Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.667
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298315

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of medicinal herbal mixtures rich in phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid compounds on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations, and fatty acid (FA) concentrations and lipid oxidation in tissues of lambs infected with the gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite (Haemonchus contortus). Parallel in vitro and in vivo studies were performed using two different herbal mixtures (Mix1 and Mix2). The in vitro study was conducted in a 2 (infection status; non-infected versus infected) × 3 (diets; control, Mix1 and Mix2) factorial design. In the in vivo study, 24 lambs were equally divided into four treatments: non-infected lambs fed a control diet, infected lambs fed the control diet, infected lambs fed a diet with Mix1 and infected lambs fed a diet with Mix2. Herbal mixtures (100 g dry matter (DM)/d) were added to the basal diets of meadow hay (ad libitum) and a commercial concentrate (500 g DM/d). The experimental period lasted for 70 days. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane production were not affected by infection in vivo or in vitro. Both herbal mixture supplementation increased total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations (P < 0.01) and DM digestibility (P < 0.01) in vitro. Archaea population was slightly diminished by both herbal mixtures (P < 0.05), but they did not lower methane production in vitro or in vivo (P > 0.05). Infection of H. contortus or herbal mixtures modulated FA proportion mainly in the liver, especially the long chain FA proportion. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum were significantly higher after 70 days post-infection in the infected lambs. Herbal Mix1 supplementation reduced TBARS concentrations in meat after seven days of storage. In conclusion, supplementing of herbal mixtures to the diets of GIN parasite infected lambs did not affect the basic ruminal fermentation parameters. Herbal mixtures may improve few FA proportions mainly in liver as well as decrease lipid oxidation in meat.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoncose/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/parasitologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/microbiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119709

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to characterize the rumen bacterial and archaeal communities in dairy cows fed different ratios of maize silage (MS) and grass silage (GS), and place the findings in the context of ruminal fermentation as well as previously reported methane (CH4) emissions. Rumen fluid from 12 rumen cannulated dairy cows was collected after 10 and 17 days of feeding one of four diets, all of which had the same roughage to concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). Roughage in the four diets (GS100, GS0, GS67, GS33) consisted of either 1000 g/kg DM GS (GS100), 1000 g/kg DM MS (GS0), or a mixture of both silages in different proportions [667 g/kg DM GS and 333 g/kg DM MS (GS67); 333 g/kg DM GS and 677 g/kg DM MS (GS33)]. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and the molar proportions of the ruminal VFA were not affected by diet. Only the molar proportion of isovalerate was affected by time, being lower on day 17 than on day 10. Bacterial and archaeal concentrations were not affected by diet but increased from day 10 to day 17. The bacterial community composition was affected by diet, time and diet × time, whereas the archaeal community composition was only affected by diet. Several bacterial and archaeal genus level groups were associated with diet, but not with time. Analysis indicated the increased use of hydrogen by succinate and lactate producing bacteria is likely to at least partially explain the previously reported lower CH4 emissions from MS fed dairy cows. Furthermore, time had a significant effect on both bacterial and archaeal concentrations, and also bacterial community composition. This indicates that the rumen microbiota had not stabilized after 10 days of feeding the experimental diets.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Poaceae/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Silagem/microbiologia , Zea mays/metabolismo , Animais , Archaea/metabolismo , Bovinos , Dieta , Digestão/fisiologia , Fermentação , Leite/microbiologia , Poaceae/microbiologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
3.
Annu Rev Anim Biosci ; 8: 199-220, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069435

RESUMO

Ruminant production systems face significant challenges currently, driven by heightened awareness of their negative environmental impact and the rapidly rising global population. Recent findings have underscored how the composition and function of the rumen microbiome are associated with economically valuable traits, including feed efficiency and methane emission. Although omics-based technological advances in the last decade have revolutionized our understanding of host-associated microbial communities, there remains incongruence over the correct approach for analysis of large omic data sets. A global approach that examines host/microbiome interactions in both the rumen and the lower digestive tract is required to harness the full potential of the gastrointestinal microbiome for sustainable ruminant production. This review highlights how the ruminant animal production community may identify and exploit the causal relationships between the gut microbiome and host traits of interest for a practical application of omic data to animal health and production.


