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1.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557958

RESUMO

The effects of inclusion of persimmon peel (PP) in total mixed ration (TMR) silage on its nutrient composition, tannin content, and in vitro ruminal fermentation were studied. Four types of TMR silages containing 0, 50, 100, and 150 g/kg of PP on a dry matter basis were prepared. The dietary contents of non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) decreased, while soluble protein fraction increased after ensiling of the TMR. In the TMR silages, the content of insoluble tannin increased (p < .05) with increasing PP level. The fraction of soluble protein decreased linearly (p < .01), while that of neutral detergent insoluble protein increased linearly (p < .01) with increasing the PP level in the TMR silages. The total gas and methane yields from the in vitro rumen fermentation of the TMR silages were lower (p < .01) than those of pre-ensiled TMR and declined linearly (p < .01) with increasing PP level. These results indicate that adding PP to TMR silage may resist the breakdown of dietary protein during the ensiling process, although the ruminal fermentability of TMR possibly decreased after ensiling due to the loss of NFC.


Assuntos
Diospyros , Fermentação , Rúmen/fisiologia , Silagem/análise , Taninos/análise , Animais , Biocombustíveis/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Técnicas In Vitro , Metano/análise , Solubilidade
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6135-6144, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307157

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of pellet type and feeding amount on feeding behavior, dry matter intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. An experimental diet was formulated to provide an adequate amount of nutrients to a 650-kg cow producing 40 kg of milk per day, with a portion of the diet removed as a high-fiber (33.2% neutral detergent fiber; F) or high-starch (56.8% starch; S) pellet. Pellets were fed at a low (1 kg; L) or high (3 kg; H) amount twice per day alongside a partial mixed ration (PMR). Four complementary PMR were formulated for each pellet treatment such that the overall diet (pellet + PMR) offered to the cows was the same among all treatments. Eight ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Cows were fed PMR once daily at 1200 h, and pellet twice daily at 0600 and 1800 h. Data and samples were collected on d 11 to 14 of each period. By design there was a difference in pellet intake between the H and L treatments (5.31 vs. 1.81 kg/d), and PMR intake was reduced when H pellet was fed (22.9 vs. 25.3 kg/d); however, feeding H tended to increase total dry matter intake. Feed disappearance, which was measured as the amount of PMR consumed every 3 h following PMR delivery, was affected by the nutrient composition of the PMR as cows fed S (with high-fiber PMR) consumed 28.6% of their PMR intake within 3 h of delivery, whereas cows fed F (with high-starch PMR) consumed 33.5%. Duration that pH was below 5.8 tended to be lower when cows were fed the S pellet (270 vs. 125 min/d) compared with F. In addition, feeding the S pellet (with high-fiber PMR) decreased plasma concentrations of glucose (66.0 vs. 70.0 mg/dL) and insulin (1.90 vs. 2.25 ng/mL) compared with F. These results suggest that the composition of the PMR dictates rumen fermentation to a greater extent than composition of pellets. The S pellet was fed alongside a high-fiber PMR, which was more filling in the rumen, less fermentable, and contained more neutral detergent fiber. Although no difference was observed in milk production among treatments, the fact that feed intake pattern and rumen fermentation are better explained by nutrient composition of the PMR should be considered when formulating diets for lactating cows fed pellet and PMR, such as those milked with automated milking systems.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aleitamento Materno , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Rúmen/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo
3.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271920

