineage. Unlike RepEC strains and in line with previous studies, a high percentage of UPEC strains belonged to the phylogroup B2, and the percentage distribution of phylogroups among the tested APEC strains was relatively homogenous, with most coming from the following nonpathogenic groups: C, A and B1. The RA-PFGE displayed a high genetic diversity among all the tested E. coli groups. In the case of RepEC strains, the frequency of occurrence of virulence genes (VGs) was lower than in the UPEC and APEC strains. The presented study is one of the first attempting to compare the phylogenetic structures of E. coli populations isolated from three groups of vertebrates: reptiles, birds and mammals (humans).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Filogenia , Répteis/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
3.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(4): 513-519, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526889

RESUMO

Disturbance and habitat modification by humans can alter animal movement, leading to negative impacts on fitness, survival and population viability. However, the ubiquity and nature of these impacts across diverse taxa has not been quantified. We compiled 208 studies on 167 species from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems across the globe to assess how human disturbance influences animal movement. We show that disturbance by humans has widespread impacts on the movements of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish and arthropods. More than two-thirds of 719 cases represented a change in movement of 20% or more, with increases in movement averaging 70% and decreases -37%. Disturbance from human activities, such as recreation and hunting, had stronger impacts on animal movement than habitat modification, such as logging and agriculture. Our results point to a global restructuring of animal movement and emphasize the need to reduce the negative impacts of humans on animal movement.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Ecossistema , Animais , Aves , Humanos , Mamíferos , Répteis
5.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(3): 304-310, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462487

RESUMO

Assessing extinction risk from climate drivers is a major goal of conservation science. Few studies, however, include a long-term perspective of climate change. Without explicit integration, such long-term temperature trends and their interactions with short-term climate change may be so dominant that they blur or even reverse the apparent direct relationship between climate change and extinction. Here we evaluate how observed genus-level extinctions of arthropods, bivalves, cnidarians, echinoderms, foraminifera, gastropods, mammals and reptiles in the geological past can be predicted from the interaction of long-term temperature trends with short-term climate change. We compare synergistic palaeoclimate interaction (a short-term change on top of a long-term trend in the same direction) to antagonistic palaeoclimate interaction such as long-term cooling followed by short-term warming. Synergistic palaeoclimate interaction increases extinction risk by up to 40%. The memory of palaeoclimate interaction including the climate history experienced by ancestral lineages can be up to 60 Myr long. The effect size of palaeoclimate interaction is similar to other key factors such as geographic range, abundance or clade membership. Insights arising from this previously unknown driver of extinction risk might attenuate recent predictions of climate-change-induced biodiversity loss.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Extinção Biológica , Animais , Biodiversidade , Mamíferos , Répteis
6.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(2): 131-143, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455089

RESUMO

Salmonellosis is a major global public health issue; its most common infection, gastroenteritis, accounts for approximately 90 million illnesses and 150,000 mortalities per year. Eradicating salmonellosis requires surveillance, prevention and treatment, entailing large expenditures. However, it is difficult to control Salmonella transmission because it occurs via multiple routes; exotic reptiles are a reservoir of Salmonella and comprise one such route. As the popularity of exotic pets and animal exhibition has increased, human encounters with reptiles have also increased. As a result, reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) has been recognized as an emerging disease. The development of antimicrobial resistance in RAS-causing Salmonella sp. requires alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, bacteriophages have been established as an alternative to antibiotics because only target bacteria are lysed; thus, they are promising biocontrol agents. Here, bacteriophage pSal-SNUABM-02, which infects and lyses reptile Salmonella isolates, was isolated and characterized. The morphology, host range, growth traits and stability of the phage were investigated. The phage was assigned to Myoviridae and was stable in the following conditions: pH 5-9, 4-37°C, and ultravioletA/ultravioletB (UVA/UVB) exposure. Salmonella clearance efficacy was tested using planktonic cell lysis activity and biofilm degradation on polystyrene 96-well plates and reptile skin fragments. The phage exhibited vigorous lysis activity against planktonic cells. In in vitro biofilm degradation tests on reptile skin and polystyrene plates, both low- and high-concentration phage treatments lowered bacterial cell viability by approximately 2.5-3 log colony-forming units and also decreased biomass. Thus, bacteriophages are a promising alternative to antibiotics for the prevention and eradication of RAS.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Répteis/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Fagos de Salmonella/fisiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Biofilmes , Humanos , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/transmissão , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2198: 159-168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822030