Assuntos
Bovinos/microbiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Metano/biossíntese , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia
4.
Animal ; 14(S1): s2-s16, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024560

RESUMO

Meat and milk from ruminants provide an important source of protein and other nutrients for human consumption. Although ruminants have a unique advantage of being able to consume forages and graze lands not suitable for arable cropping, 2% to 12% of the gross energy consumed is converted to enteric CH4 during ruminal digestion, which contributes approximately 6% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, ruminant producers need to find cost-effective ways to reduce emissions while meeting consumer demand for food. This paper provides a critical review of the substantial amount of ruminant CH4-related research published in past decades, highlighting hydrogen flow in the rumen, the microbiome associated with methanogenesis, current and future prospects for CH4 mitigation and insights into future challenges for science, governments, farmers and associated industries. Methane emission intensity, measured as emissions per unit of meat and milk, has continuously declined over the past decades due to improvements in production efficiency and animal performance, and this trend is expected to continue. However, continued decline in emission intensity will likely be insufficient to offset the rising emissions from increasing demand for animal protein. Thus, decreases in both emission intensity (g CH4/animal product) and absolute emissions (g CH4/day) are needed if the ruminant industries continue to grow. Providing producers with cost-effective options for decreasing CH4 emissions is therefore imperative, yet few cost-effective approaches are currently available. Future abatement may be achieved through animal genetics, vaccine development, early life programming, diet formulation, use of alternative hydrogen sinks, chemical inhibitors and fermentation modifiers. Individually, these strategies are expected to have moderate effects (<20% decrease), with the exception of the experimental inhibitor 3-nitrooxypropanol for which decreases in CH4 have consistently been greater (20% to 40% decrease). Therefore, it will be necessary to combine strategies to attain the sizable reduction in CH4 needed, but further research is required to determine whether combining anti-methanogenic strategies will have consistent additive effects. It is also not clear whether a decrease in CH4 production leads to consistent improved animal performance, information that will be necessary for adoption by producers. Major constraints for decreasing global enteric CH4 emissions from ruminants are continued expansion of the industry, the cost of mitigation, the difficulty of applying mitigation strategies to grazing ruminants, the inconsistent effects on animal performance and the paucity of information on animal health, reproduction, product quality, cost-benefit, safety and consumer acceptance.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metano/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Animais , Cruzamento , Fermentação , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Gado , Rúmen/metabolismo
5.
Animal ; 14(S1): s176-s186, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024561

RESUMO

Rumen sensors provide specific information to help understand rumen functioning in relation to health disorders and to assist in decision-making for farm management. This review focuses on the use of rumen sensors to measure ruminal pH and discusses variation in pH in both time and location, pH-associated disorders and data analysis methods to summarize and interpret rumen pH data. Discussion on the use of rumen sensors to measure redox potential as an indication of the fermentation processes is also included. Acids may accumulate and reduce ruminal pH if acid removal from the rumen and rumen buffering cannot keep pace with their production. The complexity of the factors involved, combined with the interactions between the rumen and the host that ultimately determine ruminal pH, results in large variation among animals in their pH response to dietary or other changes. Although ruminal pH and pH dynamics only partially explain the typical symptoms of acidosis, it remains a main indicator and may assist to optimize rumen function. Rumen pH sensors allow continuous monitoring of pH and of diurnal variation in pH in individual animals. Substantial drift of non-retrievable rumen pH sensors, and the difficulty to calibrate these sensors, limits their application. Significant within-day variation in ruminal pH is frequently observed, and large distinct differences in pH between locations in the rumen occur. The magnitude of pH differences between locations appears to be diet dependent. Universal application of fixed conversion factors to correct for absolute pH differences between locations should be avoided. Rumen sensors provide high-resolution kinetics of pH and a vast amount of data. Commonly reported pH characteristics include mean and minimum pH, but these do not properly reflect severity of pH depression. The area under the pH × time curve integrates both duration and extent of pH depression. The use of this characteristic, as well as summarizing parameters obtained from fitting equations to cumulative pH data, is recommended to identify pH variation in relation to acidosis. Some rumen sensors can also measure the redox potential. This measurement helps to understand rumen functioning, as the redox potential of rumen fluid directly reflects the microbial intracellular redox balance status and impacts fermentative activity of rumen microorganisms. Taken together, proper assessment and interpretation of data generated by rumen sensors requires consideration of their limitations under various conditions.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Acidose/metabolismo , Acidose/fisiopatologia , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Rúmen/metabolismo
6.
Animal ; 14(S1): s29-s43, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024566