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to compare ruminal total tract digestibility, bacterial communities, and eating and rumination activity between Holstein and Angus steers fed grain- or forage-based diets. Six Holstein steers (average body weight [BW] = 483 ± 23 kg) and six Angus steers (average BW = 507 ± 29 kg), previously fitted with rumen cannulae, were fed in a crossover design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of four treatments: 1) Holsteins fed a grain-based diet, 2) Holsteins fed a forage-based diet, 3) Angus fed a grain-based diet, and 4) Angus fed a forage-based diet. Each period was 35 d with 26 d of diet adaptation and 9 d of sample collection. On days 1 and 2 of collection, feeding activity was recorded for 48 h. On day 3, rumen contents were sampled to measure ruminal pH at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18 h after feeding. A portion of the strained ruminal fluid was subsampled at 0, 3, and 6 h for volatile fatty acids (VFA) analysis. Rumen contents were subsampled at 3 h for analysis of bacterial communities. From day 4 to 8, total fecal excretion, feed, and refusals samples were collected and analyzed for dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and starch. On days 8 and 9 (0 and 3 h post-feeding, respectively), total reticulorumen evacuation was conducted and contents were weighed. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures in SAS (v9.4 SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). Repeated measures were used to analyze changes in ruminal pH and VFA over time. There were no interactions of diet × breed (P ≥ 0.07). While the main effects of diet were expected, unique to these data is the fact that bacterial diversity and richness were reduced (P < 0.01) in cattle fed grain-based diets. There was no main effect (P > 0.34) of breed on total tract DM, organic matter, and starch digestibility, but Angus cattle had greater (P = 0.01) NDF digestibility than Holsteins. The increased NDF digestibility may be associated with a numerical (P = 0.08) increased numbers of bacterial species in Angus steers compared with Holstein steers. Holstein steers also spent more time (P ≤ 0.05) ruminating than Angus steers. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of breed on reticulorumen content at feeding time; however, Holstein steers had greater (P = 0.04) reticulorumen content on a wet basis 3 h post-feeding. Although Holstein steers spent more time ruminating, Angus steers were better able to digest NDF when compared with Holsteins, regardless of basal diet, and this improvement may be related to changes in bacterial communities in the rumen or to rumination activity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Grão Comestível , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 535-544, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128402

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the performance, apparent digestibility of diet, ingestive behavior which occurred in two moments, carcass traits, being evaluated constituent and non-carcass components, and also the effect the yeast culture could promote in the peripheral temperature of rumen, hull and body temperature. The diets consisted of a constant ratio of 50% forage (maize silage) and 50% concentrate. Thirty-six steers, ½ Angus Nelore, with average age of 11 months and average initial body weight of 339.5±10kg were used in the experiment. The inclusion of yeast culture promoted a higher daily dry matter intake (8.83 vs 9.35kg day-1) and, consequently, a better daily weight gain (1,143 vs. 1,325kg day-1) in the initial feedlot phase, with no difference in other periods. The apparent digestibility of the diet containing yeast culture was higher than the control diet (69.69 versus 68.32%, respectively), and its use did not interfere with the feeding behavior of the animals. Based on our findings, supplementation with yeast culture may bring positive results in the initial feedlot phase.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho; a digestibilidade aparente da dieta; o comportamento oral ingestivo, o qual ocorreu em dois momentos, as características de carcaça, sendo avaliados componentes integrantes e não integrantes da carcaça; bem como o efeito que a cultura de leveduras pudesse promover perante a temperatura periférica de rúmen, casco e temperatura corpórea, sendo aferida por meio da temperatura retal. As dietas foram constituídas em uma constante relação de 50% de volumoso (silagem de milho) e 50% de concentrado. Utilizaram-se no experimento 36 novilhos, ½ sangue Angus Nelore, com idade média de 11 meses e peso vivo médio inicial de 339,5 ± 10kg. O uso de cultura de leveduras promoveu maior consumo diário de matéria seca (8,83 contra 9,35 kg dia-1) e consequentemente melhor ganho de peso diário (1,143 contra 1,325kg dia-1) na fase inicial do confinamento, não havendo diferença nos demais períodos. A digestibilidade aparente da dieta que continha cultura de leveduras foi superior à da dieta controle (69,69 contra 68,32%, respectivamente), e seu uso não interferiu no comportamento ingestivo dos animais. Com base nos resultados do presente estudo, a suplementação com cultura de leveduras pode trazer resultados positivos na fase inicial de confinamento.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Peso Corporal , Ganho de Peso , beta-Glucanas , Comportamento Alimentar , Rúmen/fisiologia , Silagem
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4340-4354, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197848

RESUMO

Physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content of dairy cow diets was modified by varying the theoretical chop length of alfalfa silage and forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio, and effects on nutrient intakes, ruminal fermentation, site and extent of digestion, microbial protein synthesis, and milk production were evaluated. Estimates of dietary peNDF contents were compared with recommendations, and predictions of ruminal pH from peNDF and the recently developed physically adjusted neutral detergent fiber (paNDF) system were compared with observed pH. The experiment was designed as a triple 4 × 4 Latin square using 12 mid-lactating dairy cows with 4 intact, 4 ruminally cannulated, and 4 ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows. Site and extent of digestion and microbial protein synthesis were measured in a single 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement; 2 forage particle lengths (FPL) of alfalfa silage (short and long) were combined with low (35:65) and high (60:40) F:C ratios [dry matter (DM) basis]. The peNDF contents were determined by multiplying the proportion (DM basis) of total mixed ration retained on 2 (8 and 19 mm; peNDF8.0) or 3 (1.18, 8, and 19 mm; peNDF1.18) sieves of the Penn State Particle Separator by the neutral detergent fiber content of the diet. The dietary peNDF contents ranged from 10.7 to 17.5% for peNDF8.0 or from 23.1 to 28.2% for peNDF1.18. Interactions between F:C ratio and FPL content were few. Increasing peNDF content of diets by increasing F:C ratio decreased DM intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, whereas apparent total-tract DM digestibility and milk efficiency improved. Increasing F:C ratio improved ruminal pH status but decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration and microbial protein synthesis. Increasing peNDF content of diets via dietary FPL increased mean ruminal pH, but did not affect DM intake, total-tract digestibility, or milk production. The results indicate that feeding dairy cows a low F:C diet helps increase DM intake, milk production, and microbial protein synthesis, but may adversely affect feed digestibility and milk efficiency due to increased risk of subacute ruminal acidosis. Increased FPL improved ruminal pH status, but had minimal effects on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and milk production. The results indicate a trade-off between reducing the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis and maximizing ruminal fermentation, feed digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows. The paNDF model showed improvement in the predictability of ruminal pH over the peNDF model, but the accuracy of predictions varied depending upon the diet and ruminal fermentation variables considered in the equations.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Rúmen/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bovinos/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação , Proteínas/metabolismo
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4672-4680, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173018

RESUMO

The weaning process may cause intense stress for dairy calves, even when low volumes of liquid diet are fed. Management tools that increase the intake of solid feeds, such as gradual weaning, can provide better physiological and metabolic conditions through better ruminal development, leading to better adaptation to ruminant metabolism and aiding in stress mitigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 weaning protocols and 2 levels of concentrate intake on the performance and physiological and behavioral variables related to stress in dairy calves. Thirty-six newborn male Holstein calves were used in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 2 weaning strategies, abrupt or gradual, and 2 levels of concentrate intake at 5 wk of age, high (>350 g/d) or low (≤350 g/d). Calves were equally managed until they were 5 wk of age and then grouped according to concentrate intake. Statistical analyzes were performed using the MIXED procedure of SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), and no significant interaction was observed between studied factors (weaning method and starter intake level); therefore, we considered each factor separately and their interactions with age. The highest dry matter intake and concentration of ß-hydroxybutyrate were recorded for animals with a high level of starter intake independent of the weaning method. Structural growth (cm/wk) and average daily gain were superior for calves with high starter intake, but weaning method had no effect. The gradual weaning protocol increased the time eating starter, regardless of the level of concentrate intake. Even animals with low concentrate intake that were weaned abruptly showed levels of cortisol and acid-soluble glycoprotein within normal physiological levels. Apparently, other factors besides the milk supply affect the starter intake level of calves in a conventional feeding program. The adoption of gradual weaning is not effective in improving performance when a calf has low intake 3 wk before weaning is complete, but it reduced vocalization on d 2 postweaning.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Substitutos do Leite/metabolismo , Desmame , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Vocalização Animal
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(4)2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074978

RESUMO

Our study hypothesis is that the interline registered pH of the cow reticulum can be used as an indicator of health and reproductive status. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship of pH, using the indicators of the automatic milking system (AMS), with some parameters of cow blood components. The following four main groups were used to classify cow health status: 15-30 d postpartum, 1-34 d after insemination, 35 d after insemination (not pregnant), and 35 d (pregnant). Using the reticulum pH assay, the animals were categorized as pH < 6.22 (5.3% of cows), pH 6.22-6.42 (42.1% of cows), pH 2.6-6.62 (21.1% of cows), and pH > 6.62 (10.5% of cows). Using milking robots, milk yield, fat protein, lactose level, somatic cell count, and electron conductivity were registered. Other parameters assessed included the temperature and pH of the contents of reticulorumens. Assessment of the aforementioned parameters was done using specific smaX-tec boluses. Blood gas parameters were assessed using a blood gas analyzer (EPOC (Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany). The study findings indicated that pregnant cows have a higher pH during insemination than that of non-pregnant ones. It was also noted that cows with a low fat/protein ratio, lactose level, and high SCC had low reticulorumen pH. They also had the lowest blood pH. It was also noted that, with the increase of reticulorumen pH, there was an increased level of blood potassium, a high hematocrit, and low sodium and carbon dioxide saturation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Saúde , Reprodução/fisiologia , Rúmen/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Condutividade Elétrica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
8.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 23(1): 27-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cellulase as a fibrolytic enzyme is a highly effective tool for agricultural waste treatments. Production of cellulase enzyme on medium of agricultural wastes by Fusarium graminearum to be used in ruminant feeding was the main objective of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Impact of initial pH of growth medium, different nitrogen sources and variety of agriculture by products as a carbon sources on cellulase production have been studied. Electron microscope was used for investigate the impact of the resultant cellulase on corn stover degradation, while batch culture technique was used for investigate impact of different levels of the produced and commercial cellulases on total mixed ration digestibility by rumen microorganisms (in vitro). RESULTS: Cellulase maximum production by F. graminearum was obtained at 20% corn stover, initial pH of growth medium 5.0 and peptone as a nitrogen source. All addition levels of the produced cellulase increased dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose and hemicellulose degradability of the treated diets, but the maximum produced cellulase efficiency% for dry matter degradability was obtained at 1200 IU kg-1 DM reached 23.19% over the control. CONCLUSION: Utilization of the produced cellulase in enrichment of the feeding value of the agricultural by-products may help in overcome of the feed gap with good impact on environment and public health.


Assuntos
Celulase/biossíntese , Fusarium/fisiologia , Rúmen/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Leite , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Silagem , Zea mays
9.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930309

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to determine if statistical process control (SPC) procedures coupled with the remote continuous collection of feeding behavior patterns, accelerometer-based behaviors, and rumen temperature can accurately differentiate between animals experimentally inoculated with Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) or PBS. Thirty-six crossbred steers (BW = 352 ± 23 kg) seronegative for MH were randomly assigned to bronchoselective endoscopic inoculation with MH (n = 18) or PBS (n = 18). Electronic feed bunks were used to measure DMI and feeding behavior traits, accelerometer-based neck collars measured feeding- and activity-behavior traits, and ruminal thermo-boluses measured rumen temperature. Data were collected for 28 d prior to and following inoculation. Steers inoculated with MH exhibited elevated (P < 0.02) levels of neutrophils and rumen temperature indicating that MH challenge effectively stimulated immunologic responses. However, only nine of the MH steers exhibited increased serum haptoglobin concentrations indicative of an acute-phase protein response and one displayed clinical signs of disease. Shewhart charts (SPC procedure) were used for two analyses, and sensitivity was computed using all MH-challenged steers (n = 18), and a subset that included only MH-challenged haptoglobin-responsive steers (n = 9). Specificity was calculated using all PBS steers in both analyses. In the haptoglobin-responsive only analysis, DMI and bunk visit (BV) duration had the greatest accuracy (89%), with accuracies for head-down (HD) duration, BV frequency, time to bunk, and eating rate being less (83%, 69%, 53%, and 61%, respectively). To address the diurnal nature of rumen temperature, data were averaged over 6-h intervals, and quarterly temperature models were evaluated separately. Accuracy for the fourth quarter rumen temperature was higher (78%) than the other quarterly temperature periods (first = 56%, second = 50%, and third = 67%). In general, the accelerometer-based behavior traits were highly specific ranging from 82% for ingestion to 100% for rest, rumination, and standing. However, the sensitivity of these traits was low (0% to 50%), such that the accuracies were moderate compared with feeding behavior and rumen temperature response variables. These results indicate that Shewhart procedures can effectively identify deviations in feeding behavior and rumen temperature patterns to enable subclinical detection of BRD in beef cattle.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/diagnóstico , Comportamento Alimentar , Haptoglobinas/análise , Mannheimia haemolytica/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/microbiologia , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/fisiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Temperatura
10.
Meat Sci ; 161: 107964, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683223

RESUMO

Thirty-two crossbred Merino branco male lambs were randomly allocated to eight diets, combining two forms of alfalfa presentation (chopped or ground), with four barley grain levels (0%, 11.2%, 21.3% and 33% dry matter (DM)), balanced by low starch agro-industrial by-products (LSBP). The diets were supplemented with 6% soybean oil and included 40% of alfalfa in DM. The lambs were individually housed and the trial lasted six weeks. Intake of DM, average daily weight gain (ADG) and carcass weight were higher with ground alfalfa (P < 0.01). Replacing barley grain by LSBP reduced linearly DM intake and ADG (P < 0.001) but increased meat tenderness (P = 0.046). Regardless of the treatments, meat showed a healthy biohydrogenation fatty acid (FA) profile, with high proportions of t11-18:1, c9,t11-18:2 and a t10-18:1/t11-18:1 ratio clearly below 1. The reduction of barley in diet had a moderate positive impact on meat FA composition, decreasing t10-18:1, which was enhanced by the increase of forage particle size.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Medicago sativa/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Rúmen/fisiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Masculino , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos
11.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(1): 32-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663652

RESUMO

There is a risk of iron overload in grazing livestock. However, the effects on nutrient absorption and rumen function induced by excessive iron have not been well understood. Therefore, the purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of over-load iron on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood biochemistry, rumen fermentation and bacterial communities in sheep. Twenty-four German Mutton Merino cross-bred sheep with weight (42.66 ± 2.34 kg BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups, each with 6 replicates and 1 sheep per replicate. The basal diet consisted of 60% Leymus chinensis hay and 40% concentrate. The sheep in 4 groups were fed the basal diets supplemented with 50 (Control), 500 (T1), 1,000 (T2) and 1,500 (T3) mg Fe/kg as ferrous sulphate monohydrate (FeSO4 ·H2 O) respectively. And the actual contents of iron in the diet were determined to be 457.68 (control), 816.42 (T1), 1,256.78 (T2) and 1,725.63 (T3) mg/kg respectively. The experiment lasted 62 days including a 7-day metabolism trial. During the whole experiment, the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre showed a quadratic increase with increasing over-load iron levels (p < .05), and maximum responses were found with 500 mg/kg supplementation. However, the response of total VFA concentration showed a quadratic decrease, as did the concentrations of propionate, butyrate and valerate (p < .05). Serum total iron-binding capacity on day 30 showed a quadratic decrease with the increase in high-dose iron, while the serum iron content increased linearly at day 60 (p < .05). Excessive iron resulted in the change in bacterial communities. An increase in over-load iron linearly decreased the abundance of bacteria in the phylum Bacteroidetes (p < .05), but linearly increased the Firmicutes (p = .037) and Proteobacteria (p = .018). In addition, there was a quadratic effect (p = .003) on the Fibrobacteres, which was higher in the 500 and 1,000 mg/kg Fe-supplemented groups. At the genus level, there were quadratic effects on the abundances of Selenomonas_1 (p = .023) and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 (p = .016). Furthermore, feeding of iron linearly increased the relative abundances of Succiniclasticum and Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 (p < .05). These results indicate that increasing ferrous sulphate monohydrate in diets had no negative impact on the growth performance, but it changed nutrient digestibility, blood iron parameters, rumen fermentation and bacterial communities in sheep.


Assuntos
Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/efeitos adversos , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ferro na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/fisiologia
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 109972, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780204

RESUMO

Rumen impaction by plastic waste (PW) is a common condition in the developing countries where ruminants are reared under extensive grazing. As heavy metals (HM) are used in the manufacture of plastic, we hypothesized that buffaloes with PW impaction would have suboptimal rumen function and higher content of HM in the rumen fluid, sera and body tissues. Buffaloes at an abattoir were categorized into impacted with PW or not (Group C and B, respectively; n = 30/group). From the animals of group C and B, rumen fluid and sera were collected ante-mortem, while muscle, liver and kidney were collected after exsanguination. Blood and rumen fluid of stall-fed buffaloes (Group A; n = 15) served as known negative control. Rumen function was assessed by protozoal density, motility, pH, methylene blue reduction time (MBRT) and sedimentation activity time (SAT). Concentration of HM such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) in the body fluids, tissues and impacted PW was estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). A significant decrease in the rumen protozoal density, motility and increase (P < 0.05) in the rumen fluid pH, MBRT and SAT were observed in group C as compared to group A and B. Concentration of Pb, Hg and Cd showed a moderate to strong significant negative correlation with rumen function indicators. Quantitatively, Cu content (ppm) was highest in PW with 0.9 ± 0.04. The concentration of HM in the body fluids and tissues was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in group C, but was below the toxic levels. In stall-fed buffaloes, Hg, Pb and Cd were undetectable in body fluids. Collectively, the results indicate that long term exposure of buffaloes to HM from PW affect the health, productivity and increase the risk of entering the food chain.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Metais Pesados/análise , Plásticos/toxicidade , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Líquidos Corporais/química , Búfalos/sangue , Búfalos/fisiologia , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Cobre/análise , Corpos Estranhos , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/sangue , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/fisiologia
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(3): 1299-1307, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848832

RESUMO

The histomorphometric parameters of the fore-stomach epithelium of lambs fed with spineless cactus genotypes resistant to Dactylopius sp. were evaluated. Thirty-two lambs (23.0 ± 2.06 kg body weight) were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replications. The treatments consisted of the base diet and diets in which part of the elephant grass hay and all ground corn was replaced by the Miúda, IPA-Sertânia, or Orelha de Elefante Mexicana (OEM) spineless cacti. The keratin layers of the ruminal epithelium of the animals consuming the spineless cacti Miúda and OEM presented greater thickening relative to the control diet: 47.31, 41.30, and 25.81 µm, respectively. The heights of the ruminal papillae were higher in the animals that were fed with the OEM spineless cactus. The Miúda spineless cactus caused an enlargement in the keratinized layer of the reticulum epithelium, as well as a decrease in the thickness of the non-keratinized layers. The diet containing OEM spineless cactus resulted in greater thickening of the keratin layer of the omasal epithelium and decreased thickness of the non-keratinized layers. The spineless cacti Miúda and OEM changed the morphology of the fore-stomach epithelium and increased the dry matter intake and weight gain of lambs.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Dieta/veterinária , Rúmen/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antibiose , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Masculino
14.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(12): 1835-1841, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685723

RESUMO

We evaluated the relationship between ruminal motility measured by a force transducer and acceleration measured by bolus sensor, and we assessed the detection of ruminal motility in cattle by a bolus-type wireless sensor. The bolus sensor can be orally administered to cattle and was placed in the reticulum for continuous measurements. The probe was almost horizontal to the longitudinal axis. The bolus sensor's basic y-axis acceleration movement appeared to have a very distinct vertical pattern, occurring roughly 1-1.5 times/min with a duration of approximately 8 sec, displaying at around 500 mG. A significant positive correlation was observed between the ruminal contraction revealed by the force transducer and the acceleration shown by the bolus sensor (P<0.01). The contraction of the dorsal sac of the rumen and the acceleration signals in the reticulum occurred at practically the same time. The frequency and amplitude of ruminal contraction demonstrated by the bolus sensor and the force transducer in feeding were significantly higher than those at rest (P<0.01). The bolus sensor could also detect ruminal atony in the cattle after the administration of xylazine. A bolus-type wireless sensor may thus be useful for the measurement of ruminal motility in cattle and for detecting rumen dysfunction (e.g., ruminal atony).


Assuntos
Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/veterinária , Rúmen/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Xilazina/administração & dosagem
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16612, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719633

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the ruminal function and microbial community of lamb under different nutrient levels. Sixty-four lambs with similarity body weight were randomly assigned to four groups after weaning off ewe's milk on the 17th day (6.2 ± 0.2 kg). The lambs of the control group (CON) were fed a basal diet, and the other three groups were subjected to a diet of decreased protein (PR), digestible energy (ER) or both of them at 20% (BR) of basal diet. The decrease of dietary protein or energy level decreased the average daily gain, ruminal weight and mucosal thickness of lambs (P < 0.05). The total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), acetate and propionate concentration of the CON group were significantly higher than that of the other three groups. The dietary protein and energy level affected the microbial diversity, and low energy level increased the relative abundance of phyla of Fibrobacteres, whereas at the genus level, increased the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio and Prevotellaceae. Under different dietary energy and protein levels, 14 genera exhibited significant correlation with ruminal fermentation. These findings supplied new perspective for the understanding of the dietary effect on ruminal microbial community interactions and are of great significance for establishing the optimal nutrient supply strategy for lambs.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Rúmen/anatomia & histologia , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/fisiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia
16.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(6): 1708-1718, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518020

RESUMO

The aim of the experiment was to investigate the replacement value of common bean residues in the diet of finishing lambs as an inexpensive fodder instead of wheat straw or maize silage. Forty Arabi male lambs with average body weight of 18.90 ± 0.6 kg were randomly divided into five treatments with eight replications. The five experimental treatments consisted of control diet, and 50% and 100% replacement of bean residues with wheat straw or 25% and 50% replacement with maize silage in the control diet respectively. Lambs were slaughtered at the end of the experiment to evaluate carcass traits and meat characteristics. Dry matter intake, blood glucose, urea nitrogen, cholesterol and triglyceride concentration were not affected by the experimental treatments. Apparent digestibility of nutrients; total concentration of volatile fatty acids, acetate and butyrate; and total rumen protozoa population were linearly increased by increasing the levels of bean residues, as replacement with wheat straw (p < .05). Replacement of bean residues in control diets instead of wheat straw or maize silage caused a positive linear incremental trend for average daily gain and total weight gain. There was no significant difference in daily gain, final weight and feed conversion ratio among the treatments. Instead of wheat straw or maize silage, replacement bean residues linearly increased chewing, ruminating and eating activities per neutral detergent fibre intake (p < .05). Carcass traits and physicochemical characteristics of meat were not affected by the treatments. It is advisable to use bean residues in the diet of lambs as an alternative to the wheat straw or maize silage, because no adverse effects were observed on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and performance; moreover, improvement in average daily gain, total weight gain and digestibility of nutrients, and the fact that bean residue is less expensive than wheat straw and maize silage.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/normas , Phaseolus , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Digestão , Comportamento Alimentar , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11368, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388061

RESUMO

We estimated ruminal crude protein degradation of twelve feedstuffs commonly used in China using in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vivo net protein utilization (NPU) levels of corn, sorghum, barley, wheat, Chinese wild rye grass, corn stalk, rice straw, soybean straw, soybean meal, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), Brewers' spent grains, and sunflower meal were 52.57, 49.68, 65.38, 72.58, 82.41, 72.26, 68.57, 76.95, 54.75, 56.27, 29.03 and 41.88%, respectively. The linear regression between NH3-N incorporated into microbial proteins and gas production after incubation (6, 12, and 24 h) was significant (r = 0.9948 and P < 0.001, r = 0.9874 and P < 0.01, and r = 0.9912 and P < 0.01, respectively). Based on the linear regression equations, we estimated in vitro protein degradability (IVPD) and generated the regression equations between IVPD and NPU. The linear regression equations between IVPD and NPU after 6 h incubation in the energy, protein, and roughage feed groups were Y = 0.5633X + 33.20 (R2 = 0.8517, P < 0.05), Y = 0.8482X+ 34.81 (R2 = 0.8650, P < 0.05), and Y = 1.6295X - 17.70 (R2 = 0.909, P < 0.05), respectively. The in vitro gas production method is useful for the determination of protein degradation in feedstuffs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Grão Comestível , Proteólise , Rúmen/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Digestão , Hordeum , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/fisiologia , Sorghum , Soja , Triticum , Zea mays
18.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(6): 1719-1726, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441137

RESUMO

Researches on sodium selenite (SS) mainly focus on production performance and rumen fermentation in ruminants, and the influence of dietary Se addition on ruminal microbial population and enzyme activity in dairy bulls is scarce. This study mainly evaluated the effects of SS on ruminal fermentation, microflora and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in dairy bulls. Eight ruminally cannulated dairy bulls were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were control, low SS (LSS), medium SS (MSS) and high SS (HSS) with 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg of selenium (Se) from SS in dietary dry matter (DM), respectively. The supplement of SS (1.0 g/kg of Se) was mixed into the first third of the daily ration. Bulls were fed a total mixed ration with corn silage to concentrate ratio of 50:50 on a DM basis. Dry matter intake was not affected, average daily gain linearly increased, while feed conversion ratio quadratically decreased with increasing Se addition. The linearly increased digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre was observed. Both ruminal pH and ammonia-N concentration linearly decreased, whereas total volatile fatty acid concentration linearly increased. A lower acetate to propionate ratio was observed due to the unchanged acetate proportion and increased propionate proportion. Activity of cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, α-amylase and protease, populations of total bacteria, fungi, protozoa, Ruminococcus (R.) albus, R. flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminobacter amylophilus as well as urinary total PD excretion linearly increased, whereas populations of total methanogens and Prevotella ruminicola linearly decreased. The data indicated that dietary Se addition stimulated ruminal microbial growth and enzyme activity, and resulting in the increased nutrient digestion and growth performance, and the optimum supplementary dose of Se was 0.3 mg/kg dietary DM from SS in dairy bulls.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Purinas/urina , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Selenito de Sódio/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/fisiologia
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9076-9081, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400896

RESUMO

Reticulo-ruminal motility is a well-established indicator of gastrointestinal health in dairy cows. The currently available methods for assessing motility are labor-intensive, costly, and impractical to use regularly for all cows on a farm. We hypothesized that the reticulo-ruminal motility of dairy cows could be assessed automatically and remotely using a low-cost 3-dimensional (3D) camera. In this study, a 3D vision system was constructed and mounted on the frame of an automatic milking robot to capture the left paralumbar fossa of 20 primiparous cows. For each cow, the system recorded 3D images at 30 frames per second during milking. Each image was automatically processed to locate the left paralumbar fossa region and quantify its average concavity. Then, the average concavity values from all images of 1 cow during 1 milking process were chronologically assembled to form an undulation signal. By applying fast Fourier transformation to the signal, we identified cyclic oscillations that occurred in the same frequency range as reticulo-ruminal contractions. To validate the oscillation identification, 2 trained assessors visually identified reticulo-ruminal contractions from the same 3D image recordings on screen. The matching sensitivity between the automatically identified oscillations and the manually identified reticulo-ruminal contractions was 0.97. This 3D vision system can automate the assessment of reticulo-ruminal motility in dairy cows. It is noninvasive and can be implemented on farms without distressing the cows. It is a promising tool for farmers, giving them regular information about the gastrointestinal health of individual cows and helping them in daily farm management.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Imageamento Tridimensional/veterinária , Rúmen/fisiologia , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Lactação , Leite , Rúmen/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Meat Sci ; 158: 107913, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430642

RESUMO

The use of new technologies such as rumen temperature boluses, together with the collective assessment of an animal stress responses may have the potential to act as an indicator of meat quality. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate rumen temperature as a novel indicator of meat quality, by investigating its relationship with welfare measures and instrumental meat quality. The study involved 42 Holstein bulls (15.8 ±â€¯0.08 months of age), which were transported 42 km to a commercial abattoir. Mean rumen temperature rose by 0.511 °C (P < .001) during the pre-slaughter phase; peaking during lairage. In addition, cortisol, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly (P < .001) elevated at slaughter. Bulls with a greater rumen temperature during the pre-slaughter phase produced meat with significantly higher pHult. Pre-slaughter rumen temperature was positively associated with slaughter CK, slaughter cortisol, pHult, L* and a*. Thus, rumen temperature demonstrates the potential to be used both as a novel welfare indicator and predictor of meat quality.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Rúmen/fisiologia , Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Transportes
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