RESUMO

The lampbrush chromosomes found in the giant nucleus or germinal vesicle (GV) of amphibian oocytes provide unique opportunities for discrete closed and open chromatin structural domains to be directly observable by simple light microscopy. Moreover, the method described here for preparing spreads of lampbrush chromatin for immunostaining enables a straightforward approach to establishing the distributions of modified nucleotides within and between structurally and functionally distinctive chromatin domains.


Assuntos
Cromatina/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Oócitos/imunologia , Animais , Núcleo Celular/imunologia , Cromatina/genética , Cromossomos/imunologia , Citosina/química , Citosina/imunologia , Feminino , Oócitos/metabolismo , Répteis/embriologia , Répteis/imunologia , Xenopus laevis/genética
8.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128146, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297133

RESUMO

Despite the North American production ban of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), PCBs are ubiquitous in the environment and in wildlife tissues. Chelydra serpentina serpentina (common snapping turtle) have been used as environmental indicators of PCB pollution upwards of 40 years given their high site fidelity and high trophic position. Despite their long use as indicators of PCB contamination, the effects of PCBs in reptiles remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed two experiments to assess i) bioaccumulation and ii) toxicity of PCBs to 1-month-old C. s. serpentina, to aid in interpretation of PCB burdens. Food pellets were spiked at an environmentally relevant concentration (0.45 µg/g) of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 to model hepatic bioaccumulation and depuration, through feeding, for 31 days and clean food for 50 days, respectively. No significant differences in PCB concentrations were observed in liver tissue over the course of the experiment, suggesting that juvenile turtles can likely metabolize low environmentally occurring concentrations of PCBs. Additionally, a dose-response experiment, performed to determine hepatic toxicity and bioaccumulation in juvenile C. s. serpentina, showed a 1.8-fold increase in hepatic expression of cyp1a when fed A1254-spiked pellets (12.7 µg/g; range 0-12.7 µg/g). This gene induction correlates with the significant increase of group 3 PCB congeners measured in the turtle liver, which are known to be metabolized by CYP1A. This study indicates that C. s. serpentina may be a good environmental indicator for PCBs, while more research is needed to assess the effects of body burdens in wild C. s. serpentina.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Tartarugas , Animais , Bioacumulação , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Répteis
9.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 175-195, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189250

RESUMO

Reptile behavior varies widely among the approximately 11,000 species of this class. The authors' objective is to allow practitioners to discriminate between normal and abnormal behaviors in reptiles. Some of the most common reasons for presentation of behavioral issues are discussed, including hyperactivity, self-mutilation, biting, repetitive behaviors, and postural abnormalities. Medical problems and suboptimal husbandry causing abnormal behaviors should be ruled out by attending veterinarians. Addressing behavior issues involves determining a differential diagnosis through a systematic approach, which then allows implementation of necessary environmental changes including enrichment, developing plans for behavior modification and biomedical training, and medication when appropriate.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Animais de Estimação , Répteis/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais
10.
Zootaxa ; 4894(4): zootaxa.4894.4.5, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311064

RESUMO

The Solimões Formation (Eocene-Pliocene) is a well-known geological unit due to the great diversity of crocodylian species. Here we describe a new species of Melanosuchus, M. latrubessei sp. nov., from the Talismã locality, state of Amazonas, from the Upper Miocene of the Solimões Formation (Solimões Basin, Brazil). A new phylogenetic inference focused on Caimaninae is provided and the different evolutionary scenarios involving this new species are discussed. In addition, quantitative morphology studies are carried out and comments regarding the paleoecology aspects of this new species are made. M. latrubessei represents a medium-sized generalist predator, being proportional to the medium-sized M. niger. This new species inhabited the drainages of the Solimões Formation and was ecologically related to other taxa of crocodylians during the proto-Amazon Miocene. The evolutionary advantages of Melanosuchus genus are discussed to better understand the biogeographical occurrence of M. niger in South America, a species which survives to this day in contrast to several other species that became extinct during the Miocene-Pliocene periods. The extinction of the Miocene-Pliocene crocodylian taxa of the Solimões Formation, including Melanosuchus latrubessei, seems to be directly related with the uplift of the northern portions of the Andes, which generated significantly changes in drainages and Amazon paleoenvironments.