RESUMO

In comparison to monogastric animals, ruminants show some peculiarities in respect to the regulation of mineral homeostasis, which can be regarded as a concerted interplay between gastrointestinal absorption, renal excretion and bone mobilisation to maintain physiological Ca and phosphate (Pi) concentrations in serum. Intestinal absorption of Ca or Pi is mediated by two general mechanisms: paracellular, passive transport dominates when luminal Ca or Pi concentrations are high and transcellular. The contribution of active transport becomes more important when dietary Ca or Pi supply is restricted or the demand increased. Both pathways are modulated directly by dietary interventions, influenced by age and regulated by endocrine factors such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Similar transport processes are observed in the kidney. After filtration, Ca and Pi are resorbed along the nephron. However, as urinary Ca and Pi excretion is very low in ruminants, the regulation of these renal pathways differs from that described for monogastric species, too. Furthermore, salivary secretion, as part of endogenous Pi recycling, and bone mobilisation participate in the maintenance of Ca and Pi homeostasis in ruminants. Saliva contains large amounts of Pi for buffering rumen pH and to ensure optimal conditions for the rumen microbiome. The skeleton is a major reservoir of Ca and Pi to compensate for discrepancies between demand and uptake. But alterations of the regulation of mineral homeostasis induced by other dietary factors such as a low protein diet were observed in growing ruminants. In addition, metabolic changes, for example, at the onset of lactation have pronounced effects on gastrointestinal mineral transport processes in some ruminant species. As disturbances of mineral homeostasis do not only increase the risk of the animals to develop other diseases, but are also associated with protein and energy metabolism, further research is needed to improve our knowledge of its complex regulation.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Feminino , Homeostase , Absorção Intestinal , Rim/metabolismo , Lactação , Rúmen/metabolismo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/metabolismo
7.
Animal ; 14(S1): s113-s123, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024568

RESUMO

Methane (CH4) production is a ubiquitous, apparently unavoidable side effect of fermentative fibre digestion by symbiotic microbiota in mammalian herbivores. Here, a data compilation is presented of in vivo CH4 measurements in individuals of 37 mammalian herbivore species fed forage-only diets, from the literature and from hitherto unpublished measurements. In contrast to previous claims, absolute CH4 emissions scaled linearly to DM intake, and CH4 yields (per DM or gross energy intake) did not vary significantly with body mass. CH4 physiology hence cannot be construed to represent an intrinsic ruminant or herbivore body size limitation. The dataset does not support traditional dichotomies of CH4 emission intensity between ruminants and nonruminants, or between foregut and hindgut fermenters. Several rodent hindgut fermenters and nonruminant foregut fermenters emit CH4 of a magnitude as high as ruminants of similar size, intake level, digesta retention or gut capacity. By contrast, equids, macropods (kangaroos) and rabbits produce few CH4 and have low CH4 : CO2 ratios for their size, intake level, digesta retention or gut capacity, ruling out these factors as explanation for interspecific variation. These findings lead to the conclusion that still unidentified host-specific factors other than digesta retention characteristics, or the presence of rumination or a foregut, influence CH4 production. Measurements of CH4 yield per digested fibre indicate that the amount of CH4 produced during fibre digestion varies not only across but also within species, possibly pointing towards variation in microbiota functionality. Recent findings on the genetic control of microbiome composition, including methanogens, raise the question about the benefits methanogens provide for many (but apparently not to the same extent for all) species, which possibly prevented the evolution of the hosting of low-methanogenic microbiota across mammals.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Fermentação , Herbivoria , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo
8.
Animal ; 14(S1): s78-s86, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024572

RESUMO

The rumen contains a great diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that allow the ruminant to utilize ligno-cellulose material and to convert non-protein nitrogen into microbial protein to obtain energy and amino acids. However, rumen fermentation also has potential deleterious consequences associated with the emissions of greenhouse gases, excessive nitrogen excreted in manure and may also adversely influence the nutritional value of ruminant products. While several strategies for optimizing the energy and nitrogen use by ruminants have been suggested, a better understanding of the key microorganisms involved and their activities is essential to manipulate rumen processes successfully. Diet is the most obvious factor influencing the rumen microbiome and fermentation. Among dietary interventions, the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in animal production systems has led to an increasing interest in the use of plant extracts to manipulate the rumen. Plant extracts (e.g. saponins, polyphenol compounds, essential oils) have shown potential to decrease methane emissions and improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization; however, there are limitations such as inconsistency, transient and adverse effects for their use as feed additives for ruminants. It has been proved that the host animal may also influence the rumen microbial population both as a heritable trait and through the effect of early-life nutrition on microbial population structure and function in adult ruminants. Recent developments have allowed phylogenetic information to be upscaled to metabolic information; however, research effort on cultivation of microorganisms for an in-depth study and characterization is needed. The introduction and integration of metagenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques is offering the greatest potential of reaching a truly systems-level understanding of the rumen; studies have been focused on the prokaryotic population and a broader approach needs to be considered.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metaboloma , Metagenoma , Metano/metabolismo , Proteoma , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Metabolômica , Metagenômica , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteômica , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo
9.
Animal ; 14(S1): s17-s28, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024574

RESUMO

Pregastric fermentation along with production practices that are dependent on high-energy diets means ruminants rely heavily on starch and protein assimilation for a substantial portion of their nutrient needs. While the majority of dietary starch may be fermented in the rumen, significant portions can flow to the small intestine. The initial phase of small intestinal digestion requires pancreatic α-amylase. Numerous nutritional factors have been shown to influence pancreatic α-amylase secretion with starch producing negative effects and casein, certain amino acids and dietary energy having positive effects. To date, manipulation of α-amylase secretion has not resulted in substantial changes in digestibility. The second phase of digestion involves the actions of the brush border enzymes sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase. Genetically, ruminants appear to possess these enzymes; however, the absence of measurable sucrase activity and limited adaptation with changes in diet suggests a reduced capacity for this phase of digestion. The final phase of carbohydrate assimilation is glucose transport. Ruminants possess Na+-dependent glucose transport that has been shown to be inducible. Because of the nature of pregastric fermentation, ruminants see a near constant flow of microbial protein to the small intestine. This results in a nutrient supply, which places a high priority on protein digestion and utilization. Comparatively, little research has been conducted describing protein assimilation. Enzymes and processes appear consistent with non-ruminants and are likely not limiting for efficient digestion of most feedstuffs. The mechanisms regulating the nutritional modulation of digestive function in the small intestine are complex and coordinated via the substrate, neural and hormonal effects in the small intestine, pancreas, peripheral tissues and the pituitary-hypothalamic axis. More research is needed in ruminants to help unravel the complexities by which small intestinal digestion is regulated with the aim of developing approaches to enhance and improve the efficiency of small intestinal digestion.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Animais , Caseínas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Fermentação , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
10.
Animal ; 14(S1): s124-s132, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024577

RESUMO

Ruminants living in seasonal environments face a two-fold challenge during winter. The energetic cost of maintaining a high body temperature is higher at lower ambient temperatures, and this is compounded by poor availability and quality of feed. Wild ruminants acclimatize to this energetic challenge by hypothermia, that is, reduced endogenous heat production and abandoning the maintenance of a high body temperature, particularly in peripheral body parts. Further but lesser contributions to lower energy expenditure during winter are reduced foraging activity; lower heat increment of feeding; and reduced maintenance cost of size-reduced organs. Altogether, metabolic rate, estimated by the continuous measurement of heart rate, during winter is downregulated to more than half of the summer level, as is voluntary food intake, even in animals fed ad libitum. The transformation from the summer into the thrifty winter phenotype is also evident in the physiology of digestion. Microbial protein synthesis is less facilitated by diminished phosphorus secretion into the shrunk rumen during winter. In line with this result, the concentration of ammonia, the end-product of protein digestion in the rumen, peaks in rumen liquid in spring, whereas the molar proportion of acetate, an indicator of fermentation of a diet rich in fiber, peaks in winter. In contrast to reduced stimulation of growth of ruminal microbes during winter, active transport of nutrients across the intestinal epithelium is increased, resulting in more efficient exploitation of the lower amount and quality of ingested winter feed. Nevertheless, the energy balance remains negative during winter. This is compensated by using fat reserves accumulated during summer, which become a major metabolic fuel during winter.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Amônia/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Digestão , Fermentação , Temperatura Alta , Rúmen/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Termogênese
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3656-3667, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089297

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of butyrate supplementation on plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), apparent total-tract digestibility, and responses to a grain challenge of lactating dairy cows fed diets differing in starch content. Eight Holstein cows averaging 58.6 ± 9.96 d in milk (4 primiparous cows fitted with rumen cannula and 4 multiparous intact cows) were blocked by parity and assigned to one of two 4 × 4 Latin squares balanced for carryover effects with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were dietary starch content [20.6 vs. 27.5%, respectively, for low starch (LS) and high starch (HS)] and butyrate supplementation (butyrate vs. control) with 21-d periods. Butyrate was provided as Gustor BP70 WS (Norel, S.A., Madrid, Spain), containing 70% sodium butyrate and 30% fatty acid mixture, at 2% of dietary dry matter (providing butyrate at 1.1% of dietary dry matter), and control premix contained 70% wheat bran and 30% fatty acid mixture. Feeds, orts, and fecal samples were collected from d 17 to 19 to determine apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. Blood and rumen fluid samples were collected on d 19. The baseline of dry matter intake (DMI) was determined as average DMI from d 17 to 19 for each cow, and cows were feed-restricted at 60% of the baseline DMI on d 20, and a grain challenge was conducted by providing steam-flaked corn grain at 0.6% of body weight, on an as-fed basis, in addition to each treatment diet on d 21, and blood and ruminal fluid samples were collected. The interaction of dietary starch content by butyrate supplementation was significant for plasma GLP-2 concentration, being greater for cows fed butyrate with the HS diet than those fed the other 3 diets. Cows fed butyrate increased n-butyrate concentration in the ruminal fluid and tended to increase dry matter and organic matter digestibility compared with the control. During the grain challenge, rumen endotoxin concentration increased over time and was higher for cows fed the HS diets compared with those fed LS diets. However, response variables related to inflammation were not affected by the grain challenge. However, serum haptoglobin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and serum amyloid-A concentrations were greater for cows fed butyrate with the LS diet, but not for those fed the HS diet. These results indicate that butyrate supplementation may increase plasma GLP-2 concentration for cows fed HS diets, and total-tract digestibility regardless of dietary starch content. However, butyrate supplementation did not mitigate inflammation in this study.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Butiratos/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 2 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Rúmen/metabolismo
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2800-2813, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954567