Assuntos
Répteis , Animais , Brasil , Filogenia
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1941): 20202737, 2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352069

RESUMO

Body growth is typically thought to be indeterminate in ectothermic vertebrates. Indeed, until recently, this growth pattern was considered to be ubiquitous in ectotherms. Our recent observations of a complete growth plate cartilage (GPC) resorption, a reliable indicator of arrested skeletal growth, in many species of lizards clearly reject the ubiquity of indeterminate growth in reptiles and raise the question about the ancestral state of the growth pattern. Using X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT), here we examined GPCs of long bones in three basally branching clades of squamate reptiles, namely in Gekkota, Scincoidea and Lacertoidea. A complete loss of GPC, indicating skeletal growth arrest, was the predominant finding. Using a dataset of 164 species representing all major clades of lizards and the tuataras, we traced the evolution of determinate growth on the phylogenetic tree of Lepidosauria. The reconstruction of character states suggests that determinate growth is ancestral for the squamate reptiles (Squamata) and remains common in the majority of lizard lineages, while extended (potentially indeterminate) adult growth evolved several times within squamates. Although traditionally associated with endotherms, determinate growth is coupled with ectothermy in this lineage. These findings combined with existing literature suggest that determinate growth predominates in both extant and extinct amniotes.


Assuntos
Répteis/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Lagartos , Filogenia , Répteis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Serpentes , Microtomografia por Raio-X
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5121, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046697

RESUMO

Despite considerable advances in knowledge of the anatomy, ecology and evolution of early mammals, far less is known about their physiology. Evidence is contradictory concerning the timing and fossil groups in which mammalian endothermy arose. To determine the state of metabolic evolution in two of the earliest stem-mammals, the Early Jurassic Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium, we use separate proxies for basal and maximum metabolic rate. Here we report, using synchrotron X-ray tomographic imaging of incremental tooth cementum, that they had maximum lifespans considerably longer than comparably sized living mammals, but similar to those of reptiles, and so they likely had reptilian-level basal metabolic rates. Measurements of femoral nutrient foramina show Morganucodon had blood flow rates intermediate between living mammals and reptiles, suggesting maximum metabolic rates increased evolutionarily before basal metabolic rates. Stem mammals lacked the elevated endothermic metabolism of living mammals, highlighting the mosaic nature of mammalian physiological evolution.


Assuntos
Mamíferos/fisiologia , Répteis/fisiologia , Animais , Metabolismo Basal , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Mamíferos/classificação , Filogenia , Tomografia por Raios X , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dente/química
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5293, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116130

RESUMO

Pterosaurs, the first vertebrates to evolve active flight, lived between 210 and 66 million years ago. They were important components of Mesozoic ecosystems, and reconstructing pterosaur diets is vital for understanding their origins, their roles within Mesozoic food webs and the impact of other flying vertebrates (i.e. birds) on their evolution. However, pterosaur dietary hypotheses are poorly constrained as most rely on morphological-functional analogies. Here we constrain the diets of 17 pterosaur genera by applying dental microwear texture analysis to the three-dimensional sub-micrometre scale tooth textures that formed during food consumption. We reveal broad patterns of dietary diversity (e.g. Dimorphodon as a vertebrate consumer; Austriadactylus as a consumer of 'hard' invertebrates) and direct evidence of sympatric niche partitioning (Rhamphorhynchus as a piscivore; Pterodactylus as a generalist invertebrate consumer). We propose that the ancestral pterosaur diet was dominated by invertebrates and later pterosaurs evolved into piscivores and carnivores, shifts that might reflect ecological displacements due to pterosaur-bird competition.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Répteis/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Aves , Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Dieta/história , Dieta/veterinária , Ecossistema , Voo Animal , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Répteis/classificação , Répteis/fisiologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/história , Desgaste dos Dentes/patologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240085, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075077

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bacterial pathogens are often involved in dermatitis in reptiles. Exact identification of reptile-specific but otherwise uncommon bacterial species may be challenging. However, identification is crucial to evaluate the importance of the detected bacterial species. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the number of aerobic bacterial isolates cultured from skin-derived samples of reptiles which were not reliably identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to determine their identity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Routine bacterial diagnostics were performed on 235 skin samples, and 417 bacterial isolates were analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. The isolates were grouped into categories based on their first score: category I (≥ 2.00), category II (≥ 1.70 and < 2.00), and category III (< 1.70). Isolates from category III were further investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the following criteria were applied: query cover 100%, e-value rounded to 0.0 and sequence identity (%) > 98.00% for genus identification, and > 99.00% for species identification. RESULTS: The majority of bacterial isolates were in category I (85.1%) or category II (8.4%). In category III (6.5%) results achieved at first by MALDI-TOF MS corresponded to the results of the molecular analysis in 8.0% of isolates at the species level and in 24.0% at the genus level. Bacterial isolates classified as category III were heterogenic in genus (e.g. Chryseobacterium, Devriesea, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Uruburuella), and some have only been described in reptiles so far. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the aerobic bacterial isolates cultured from reptile skin achieved high scores by MALDI-TOF MS. However, in the majority of category III isolates MALDI-TOF MS results were different from those of the molecular analysis. This strengthens the need to carefully examine low-scored results for plausibility and to be familiar with the occurrence and morphology of relevant reptile-specific bacterial species (e.g. Devriesea agamarum) as well as with the limits of the database used.


Assuntos
Bactérias Aeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Répteis/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias Aeróbias/química , Bactérias Aeróbias/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
15.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 135, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through its ability to open pores in cell membranes, perforin-1 plays a key role in the immune system. Consistent with this role, the gene encoding perforin shows hallmarks of complex evolutionary events, including amplification and pseudogenization, in multiple species. A large proportion of these events occurred in phyla for which scarce genomic data were available. However, recent large-scale genomics projects have added a wealth of information on those phyla. Using this input, we annotated perforin-1 homologs in more than eighty species including mammals, reptiles, birds, amphibians and fishes. RESULTS: We have annotated more than 400 perforin genes in all groups studied. Most mammalian species only have one perforin locus, which may contain a related pseudogene. However, we found four independent small expansions in unrelated members of this class. We could reconstruct the full-length coding sequences of only a few avian perforin genes, although we found incomplete and truncated forms of these gene in other birds. In the rest of reptilia, perforin-like genes can be found in at least three different loci containing up to twelve copies. Notably, mammals, non-avian reptiles, amphibians, and possibly teleosts share at least one perforin-1 locus as assessed by flanking genes. Finally, fish genomes contain multiple perforin loci with varying copy numbers and diverse exon/intron patterns. We have also found evidence for shorter genes with high similarity to the C2 domain of perforin in several teleosts. A preliminary analysis suggests that these genes arose at least twice during evolution from perforin-1 homologs. CONCLUSIONS: The assisted annotation of new genomic assemblies shows complex patterns of birth-and-death events in the evolution of perforin. These events include duplication/pseudogenization in mammals, multiple amplifications and losses in reptiles and fishes and at least one case of partial duplication with a novel start codon in fishes.


Assuntos
Aves , Evolução Molecular , Mamíferos , Perforina/genética , Anfíbios/genética , Animais , Aves/genética , Peixes/genética , Genoma , Mamíferos/genética , Filogenia , Répteis/genética
16.
Zootaxa ; 4816(3): zootaxa.4816.3.12, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055700

RESUMO

Geometric morphometrics (GM) is a powerful analytical approach for evaluating phenotypic variation relevant to taxonomy and systematics, and as with any statistical methodology, requires adherence to fundamental assumptions for inferences to be strictly valid. An important consideration for GM is how landmark configurations, which represent sets of anatomical loci for evaluating shape variation through Cartesian coordinates, relate to underlying homology (Zelditch et al. 1995; Polly 2008). Perhaps more so than with traditional morphometrics, anatomical homology is a crucial assumption for GM because of the mathematical and biological interpretations associated with shape change depicted by deformation grids, such as the thin plate spline (Klingenberg 2008; Zelditch et al. 2012). GM approaches are often used to analyze shapes or outlines of structures, which are not necessarily related to common ancestry, and in this respect GM approaches that use linear semi-landmarks and related methods are particularly amenable to evaluating primary homology, or raw similarity between structures (De Pinna 1991; Palci Lee 2019). This relaxed interpretation of homology that focuses more on recognizable and repeatable landmarks is defensible so long as authors are clear regarding the purpose of the analyses and in defining their landmark configurations (Palci Lee 2019). Secondary homology, or similarity due to common ancestry, can also be represented with GM methods and is often assumed to be reflected in fixed Type 1 (juxtaposition of tissues) or Type 2 (self-evident geometry) landmarks (Bookstein 1991).


Assuntos
Biometria , Répteis , Animais , Matemática
17.
Zootaxa ; 4803(1): zootaxa.4803.1.8, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056035

RESUMO

Ilya S. Darevsky co-described 70 taxa (three genera, 46 species, 21 subspecies) in 44 publications belonging to five orders, eight families of amphibians and reptiles during his career in herpetology. Of this number, three taxa are fossil and 57 taxa are currently considered as valid. By the regions where new taxa were discovered Southeast Asia and Western Asia (includes Caucasus and Asia Minor) dominates. The largest number of descriptions was published in the Russian Journal of Herpetology.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Répteis , Animais
18.
Zootaxa ; 4802(1): zootaxa.4802.1.4, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056632

RESUMO

A geospatial analysis of 1,906,302 records of 1938 species of Australian vertebrates has shown that the original regions proposed in the 19th century, namely the Eyrean, Torresian and Bassian still hold. The analysis has shown that the Eyrean region has an east-west divide, forming two, possibly independent arid regions (Eastern Desert and Western Desert provinces), that are shaped by topography and rainfall. A revised and interim zoogeographical area taxonomy of the Australian region is presented herein.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Répteis , Animais , Austrália , Aves , Mamíferos , Vertebrados
19.
Zootaxa ; 4801(3): zootaxa.4801.3.3, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056644

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the Sphenomorphus stellatus group recovered a newly discovered museum specimen from Phu Quoc Island, Kien Giang Province, Vietnam as a new species most closely related to S. preylangensis from Phnom Chi in central Cambodia, approximately 175 km to the northeast. Most notably, S. phuquocensis sp. nov. lacks the derived condition of having black dorsal stripes that diagnose S. annamiticus-the sister species to S. preylangensis plus S. phuquocensis sp. nov. A BioGeoBEARS analysis recovered the ancestor of the S. stellatus group to likely have ranged across forested regions on an exposed Sunda Shelf from southwestern Indochina to Peninsular Malaysia prior to diverging into northern and southern lineages separated by the Gulf of Thailand. Episodic fluctuations in sea levels and concomitant changes in the physiography of the Mekong Delta contributed to the fragmented distribution within and between species of the northern lineage. Sphenomorphus phuquocensis sp. nov. represents the second species of reptile endemic to Phu Quoc Island.


Assuntos
Répteis , Animais , Ilhas , Vietnã
20.
Nature ; 585(7826): 557-562, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939093

RESUMO

Climate and physiology shape biogeography, yet the range limits of species can rarely be ascribed to the quantitative traits of organisms1-3. Here we evaluate whether the geographical range boundaries of species coincide with ecophysiological limits to acquisition of aerobic energy4 for a global cross-section of the biodiversity of marine animals. We observe a tight correlation between the metabolic rate and the efficacy of oxygen supply, and between the temperature sensitivities of these traits, which suggests that marine animals are under strong selection for the tolerance of low O2 (hypoxia)5. The breadth of the resulting physiological tolerances of marine animals predicts a variety of geographical niches-from the tropics to high latitudes and from shallow to deep water-which better align with species distributions than do models based on either temperature or oxygen alone. For all studied species, thermal and hypoxic limits are substantially reduced by the energetic demands of ecological activity, a trait that varies similarly among marine and terrestrial taxa. Active temperature-dependent hypoxia thus links the biogeography of diverse marine species to fundamental energetic requirements that are shared across the animal kingdom.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Filogeografia , Aerobiose , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Basal , Aves/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/veterinária , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Répteis/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...