RESUMO

Milk yield, content, and composition are altered by heat stress. Thirty-two multiparous, lactating Holstein cows [balanced by days in milk (mean ± standard deviation; 184 ± 59); body surface area (5.84 ± 0.34 m2)] were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments [total mixed ration with rumen-protected Met (RPM; Smartamine M; Adisseo Inc., Antony, France; 1.05 g of RPM/kg of dry matter intake) or total mixed ration without RPM (CON)], and within each dietary treatment group cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 environmental treatment groups in a split-plot crossover design. The study was divided into 2 periods with 2 phases per period. In phase 1 (9 d), all cows were in thermoneutral conditions and fed ad libitum. In phase 2 (9 d), group 1 (n = 16) was exposed to a heat stress challenge (HSC) using electric heat blankets. Group 2 (n = 16) remained in thermoneutral conditions but was pair-fed (PFTN) to HSC counterparts. After a 21-d washout period, the study was repeated (period 2) and the environmental treatments were inverted relative to treatments from phase 2 of period 1, whereas dietary treatments (RPM or CON) remained the same for each cow. Cows were milked 3× per day and samples were taken on d 1, 5, and 9 of each phase. Vaginal temperature was measured every 10 min, rectal temperature and skin temperature were measured 3× per day, and respiration rate and heart rate were recorded once per day. Cow activity was measured using an accelerometer. Paired difference values were calculated for each cow for each period based on the difference between phase 1 baseline means and phase 2 values for each variable. Cows in HSC had a greater increase in vaginal temperature and respiration rate (+0.2°C and +13.7 breaths/min, respectively) compared with cows in PFTN (0.0°C and -1.6 breaths/min, respectively). Cows in PFTN had a greater decrease in dry matter intake and milk yield (-3.9 and -2.6 kg/d, respectively) compared with cows in HSC (-3.2 and -0.9 kg/d, respectively). Cows in CON had a greater decrease in milk protein concentration for PFTN (-0.10 percentage units) and HSC (-0.06 percentage units) compared with cows in RPM for PFTN (0.00 percentage units) and HSC (-0.02 percentage units). Cows in CON for HSC had greater decrease in milk fat concentration compared with cows in RPM for HSC (-0.10 and +0.12 percentage units, respectively). In conclusion, HSC altered physiological and production parameters of cows. Additionally, RPM helped maintain milk protein and fat concentration during HSC, whereas dry matter intake, milk yield, and feed efficiencies were not affected by RPM.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Lactação , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/metabolismo
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2387-2404, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954565

RESUMO

Essential AA (EAA), particularly leucine, isoleucine, methionine, and histidine, possess signaling properties for promoting cellular anabolic metabolism, whereas methionine, lysine, and histidine are considered also to be substrate limiting AA. The objective of this study was to evaluate production responses to supplementation of 2 AA groups in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Eight cows (99 ± 18 days in milk) were assigned to 4 jugular infusion treatments consisting of saline (CON), methionine plus lysine plus histidine (MKH), isoleucine plus leucine (IL), or MKH plus IL, in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Periods were 18 d in length, comprising 8 d of rest followed by 10 d of jugular infusion. Daily infusion amounts were 21 g of methionine, 38 g of lysine, 20 g of histidine, 50 g of leucine, and 22 g of isoleucine. Cows were ad libitum fed a common diet consisting of 15.2% crude protein and 1.61 Mcal/kg NEL on a dry matter basis that was predicted to meet rumen degradable protein requirements but was 15% deficient in metabolizable protein. Milk and energy-corrected milk yields increased by 2.3 kg/d and 1.9 kg/d, respectively, with infused IL, and no change was observed for MKH. Milk protein concentration increased by 0.13 percentage units for MKH, whereas milk protein yield increased for both MKH and IL by 84 g/d and 64 g/d, respectively. The milk protein yield increase for MKH+IL was 145 g/d versus CON. Gross feed efficiency tended to increase with IL infusion, and N efficiency tended to increase with MKH infusion. Aggregate arterial EAA concentrations less Met, Lys, and His declined by 7.2% in response to MKH infusion. Arterial EAA less Ile and Leu also declined by 6.2% in response to IL infusion. Net total AA (TAA) and EAA uptake by the udder tended to increase in response to MKH infusion, whereas mammary blood flow increased in response to IL infusion, but TAA and EAA net uptakes were unaffected. Apparent udder affinity increased for TAA and EAA less Met, Lys, and His in response to MKH infusion, whereas affinity for EAA less Ile and Leu increased for IL infusion. Venous Met and Leu concentrations increased by 192% and 35% from the MKH and IL infusions, respectively, compared with CON, which indicates that intracellular concentration of these EAA changed substantially. Increases in milk protein yield were observed from 2 groups of amino acids independently and additively, which contradicts the single limiting amino acid theory that a single EAA will limit milk protein yield.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Histidina/farmacologia , Leucina/farmacologia , Lisina/farmacologia , Metionina/farmacologia , Leite , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Infusões Intravenosas , Isoleucina/farmacologia , Veias Jugulares , Lactação/fisiologia , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2405-2418, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954581

RESUMO

We previously generated a high-metabolizable energy (HME) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) by genetically modifying the plant to increase the leaf lipid content. Although substantial progress has been made toward characterizing physiological changes of HME ryegrass, very limited information exists for feeding value and its suitability for adoption into the pastoral system. In this study, independent HME ryegrass lines with a range of elevated leaf lipid concentrations were analyzed for changes in fatty acids and possible associated changes in the broader nutritional profile, including the gross energy, which was found to increase by 6.8%. Because ryegrass is often ensiled and fermentation in the rumen leads to biohydrogenation of fatty acids as well as enteric methane production, we sought to investigate these effects on HME ryegrass. This was achieved by performing mini-scale silos and using an automated gas measurement system to incubate the material in rumen fluid in vitro for 24 h. Our study included treatments comprising 3 independent HME ryegrass genotypes and wild-type control materials prepared fresh and as silage, employing in total 5 incubation studies, using rumen fluids collected from 4 nonlactating Jersey × Holstein cows. At intervals during the incubation, the production of gases, volatile fatty acids, and the degree of biohydrogenation were measured. Statistical data analysis indicated that differences in the nutritional compositions of the ensiled materials largely reflected those of their fresh counterparts. Incubation of both fresh and ensiled HME ryegrass in rumen fluid resulted in: (1) a greater percentage of valuable unsaturated fatty acids compared with the control; (2) a significant reduction of butyrate; and (3) a 10 to 15% decrease in the methane proportion of the total gas production. We conclude that ensiling could be a convenient option for preserving HME as a locally produced high-value supplementary feed; however, large-scale application needs to be investigated. In this paper we discuss the potential use of HME ryegrass to enhancing forage feeding value and the potential environmental benefits to the pastoral agriculture industry.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Lolium/metabolismo , Metano/biossíntese , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem , Animais , Butiratos/metabolismo , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Lolium/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2814-2820, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980228

RESUMO

Urea nitrogen salvaging is a crucial mechanism that ruminants have evolved to conserve nitrogen. Facilitative urea transporter-B proteins are known to be involved in urea transport across the rumen epithelium and thus efficiently facilitate the urea nitrogen salvaging process. Recently, functional studies have suggested that aquaglyceroporin transporters might also play a significant role in ruminal urea transport and aquaporin-3 (AQP3) protein has previously been detected in rumen tissue. In this current study, we investigated the specific localization of AQP3 transporters in the bovine rumen. First, end-point reverse-transcription PCR experiments confirmed strong AQP3 expression in both bovine rumen and kidney. Immunoblotting analysis using 2 separate anti-AQP3 antibodies detected AQP3 protein signals at 25, 32, and 42-45 kDa. Further immunolocalization studies showed AQP3 protein located in all the layers of rumen epithelium, especially in the stratum basale, and in the basolateral membranes of kidney collecting duct cells. These data confirm that AQP3 transporters are highly abundant within the bovine rumen and appear to be located throughout the ruminal epithelial layers. The physiological significance of the multiple AQP3 proteins detected and their location is not yet clear, hence further investigation is required to determine their exact contribution to ruminal urea transport.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 3/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Animais , Aquaporina 3/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Rúmen/metabolismo
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930312

RESUMO

We hypothesized cattle that differed in BW gain had different digestive tract microbiota. Two experiments were conducted. In both experiments, steers received a diet that consisted of 8.0% chopped alfalfa hay, 20% wet distillers grain with solubles, 67.75% dry-rolled corn, and 4.25% vitamin/mineral mix (including monensin) on a dry matter basis. Steers had ad libitum access to feed and water. In experiment 1, 144 steers (age = 310 ± 1.5 d; BW = 503 ± 37.2 kg) were individually fed for 105 d. Ruminal digesta samples were collected from eight steers with the greatest (1.96 ± 0.02 kg/d) and eight steers with the least ADG (1.57 ± 0.02 kg/d) that were within ±0.32 SD of the mean (10.1 ± 0.05 kg/d) dry matter. In experiment 2, 66 steers (age = 396 ± 1 d; BW = 456 ± 5 kg) were individually fed for 84 d. Rumen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon digesta samples were collected from eight steers with the greatest (2.39 ± 0.06 kg/d) and eight steers with the least ADG (1.85 ± 0.06 kg/d) that were within ±0.55 SD of the mean dry matter intake (11.9 ± 0.1 kg/d). In both studies, DNA was isolated and the V1 to V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced. Operational taxonomic units were classified using 0.03 dissimilarity and identified using the Greengenes 16S rRNA gene database. In experiment 1, there were no differences in the Chao1, Shannon, Simpson, and InvSimpson diversity indexes or the permutation multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA; P = 0.57). The hierarchical test returned six clades as being differentially abundant between steer classifications (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, Chao1, Shannon, Simpson, and InvSimpson diversity indexes and PERMANOVA between steer classified as less or greater ADG did not differ (P > 0.05) for the rumen, duodenum, ileum, cecum, and colon. In the jejunum, there tended to be a difference in the Chao1 (P = 0.09) and Simpson diversity (P = 0.09) indexes between steer classifications, but there was no difference in the Shannon (P = 0.14) and InvSimpson (P = 0.14) diversity indexes. Classification groups for the jejunum differed (P = 0.006) in the PERMANOVA. The hierarchical dependence false discovery rate procedure returned 11 clades as being differentially abundant between steer classifications in the jejunum (P < 0.05). The majority of the OTU were in the Families Corynebacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae. This study suggests that intestinal differences in the microbiota of ruminants may be associated with animal performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Grão Comestível , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Minerais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Zea mays
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2303-2314, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954586

RESUMO

Different inclusion rates of oregano essential oil (OEO) were investigated for their effects on ruminal in vitro fermentation parameters, total gas, methane production, and bacterial communities. Treatments were (1) control, 0 mg/L of OEO (CON); 13 mg/L (OEO1); 52 mg/L (OEO2); 91 mg/L (OEO3); and 130 mg/L (OEO4), each incubated with 150 mL of buffered rumen fluid and 1,200 mg of substrate for 24 h using the Ankom in vitro gas production system (Ankom Technology Corp., Fairport, NY). Treatment responses were statistically analyzed using polynomial contrasts. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and ADF increased quadratically with increasing OEO inclusion rates. Digestibility of DM and NDF were highest for OEO2, whereas ADF digestibility was highest for OEO3, compared with CON, with the remaining treatments being intermediate and similar. Ammonia nitrogen concentrations decreased from CON at a quadratic rate with increasing OEO inclusion rates, and OEO2 had the lowest concentration compared with the other groups. Total VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate concentrations linearly decreased with increasing OEO inclusion rates. Total gas production levels by CON and OEO4 were greater than those of OEO1, OEO2, and OEO3 in a quadratic response, and methane production linearly decreased from CON, compared with OEO4, at a decreasing rate with OEO inclusion rates. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, the α biodiversity of ruminal bacteria was similar among OEO inclusion rates. Increasing OEO inclusion rates linearly increased the relative abundance of Prevotella and Dialister bacteria. Several bacteria demonstrated different polynomial responses, whereas several bacteria were similar among increasing OEO inclusion rates. These results suggested that OEO supplementation can modify ruminal fermentation to alter VFA concentrations and reduce methane emissions by extensively altering the ruminal bacterial community, suggesting an optimal feeding rate for future animal studies of approximately 52 mg/L for mature ruminants.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bovinos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Origanum/química , Ovinos/fisiologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rúmen/metabolismo
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 129: 28-38, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927467

RESUMO

The ovine rumen is an immune interface with the external environment, participating in host defence responses. Ovine ruminal epithelial cells (ORECs) not only have a physical barrier function, but also secrete sheep ß-defensin-1 (SBD-1), which plays a key role in innate and adaptive immunity. Prebiotics are potential alternatives to infeed antibiotics. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall (S.c.CW) is rich in prebiotics, which play roles in improving the growth performance of animals and regulating immunity. Here, we investigated whether S.c.CW induces SBD-1 expression in ORECs, as well as the underlying mechanism. The regulatory mechanisms of S.c.CW-induced up-regulation of SBD-1 were determined using quantitative real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blotting. S.c.CW significantly increased the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), but had no effect on TLR4 expression. TLR2, MyD88, and NF-κB inhibition attenuated the induction of SBD-1 expression by S.c.CW. However, TLR4 inhibition only resulted in attenuated SBD-1 mRNA, having no effect on SBD-1 protein expression. Thus, we conclude that S.c.CW can induce SBD-1 expression and that this induction is regulated by the TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Probióticos/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Ovinos/genética , beta-Defensinas/genética , Ração Animal , Animais , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2186-2199, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954563

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of milk replacer (MR) feeding rate and processing of corn in calf starter (CS) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and rumen and fecal fibrolytic bacteria in dairy calves. Holstein male calves (n = 48, 2-3 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of MR level of 0.749 kg of MR/d (LO) or up to 1.498 kg of MR/d (HI); and whole corn or flaked corn in textured CS. Calves were weaned by reducing MR offered by 50% during wk 6. Intakes of MR and CS were recorded daily, whereas body weight (BW) was measured weekly. Rumen fluid and fecal matter were collected at wk 5 and 8 to quantify fibrolytic bacteria and nutrient digestibility. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using mixed model ANOVA. Repeated measures were used as appropriate. Calves fed HI had greater average daily gain than calves fed LO at wk 2, 3, 4, and 5, yet at wk 7 calves fed HI had lower average daily gain compared with calves fed LO. Starter intake was greater for calves fed LO compared with HI at wk 4, 5, 6, and 7. During wk 5 and 8, calves fed LO had increased ADF and NDF digestibility compared with calves fed HI. During wk 5, dry matter and organic matter digestibility were lower for LO-fed calves compared with HI-fed calves, but during wk 8 the opposite was observed, with HI-fed calves having lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility than LO-fed calves. At wk 5, Clostridium cluster IV and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens proportions in rumen fluid tended to be higher and Clostridium cluster IV, Fecalibacterium sp., and Prevotella sp. proportions in fecal matter were higher in calves fed LO compared with HI. From wk 8 to 16, dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment; however, energy efficiency was greater in calves fed LO, causing LO calves to have higher BW gain during this period. Greater starter digestibility was observed for calves fed LO versus HI in concert with increased fibrolytic bacteria proportions (wk 5) in fecal and rumen samples, which resulted in greater postweaning BW gain and similar BW and frame measurements by 16 wk of age. Overall the results show that rate of MR feeding has a larger effect than the processing of corn in CS on performance, fiber digestibility, and rumen and fecal fibrolytic bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Digestão , Substitutos do Leite/farmacologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Leite , Substitutos do Leite/administração & dosagem , Nutrientes , Rúmen/microbiologia , Zea mays
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917428

RESUMO

Five ruminally cannulated heifers were used in an incomplete 6 × 6 Latin square design to determine the effects of cereal silage (barley vs. corn), cereal grain (barley vs. corn vs. a 50:50 blend of barley and corn), and their interaction (S × G) on dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, nitrogen balance, and in situ degradation. Corn silage (CS) or barley silage (BS) was included at 8% of dietary dry matter (DM). Within each silage source, diets contained (DM basis) either dry-rolled barley (BG; 86%), dry-rolled corn (CG; 85%), or an equal blend of barley and corn (BLEND; 85%). Periods were 25 d, with 5 d of dietary transition, 13 d of dietary adaptation, and 7 d of data and sample collection. Samples collected included feed and refusals, total urine and feces, and ruminal fluid. All data were analyzed using the Mixed model of SAS with the fixed effects of silage, grain, and the S × G. Dry matter intake (P ≥ 0.19) and mean ruminal pH (P ≥ 0.096) were not affected by the silage, grain, or S × G. Total short-chain fatty acid concentrations were greater for BLEND than BG or CG (grain, P = 0.003) and for CS (silage, P = 0.009) relative to BS. The molar proportion of acetate was greater for BS-BG and BS-CG (S × G, P < 0.001), while molar proportion of propionate was greater for CS-BG (S × G, P < 0.001) relative to other silage and grain source combinations. Rumen ammonia-N concentration was greater for CG than BG, or BLEND (grain, P < 0.001), and greater for CS compared to BS (silage, P = 0.023). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy were greatest for BG (grain, P ≤ 0.035). Digestible energy content (Mcal/kg) was greater for BG (grain, P = 0.029) than CG and BLEND. Total nitrogen retention (g/d and % of intake) was greatest for CS-BG (S × G, P ≤ 0.033) relative to all other treatments. In situ degradation rates of DM, crude protein, and starch were greater for BG than CG (P ≤ 0.004). The potentially degradable fraction of DM, crude protein, and starch was greater for CG (P ≤ 0.031), while the undegradable fraction was greater for BG (P ≤ 0.046). For silage sources, CS had greater 24 h in situ DM digestibility (P = 0.009) and starch digestibility (24, 48, and 72 h incubations, P ≤ 0.034) relative to BS. Results suggest that while feeding a combination of CS and BG promotes propionate production and greater N retention; few other additive effects were observed.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Digestão , Hordeum , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha , Silagem/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Zea mays/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA