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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(6): 6739-6755, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814156

RESUMO

Three experiments assessed branched-chain volatile fatty acid (BCVFA) stimulation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) disappearance after 24 h of incubation in batch cultures derived from ruminal fluid inocula that were enriched with particulate-phase bacteria. In experiment 1, a control was compared with 3 treatments with isomolar doses of all 3 BCVFA (plus valerate), all 3 branched-chain AA (BCAA), or half of each BCVFA and BCAA mix with either alfalfa or grass hays (50%) and ground corn grain (50%). A portion of the BCAA and BCVFA doses were enriched with 13C, and valerate (also enriched with 13C) was added with BCVFA. Although BCAA yielded a similar production of BCVFA compared with dosing BCVFA, equimolar substitution of BCVFA for BCAA decreased the percentage of N in bacterial pellets when alfalfa hay was fed but increased N when grass hay was fed. Substituting BCVFA for BCAA increased total fatty acid (FA) concentration with alfalfa hay. Dosing of BCAA or BCVFA did not affect total branched-chain FA, iso-FA, or anteiso-FA percentages in bacterial total FA, whereas numerous individual FA isomers and their 13C enrichments were affected by these treatments. Increasing recovery of the 13C dose from respective labeled BCVFA primers indicated facilitated BCVFA uptake and incorporation into FA compared with BCAA, whereas increased recovery of 13C from labeled BCAA in the bacteria pellet but not in the FA fraction suggested direct assimilation into bacterial protein. The BCVFA and valerate were dosed in varying combinations that either summed to 4 mM (experiment 2) or had only 1 mM no matter what combination (experiment 3). In general, grass hay was more responsive to stimulation in NDF digestibility by BCVFA than was alfalfa hay, which was attributed to the higher degradable protein in the latter. The net production of the BCVFA (after subtracting dose) was affected by source and combination of BCVFA. Isovalerate dosing tended to increase its own net production; in contrast, isobutyrate seemed to be used more when it was added alone, but 2-methylbutyrate seemed to be preferred over isobutyrate when 2-methylbutyrate was added. Results supported potential interactions, including potential feedback in production from feed BCAA or increased concentration-dependent competition for dosed BCVFA into cellular products. Under our conditions, the BCVFA appear to be more readily available than BCAA, probably because of regulated BCAA transport and metabolism. Valerate consistently provided no benefit. Using nonparametric ranking, all 3 BCVFA or either isovalerate or isobutyrate (both yielding iso-FA) should be combined with 2-methylbutyrate (yielding anteiso-FA) as a potential opportunity to improve NDF digestibility when rumen-degraded BCAA are limited in diets to decrease environmental impact from N in waste.


Assuntos
Detergentes , Rúmen , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes/veterinária , Detergentes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Rúmen/metabolismo
2.
J Anim Sci ; 99(4)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861855

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inclusion of narasin, salinomycin, or flavomycin for 140 d on ruminal fermentation parameters, apparent nutrient digestibility, and performance of Nellore cattle offered a forage-based diet. In experiment 1, 32 rumen-cannulated Bos indicus Nellore steers [initial body weight (BW) = 220 ± 12.6 kg] were assigned to individual pens in a randomized complete block design according to their initial shrunk BW. Within block, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) forage-based diet without feed additives (CON; n = 8), (2) CON diet plus 13 ppm of narasin (NAR; n = 8), (3) CON diet plus 20 ppm of salinomycin (SAL; n = 8), or (4) CON diet plus 3 ppm of flavomycin (FLA; n = 8). The experimental period lasted 140 d and was divided into 5 periods of 28 d each. The inclusion of feed additives did not impact (P ≥ 0.17) dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient intake, and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. Nonetheless, steers fed NAR had lower (P < 0.01) molar proportion of acetate compared with CON, SAL, and FLA steers, whereas ruminal acetate tended to be greater (P < 0.09) for SAL vs. CON and FLA, but did not differ (P = 0.68) between CON vs. FLA steers. Ruminal propionate was the highest (P < 0.01) for steers fed NAR and did not differ (P > 0.20) between CON, SAL, and FLA. Consequently, NAR steers had the lowest (P < 0.01) Ac:Pr ratio, whereas Ac:Pr did not differ (P > 0.18) among CON, SAL, and FLA. Total volatile fatty acids were greater (P < 0.04) for NAR and CON vs. SAL and FLA, but did not differ (P > 0.67) among NAR vs. CON and SAL vs. FLA. In experiment 2, 164 Nellore bulls (initial shrunk BW = 299 ± 2.5 kg) were assigned to feedlot pens for 140 d in a randomized complete block design. Within block (n = 10), animals were randomly assigned to the same treatments used in experiment 1. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.01) in NAR vs. CON, SAL, and FLA bulls, and did not differ (P > 0.12) between CON, SAL, and FLA bulls. Bulls fed NAR had greater (P < 0.02) DMI (as kg/d or % BW) and final shrunk BW compared with CON, SAL, and FLA bulls, whereas DMI and final shrunk BW did not differ (P > 0.26) between CON, SAL, and FLA bulls. Feed efficiency, however, was not impacted (P = 0.51) by any feed additives used herein. Collectively, narasin was the only feed additive that benefited performance and ruminal fermentation of Nellore animals fed a forage-based diet.


Assuntos
Bambermicinas , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Fermentação , Masculino , Piranos , Rúmen/metabolismo
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 201, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687567

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different traditional or alternative energy and protein sources, associated or not, on feeding behavior, ruminal kinetics, and post-ruminal flow of nutrients. Besides, it was assessed diets' effects on different sites (reticulum and omasum) of buffaloes. Four ruminally cannulated male Murrah buffaloes (average initial weight of 637 ± 66.37 kg) were randomly distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged as 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The first factor evaluated was the inclusion of energy sources (ground corn and crude glycerin), and the second factor was the inclusion of protein sources (soybean meal and cottonseed cake). Buffaloes fed cottonseed cake had a higher content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and potentially digestible detergent fiber (pdNDF) in the rumen environment than buffaloes fed soybean meal. There was a sampling site effect on rumen digestion rates of pdNDF, passage rates of indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF), and pdNDF, and flow of iNDF. In this study, omasal collections were more representative. Total replacement of ground corn by crude glycerin promoted less NDF ruminal digestibility, and care should be taken to include this energy source. The cottonseed cake does not cause a difference in rumen dynamics and can totally replace soybean meal in feedlot buffaloes' diet.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Búfalos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Omaso/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão , Glicerol , Gossypium , Masculino , Omaso/efeitos dos fármacos , Omaso/metabolismo , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Soja , Zea mays
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(6): 6633-6645, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741161

RESUMO

The physical form of feeds can influence dairy cow chewing behavior, rumen characteristics, and ruminal passage rate. Changing particle size of feeds is usually done through grinding or chopping forages, but pelleting feed ingredients also changes particle size. Our objective was to determine if pelleted dried distillers grains and solubles (DDGS) affected the feeding value for lactating dairy cattle. Seven lactating Jersey cows that were each fitted with a ruminal cannula averaging (± standard deviation) 56 ± 10.3 d in milk and 462 ± 75.3 kg were used in a crossover design. The treatments contained 15% DDGS in either meal or pelleted form with 45% or 55% forage on a dry matter basis. The forages were alfalfa hay, corn silage, and wheat straw. The factorial treatment arrangement was meal DDGS and low forage (mDDGS-LF), pelleted DDGS and low forage (pDDGS-LF), meal DDGS and high forage (mDDGS-HF), and pelleted DDGS and high forage (pDDGS-HF). Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk were both unaffected by treatment averaging 19.8 ± 2.10 kg/d and 33.9 ± 1.02 kg/d, respectively. Fat yield was unaffected averaging 1.7 ± 0.13 kg/d, but protein yield was affected by the interaction of forage and DDGS. Protein yield was similar for both low forage treatments but was increased by when pDDGS was fed in the high forage treatment (1.05 vs. 0.99 ± 0.035 kg/d). When forage concentration was increased, starch digestibility increased by 1.9 percentage units, crude protein digestibility tended to increase 1.1 percentage units, and residual organic matter digestibility decreased 3.4 percentage units. Pelleting DDGS increased digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (49.2 vs. 47.5 ± 1.85%) and gross energy (68.2 vs. 67.1 ± 1.18%). Increasing forage increased ruminal pH (5.85 to 5.94 ± 0.052). Passage rate slowed from 2.84 to 2.65 ± 0.205 %/h when feeding HF compared with LF. Rumination time increased from 417 to 454 ± 49.4 min with increasing forage concentration but was unaffected by the form of DDGS or the interaction of forage and DDGS. Eating time increased with pDDGS (235 vs. 209 ± 19.8 min), which may be a result of increased feed sorting behavior. Pelleting DDGS increased preference for particles retained on the 8-mm sieve and decreased preference for particles on the 1.18-mm sieve and in the pan (<1.18 mm). Results confirm that increasing forage concentration increases ruminal pH, rumination time, and slows passage rate, but contrary to our hypothesis increasing forage concentration did not increase NDF digestibility. Results also suggest that pelleted DDGS do not appear to affect milk production, ruminal characteristics, or passage rate, but pelleted DDGS may increase sorting behavior of lactating Jersey cows and increase NDF and gross energy digestibility.


Assuntos
Leite , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Rúmen/metabolismo , Zea mays
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(6): 6756-6767, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773788

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding ground, steam-flaked, or super-conditioned corn on production performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows (130 ± 12 d in milk) in a completely randomized block design experiment were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments that contained 31% of one of the following corn types: (1) ground corn; (2) steam-flaked corn; and (3) super-conditioned corn. Actual milk yield was greater in the super-conditioned corn diet than in the steam-flaked and ground corn diets. Dry matter intake, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk remained unaffected by treatments; however, milk fat concentration decreased in the super-conditioned corn diet compared with the ground and steam-flaked corn diets. The molar proportion of ruminal acetate decreased in the super-conditioned corn diet compared with the ground and steam-flaked corn diets, whereas the molar proportion of propionate spiked in the super-conditioned corn diet. Ruminal pH dropped in cows fed super-conditioned corn compared with the other 2 diets. A similar pattern was observed for ruminal NH3-N and acetate-to-propionate ratio. Total-tract starch digestibility increased the most in the super-conditioned corn diet followed by the steam-flaked and ground corn diets (96.8, 95.1, and 92.5%, respectively). The neutral detergent fiber digestibility declined in cows fed the super-conditioned corn diet as opposed to other diets (~3.9%). The concentrations of 16:0 and mixed-FA in milk fat dropped in the super-conditioned corn-based diet compared with the ground corn diet. Milk trans-10 18:1 FA increased, whereas trans-11 18:1 FA decreased in cows fed the super-conditioned diet. We concluded that super-conditioned corn has the potential to increase milk yield and starch digestibility in lactating dairy cows; however, reduced milk fat output caused by altering ruminal pH and ruminal FA biohydrogenation pathways may not be desirable in certain markets. Future research is warranted to investigate how super-conditioned corn affects feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Lactação , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo , Vapor
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(8): 3289-3300, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768310

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the influence of sorghum ensiled with unsalable pumpkin at 20 or 40% dry matter (DM) basis on rumen fermentation characteristics and rumen microbial communities using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). The experiment used a completely randomised design including silages comprising (1) 100% sorghum; (2) 80% sorghum + 20% DM pumpkin; or (3) 60% sorghum + 40% DM pumpkin. Each RUSITEC run (n = 2) was 15 d long, including 6 d of adaptation and 9 d of sampling. Dry matter digestibility (DMD) was measured on d 8 and 10-13. Gas production was measured daily, whereas methane and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were measured from d 7-15. Solid-associated microbes (SAM) were collected on d 5, 10 and 15, whereas liquid-associated microbes (LAM) were collected after 15-d incubation. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and the ITS1 region were sequenced to identify archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities. Ensiling 40% DM pumpkin with sorghum increased DMD and decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate (P ≤ 0.01). Both bacterial SAM and LAM communities were dominated by Megasphaera, and had the highest relative abundance (P = 0.03) with 40% DM pumpkin after 5 d incubation in the SAM community, while species of the Aspergillus genus dominated fungal SAM and LAM communities with 20 or 40% DM unsalable pumpkin. Therefore, ensiling up to 40% DM unsalable pumpkin with sorghum produces a high-quality ruminant feed with minimal influence on the rumen microbial population. KEY POINTS: • Including 40% DM unsalable pumpkin decreased acetate:propionate • Ensiling unsalable pumpkin with sorghum increases digestibility in a RUSITEC • Rumen microbial communities were slightly influenced by unsalable pumpkin inclusion.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Sorghum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Digestão , Fermentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5617-5630, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685675

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of gradual replacement of barley with oats on enteric CH4 emissions, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, milk production, and energy utilization in dairy cows fed a grass silage-based diet. Sixteen lactating Nordic Red dairy cows received a total mixed ration [58:42 forage:concentrate on dry matter (DM) basis]. Grass silage (Phleum pratense) was the sole forage with canola meal (10% of diet DM) as a protein supplement. The effects of gradual replacement of barley with oats on DM basis were evaluated using a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21 d periods. The grain supplements (30% of diet DM) consisted of 100% barley, 67% barley and 33% oats, 33% barley and 67% oats, and 100% oats. In addition to intake, milk production, and digestibility measurements, CH4 emissions were measured by the GreenFeed system (C-Lock Inc.). The energy metabolism was estimated from the gas exchange measurements recorded by the GreenFeed unit. The last 10 d of each period were used for recordings of gas exchanges, feed intake and milk production. Dry matter intake, body weight, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by gradual replacement of barley with oats in the diet. Increased inclusion of oats linearly decreased CH4 emissions from 467 to 445 g/d, and CH4 intensity from 14.7 to 14.0 g/kg energy-corrected milk. In addition, the ratio of CH4 to CO2 decreased with increasing inclusion of oats in the diet. Digestibility of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of oats. Increased inclusion of oats linearly increased fecal energy from 121 to 133 MJ/d, whereas urinary energy and heat production were not affected by dietary treatment. This resulted in a linear decrease in metabolizable energy intake. However, increased levels of oat in the diet did not significantly affect energy balance or efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for lactation. This study concludes that barley could be replaced with oats in the diet of dairy cows fed a grass silage-based diet to mitigate CH4 emissions without having any adverse effects on productivity or energy balance. However, the effect of replacing barley with oats on CH4 emissions is dependent on the differences between barley and oats in the concentrations of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and fat.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Rúmen , Animais , Avena , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Metano/metabolismo , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
8.
J Anim Sci ; 99(5)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751054

RESUMO

The addition of natural plant secondary compounds to ruminant feed has been extensively studied because of their ability to modify digestive and metabolic functions, resulting in a potential reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, among other benefits. Condensed tannin (CT) supplementation may alter ruminal fermentation and mitigate methane (CH4) emissions. This study's objective was to determine the effect of quebracho CT extract [QT; Schinopsis quebracho-colorado (Schltdl.) F.A. Barkley & T. Meyer] within a roughage-based diet on ruminal digestibility and kinetic parameters by using the in situ and in vitro gas production techniques, in addition to blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and ruminal (volatile fatty acid [VFA], NH3-N, and protozoa count) parameters. Twenty rumen-cannulated steers were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: QT at 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3% of dry matter (DM; QT0: 0% CT, QT1: 0.70% CT, QT2: 1.41% CT, and QT3: 2.13% CT). The in situ DM digestibility increased linearly (P = 0.048) as QT inclusion increased, whereas in situ neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) was not altered among treatments (P = 0.980). Neither total VFA concentration nor acetate-to-propionate ratio differed among dietary treatments (P = 0.470 and P = 0.873, respectively). However, QT3 had lower isovalerate and isobutyrate concentrations compared with QT0 (P ≤ 0.025). Ruminal NH3 and BUN tended to decline (P ≤ 0.075) in a linear fashion as QT inclusion increased, suggesting decreased deamination of feed protein. Ruminal protozoa count was reduced in quadratic fashion (P = 0.005) as QT inclusion increased, where QT1 and QT2 were lower compared with QT0 and QT3. Urinary N excretion tended to reduce in a linear fashion (P = 0.080) as QT increased. There was a treatment (TRT) × Day interaction for in vitro total gas production and fractional rate of gas production (P = 0.013 and P = 0.007, respectively), and in vitro NDFD tended to be greater for QT treatments compared with no QT inclusion (P = 0.077). There was a TRT × Day interaction (P = 0.001) on CH4 production, with QT3 having less CH4 production relative to QT0 on day 0 and QT2 on days 7 and 28. Feeding QT up to 3% of the dietary DM in a roughage-based diet did not sacrifice the overall DM digestibility and ruminal parameters over time. Still, it is unclear why QT2 did not follow the same pattern as in vitro gas parameters. Detailed evaluations of amino acid degradation might be required to fully define CT influences on ruminal fermentation parameters and CH4 production.


Assuntos
Digestão , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Colorado , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 4875-4892, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663833

RESUMO

Salivary secretions are essential for the regulation of digestive processes, as well as rumen and cow health. This research evaluated the effects of the duration of high-grain feeding, and of the time relative to a meal, on salivation, saliva properties, feed bolus characteristics, chewing activity, ruminal and reticular volatile fatty acids, as well as salivary and ruminal pH. Nine nonlactating cannulated Holstein cows were sampled at 1 and 23 d after transition to a 65% grain diet (short term and long term, respectively). Both before and after a controlled meal (2.5 kg of dry matter, offered over 4 h), unstimulated saliva was taken orally for composition analysis. Stimulated salivation and feed boli characteristics were evaluated by collection of ingesta from cardia during 30 min. Chewing and ruminal pH were measured during the controlled meal and for a total of 6 h thereafter. Results from unstimulated saliva showed no effect of the duration of high-grain feeding on bicarbonate, phosphate, total proteins, mucins, lysozyme, and buffer capacity, but increased osmolality at the long term. Lysozyme activity did not differ with high-grain feeding duration, but tended to be lower after the meal. In contrast to short-term-fed cows, the long-term-fed cows increased both meal consumption and feed bolus size, but decreased chewing and feed ensalivation (5.2 vs. 4.6 ± 0.50 g of saliva/g of dry matter), and had lower pH of the stimulated saliva (7.00 vs. 6.67 ± 0.076). These cows also had decreased chewing index (66.5 vs. 45.4 min/kg of neutral detergent fiber), and despite the increase in stimulated saliva buffer capacity (0.027 vs. 0.039 ± 0.006), mean ruminal pH decreased (6.31 vs. 6.11 ± 0.065) during ad libitum feeding. Both in the rumen and reticulum, the concentration of total volatile fatty acids was lower and propionate proportion was higher at the long term. Linear regression analyses revealed a positive influence of the flow rates of salivary bicarbonate and phosphate on ruminal pH during the short term. For every 1-mol increment in the flow of bicarbonate or phosphate, ruminal pH increased by 0.062 or 0.439 units, respectively. Overall, salivary buffers are key determinants of ruminal pH regulation, especially during short-term grain feeding. However, in the long term, ruminal pH drop during ad libitum feeding was stronger, and this effect seems to be exacerbated by increased feed bolus size, accompanied by reductions in feed ensalivation, stimulated saliva pH, and chewing index.


Assuntos
Rúmen , Salivação , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo
10.
J Anim Sci ; 99(4)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755112

RESUMO

The individual and combined effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP) and canola oil (OIL) supplementation on enteric methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions, rumen fermentation and biohydrogenation, and total tract nutrient digestibility were investigated in beef cattle. Eight beef heifers (mean body weight ± SD, 732 ± 43 kg) with ruminal fistulas were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 (with and without 3-NOP) × 2 (with and without OIL) arrangement of treatments and 28-d periods (13 d adaption and 15 d measurements). The four treatments were: control (no 3-NOP, no OIL), 3-NOP (200 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), OIL (50 g/kg DM), and 3-NOP (200 mg/kg DM) plus OIL (50 g/kg DM). Animals were fed restrictively (7.6 kg DM/d) a basal diet of 900 g/kg DM barley silage and 100 g/kg DM supplement. 3-NOP and OIL decreased (P < 0.01) CH4 yield (g/kg DM intake) by 31.6% and 27.4%, respectively, with no 3-NOP × OIL interaction (P = 0.85). Feeding 3-NOP plus OIL decreased CH4 yield by 51% compared with control. There was a 3-NOP × OIL interaction (P = 0.02) for H2 yield (g/kg DM intake); the increase in H2 yield (P < 0.01) due to 3-NOP was less when it was combined with OIL. There were 3-NOP × OIL interactions for molar percentages of acetate and propionate (P < 0.01); individually, 3-NOP and OIL decreased acetate and increased propionate percentages with no further effect when supplemented together. 3-NOP slightly increased crude protein (P = 0.02) and starch (P = 0.01) digestibilities, while OIL decreased the digestibilities of DM (P < 0.01) and neutral detergent fiber (P < 0.01) with no interactions (P = 0.15 and 0.10, respectively). 3-NOP and OIL increased (P = 0.04 and P < 0.01, respectively) saturated fatty acid concentration in rumen fluid, with no interaction effect. Interactions for ruminal trans-monounsaturated fatty acids (t-MUFA) concentration and percentage were observed (P = 0.02 and P < 0.01); 3-NOP had no effect on t-MUFA concentration and percentage, while OIL increased the concentration (P < 0.01) and percentage (P < 0.01) of t-MUFA but to a lesser extent when combined with 3-NOP. In conclusion, the CH4-mitigating effects of 3-NOP and OIL were independent and incremental. Supplementing ruminant diets with a combination of 3-NOP and OIL may help mitigate CH4 emissions, but the decrease in total tract digestibility due to OIL may decrease animal performance and needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Metano , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Metano/metabolismo , Leite , Propanóis , Óleo de Brassica napus , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5375-5390, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663815

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the effects of increasing amounts of linseed oil (LSO) in corn silage-based diets on enteric CH4 production, rumen fermentation characteristics, protozoal population, nutrient digestibility, N utilization, and milk production. For this purpose, 12 multiparous lactating Holstein cows (84 ± 28 d in milk; mean ± SD) fitted with ruminal cannula were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design (35-d period). The cows were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration without supplementation (control) or supplemented [on a dry matter (DM) basis] with LSO at 2% (LSO2), 3% (LSO3) or 4% (LSO4). The forage:concentrate ratio was 61:39 (on DM basis) and was similar among the experimental diets. The forage portion consisted of corn silage (58% diet DM) and timothy hay (3% diet DM). The proportions of soybean meal, corn grain and soybean hulls decreased as the amount of LSO in the diet increased. Daily methane production (g/d) decreased quadratically as the amount of LSO increased in the diet. Increasing LSO dietary supplementation caused a linear decrease in CH4 emissions expressed on either DM intake (DMI) basis (-9, -20, and -28%, for LSO2, LSO3, and LSO4, respectively) or gross energy intake basis (-12, -22, and -31%, for LSO2, LSO3, and LSO4, respectively). At 2 and 3% LSO, the decrease in enteric CH4 emissions occurred without negatively affecting DMI or apparent total-tract digestibility of fiber and without changing protozoa numbers. However, these 2 diets caused a shift in volatile fatty acids pattern toward less acetate and more propionate. The effect of the LSO4 diet on enteric CH4 emissions was associated with a decrease in DMI, fiber apparent-total-tract digestibility, protozoa numbers (total and genera), and an increase in propionate proportion at the expense of acetate and butyrate proportions. Methane emission intensity [g of CH4/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM)] decreased linearly (up to 28% decrease) with increasing LSO level in the diet. Milk fat yield decreased linearly (up to 19% decrease) with increasing inclusion of LSO in the diet. Milk protein yield increased at 2% or 3% LSO and decreased to the same level as that of the nonsupplemented diet at 4% LSO (quadratic effect). Yield of ECM was unchanged by LSO2 and LSO3 treatments but decreased (-2.8 kg/d) upon supplementation with 4% LSO (quadratic effect). Efficiency of milk production (kg ECM/kg DMI) was unaffected by the 3 levels of LSO. Ruminal NH3 concentration was quadratically affected by LSO supplementation; decreasing only at the highest level of LSO supplementation. The amount (g/d) of N excreted in feces and urine decreased linearly and quadratically, respectively, as the amount of LSO increased in the diet, mainly because of the reduction in N intake. Efficiency of dietary N used for milk N secretion increased linearly with increasing LSO supplementation in the diet. We conclude that supplementing corn silage-based diets with 2 or 3% of LSO can reduce enteric CH4 emissions up by to 20% without impairing animal productivity (i.e., ECM yield and feed efficiency).


Assuntos
Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Óleo de Semente do Linho/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5631-5642, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663818

RESUMO

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) continues to be a common and costly metabolic disorder in high-producing dairy cows worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate if increasing the concentration of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) in diets can reduce the risk of SARA in cows fed a high-concentrate diet. Thirty second-parity Holstein cows in mid lactation (131 ± 8.3 d in milk) were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments (10 dairy cows per group): high (11.3%, high peNDF8.0), medium (10.6%, medium peNDF8.0), or low (9.0%, low peNDF8.0) concentration of peNDF8.0. The diets were prepared by mixing the same total mixed ration (57% concentrate and 43% roughages) for 10, 18, or 60 min, respectively. The treatments were fed for 36 d with 21 d for adaptation and 15 d for sampling. The peNDF8.0 intake was positively correlated with the peNDF8.0 concentration. Chewing and ruminating times adjusted for dry matter intake and NDF intake were linearly increased with the increased dietary peNDF8.0 concentration. The high peNDF8.0 diet decreased the number of meals per day. The increased dietary peNDF8.0 concentration linearly increased the rumen fluid pH, the molar percentage of acetate and isobutyrate, acetate-to-propionate ratio, and ammonia nitrogen concentration, but linearly decreased the molar percentages of propionate and valerate. The total VFA concentration and the molar percentages of butyrate and isovalerate remained unchanged. Meanwhile, the increase in the peNDF8.0 concentration of the diet linearly increased the activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, ß-glucanase, and ferulic acid esterase in rumen fluid, but did not affect the activities of xylanase. Total plasma antioxidant capacity, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity, and plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, creatinine, and malondialdehyde were linearly decreased by the increased dietary peNDF8.0 concentration. The increase in peNDF8.0 concentration raised the plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and blood urea nitrogen. Somatic cell counts in the milk were positively correlated with the dietary peNDF8.0 concentration. The feed and milk energy efficiencies were unaffected by the treatments. Shortening the total mixed ration mixing time may be a practical strategy to increase the peNDF8.0 concentration and reduce the risk of SARA in dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets.


Assuntos
Lactação , Rúmen , Animais , Bovinos , Detergentes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mastigação , Leite , Plasma , Gravidez , Rúmen/metabolismo
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5391-5404, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663830

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of harvest date and forage species on the concentration of hydroxycinnamic acids in silage and its relationship to dairy cow performance. Tall fescue and timothy were harvested at a regular date on June 27 and July 8, respectively, or at a late date on July 8 and 25, respectively, in the first regrowth. Forage was treated with a salt-based additive and ensiled in hard-pressed round bales. Forty-seven lactating dairy cows were used in a block design. Cows received 1 of 4 treatments: (1) tall fescue harvested at regular date (RTF), (2) timothy harvested at regular date (RTI), (3) tall fescue harvested at late date (LTF), and (4) timothy harvested at late date (LTI). Diets were formulated to have the same forage-to-concentrate ratio (46:54 on a dry matter basis). Harvesting at late date increased fiber components, but only for timothy, where LTI contained greater neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin concentrations than the other silages. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids were affected by forage species, where concentrations of esterified ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid were greater for tall fescue silages than for timothy silages. Cows fed the RTI diet showed the greatest intakes of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein. Feeding diets containing timothy silages increased milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield compared with tall fescue diets when averaged over harvest dates. Cows fed the RTI diet had greater milk protein yield than cows fed the RTF and LTF diets, and milk lactose yield was greater for cows fed diets containing timothy silage compared with tall fescue silage when averaged over harvest dates. Cows fed the LTF diet showed greater urinary N excretion compared with the LTI diet, but RTI showed the lowest urinary N and urea N excretions when calculated as percent of N intake. Cows fed diets containing timothy silage excreted more uric acid than cows fed tall fescue diets. Allantoin excretion was greater for cows eating the RTI and LTI diets compared with cows eating the RTF diet. Cows fed the RTI diet had a greater estimated microbial N flow and a greater excretion of hippuric acid than the RTF and LTF groups. In conclusion, besides the effect of harvest date on increasing the fiber components of timothy, concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids were mainly affected by forage species; consequently, milk production was only affected by forage species. This indicates that hydroxycinnamic acids, such as ferulic acid, which cross-links to glucuronoarabinoxylans, was a major factor regulating milk production of cows fed tall fescue- and timothy silage-based diets, where lower hydroxycinnamic acid concentrations were responsible for greater milk yield.


Assuntos
Poaceae , Silagem , Animais , Bovinos , Parede Celular , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5601-5616, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663838

RESUMO

Increasing the supply of metabolizable protein (MP) and improving its AA profile may attenuate body protein mobilization in fresh cows and lead to increased milk production. Increasing the concentration of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to increase MP supply and replacing RUP sources from forages instead of nonforage fiber sources may further decrease tissue mobilization if it improves dry matter intake (DMI). Our objective was to determine whether increasing MP concentrations and improving the AA profile at the expense of either nonforage or forage fiber (fNDF) would affect MP balance and empty body (EB) composition (measured using the urea dilution method) in early postpartum dairy cows of different parities. In a randomized block design, 40 primigravid [77 ± 1.5 kg of EB crude protein (CP) at 8 ± 0.6 d before calving] and 40 multigravid (92 ± 1.6 kg of EB CP at 5 ± 0.6 d before calving) Holsteins were blocked by calving date and fed a common prepartum diet (11.5% CP). After calving to 25 d in milk (DIM), cows were fed 1 of 4 diets: (1) a diet deficient in MP meeting 87% of MP requirements (DMP, 17% CP, 24% fNDF), (2) 104% of MP requirements using primarily soy protein to make MP adequate (AMP, 20% CP, 24% fNDF), (3) 110% of MP requirements using a blend of proteins and rumen-protected (RP) AA to make MP adequate (Blend, 20% CP, 24% fNDF), or (4) a diet similar to Blend but substituting added RUP for fNDF rather than nonforage NDF (Blend-fNDF, 20% CP, 19% fNDF). Blend was formulated to have a RUP supply with a similar AA profile to that of casein. Cows were fed a common diet (16.3% CP) from 26 to 50 DIM. Calculated MP balance (supply - requirements) was less than zero for DMP and Blend-fNDF from 1 to 4 wk of lactation (WOL), whereas that for AMP was positive from 1 to 4 WOL and that for Blend was close to zero from 3 to 4 WOL. Daily MP balance was greater from 5 to 7 WOL for DMP compared with AMP and Blend (100 vs. 22 g/d). From -7 to 7 d relative to calving, losses of EB CP were greater for DMP than for AMP and Blend (-121 vs. average of 11 g/d). From 7 to 25 DIM, cows fed AMP (-139 g/d) and Blend-fNDF (-147 g/d) lost EB CP but cows fed Blend (-8 g/d) maintained EB CP. Increased DMI for Blend versus AMP led to reduced losses of EB lipid in primiparous cows from 7 to 25 d relative to calving (-1.0 vs. -1.3 kg/d of EB lipid), whereas lipid mobilization was similar in multiparous cows (average -1.1 kg of EB lipid/d). By 50 DIM, EB lipid and CP were similar across treatments and parities (average 60.2 kg of EB lipid and 81.6 kg of EB CP). Overall, feeding fresh cows a high MP diet with a balanced AA profile improved DMI and attenuated EB CP mobilization, which could partly explain positive carryover effects on milk production for multiparous cows and reduced lipid mobilization for primiparous cows.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Composição Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Dieta Rica em Proteínas/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5417-5431, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663865

RESUMO

Feeding grain-rich diets often results in subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), a condition associated with ruminal dysbiosis and systemic inflammation. Yet, the effect of SARA on hindgut microbiota, and whether this condition is aggravated by exogenous immune stimuli, is less understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the effects of an intermittent high-grain SARA model on the hindgut microbial community, and to evaluate whether the effects of SARA on the fecal microbiome and fermentation were further affected by an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. A total of 18 early-lactating Simmental cows were divided into 3 groups (n = 6); 2 were fed a SARA-inducing feeding regimen (60% concentrate), 1 was fed a control (CON) diet (40% concentrate). On d 30, 1 SARA group (SARA-LPS) and the CON group (CON-LPS) were intramammarily challenged with a single dose of 50 µg of LPS from Escherichia coli O26:B6, whereas the remaining 6 SARA cows (SARA-PLA) received a placebo. Using a longitudinal randomized controlled design, with grouping according to parity and days in milk), statistical analysis was performed with baseline measurements used as a covariate in a mixed model procedure. The SARA-inducing feeding challenge resulted in decreased fecal pH and increased butyrate as a proportion of total short-chain fatty acids in the feces. On d 30, SARA-challenged cows had decreased fecal diversity as shown by the Shannon and Chao1 indices and a decrease in the relative abundance of Euryarchaeota and cellulolytic genera, and numerical increases in the relative abundance of several Firmicutes associated with starch and secondary fermentation. The LPS challenge did not affect the fecal pH and short-chain fatty acids, but increased the Chao1 richness index in an interaction with the SARA challenge, and affected the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia (1.13%), Actinobacteria (0.19%), and Spirochaetes (0.002%), suggesting an effect on the microbial ecology of the hindgut during SARA conditions. In conclusion, the SARA-inducing feeding regimen promoted important microbial changes at d 30, including reduced diversity and evenness compared with CON, whereas the external LPS challenge led to changes in the microbial community without affecting fecal fermentation properties.


Assuntos
Acidose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Acidose/metabolismo , Acidose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Rúmen/metabolismo
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(5): 2071-2080, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559720

RESUMO

Microbial fermentation in the hindgut is likely an important contributor to energy availability in ruminants, except for the rumen. This study aimed to investigate commensal bacteria in the colon influenced by diverse dietary niches. Fifteen male sheep were randomly allotted into three feeding groups: non-pelleted low-grain (CON, n = 5), non-pelleted high-grain (HG, n = 5), and pelleted high-grain (HP, n = 5) diets. The HG and HP groups had higher fermentation parameters than the CON group, especially acetate concentration (CON = 46.91; HG = 61.66; HP = 77.99). The HG diet altered the composition of commensal bacteria in the colon in comparison to the CON group, including the increase of genera related to acetate production (e.g., Acetitomaculum spp.), butyrate production (e.g., Coprococcus spp. and Subdoligranulum spp.), and starch degradation (e.g., Prevotella spp., Roseburia spp., and Oscillibacter spp.). The colon functional compendium had co-alteration with taxonomic changes that indicated non-pelleted HG diet caused a detrimental colonic niche. The HP diet specifically promoted the abundance of Ruminococcus, Olsenella, and Alloprevotella genera to achieve the highest acetate concentration and decreased the starch-degrader Roseburia spp. and Oscillibacter spp. in contrast to the HG group. Our results provide a systematic view of the microbial fermentation, community, and functional guilds in colonic digesta and mucosa in regard to using an HP diet to maintain colonic niche homeostasis under the adverse influence of the HG diet.Key Points• Non-pelleted and pelleted high-grain diets altered sheep colonic fermentation.• Non-pelleted and pelleted high-grain diets resulted in diverse microbial composition.• The pelleted method ameliorated microbial functions compared with the high-grain diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Colo , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos
17.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530108

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the conservation process and feed value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages. In exp. 1, we evaluated the fermentation pattern and aerobic stability of TMR silages containing different protein and lipid supplementations. In exp. 2, we compared the performance of finishing beef heifers fed those TMR silages. In both experiments, treatments were as follows: ensiled TMR with urea (U); ensiled TMR without a protein supplement at ensiling, but soybean meal supplemented at feeding to balance diet crude protein (CP) in exp. 2 (SMnf; where the acronym nf indicates nonfermented); ensiled TMR with soybean meal (SM); and ensiled TMR with rolled soybean grain (SG). Thirty-two Nellore heifers (313 ± 8.8 kg shrunk body weight [SBW]) were blocked by initial SBW, housed in individual pens, and enrolled in exp. 2 for 82 d. In exp. 1, treatment without a protein supplement (SMnf) had a lower content of CP, soluble CP, NH3-N, pH, and Clostridium count compared with U (P ≤ 0.03). Lactic acid concentrations tended to be reduced for SMnf compared with U (P = 0.09). Ethanol concentration was reduced in SG compared with SM (P < 0.01). 1,2-Propanediol concentration was increased in SMnf compared with U (P < 0.01), reduced in SM compared with SMnf (P = 0.02), and increased in SG compared with SM (P = 0.02). Dry matter (DM) loss during fermentation was low and similar among treatments (~3.7%). All silages remained stable during 10 d of aerobic exposure after feed out. Considering fermentation traits, such as pH (≤4.72), NH3-N (<10% of N, except for U treatment), butyric acid (<0.05 % DM), and DM losses (<3.70% DM), all silages can be considered well conserved. In exp. 2, diets were isonitrogenous because soybean meal was added to SMnf before feeding. Compared with SM, cattle fed SG made more meals per day (P = 0.04) and tended to have a decreased intermeal interval (P = 0.09). DM intake, average daily gain, final SBW, hot carcass weight, Biceps femoris fat thickness, and serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were increased for SG compared with SM (P ≤ 0.05). In brief, TMR silages exhibited an adequate fermentation pattern and high aerobic stability. The supplementation of true protein did not improve animal performance, whereas the addition of soybean grain as a lipid source improved the performance of finishing cattle fed TMR silages.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Silagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fermentação , Lipídeos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
18.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523183

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of processing index (PI) of barley grain and dietary undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) concentration on dry matter (DM) intake, chewing activity, ruminal pH and fermentation characteristics, total tract digestibility, gastrointestinal barrier function, and blood metabolites of finishing beef heifers. The PI was measured as the density after processing expressed as a percentage of the density before processing, and a smaller PI equates to a more extensively processed. Six ruminally cannulated heifers (average body weight, 715 ± 29 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with three PI (65%, 75%, and 85%) × 2 uNDF concentration (low and high; 4.6% vs. 5.6% of DM) factorial arrangement. The heifers were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration consisting of 10% barley silage (low uNDF), or 5% silage and 5% straw (high uNDF), 87% dry-rolled barley grain, and 3% mineral and vitamin supplements. Interactions (P < 0.01) of PI × uNDF were observed for DM intake, ruminating and total chewing time, and DM digestibility in the total digestive tract. Intake of DM, organic matter (OM), starch, and crude protein (CP) did not differ (P > 0.14) between low and high uNDF diets, but intakes of NDF and acid detergent fiber were greater (P = 0.01) for high uNDF diets regardless of barley PI. Heifers fed high uNDF diets had longer (P = 0.05) eating times (min/d or min/kg DM) and tended (P = 0.10) to have longer total chewing times (min/kg DM) than those fed low uNDF diets. Additionally, heifers sorted (P = 0.01) against long particles (>19 mm) for high uNDF diets but not for low uNDF diets. Altering PI of barley grain did not affect (P > 0.12) total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar percentages of individual VFA, or duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6. Total VFA concentration was less (P = 0.01), acetate percentage was greater (P = 0.01), and duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6 was less (P = 0.05) for high compared with low uNDF diets. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP was greater (P = 0.02) for low vs. high uNDF diets with PI of 65% and 75%, with no difference between low and high uNDF diets at PI of 85%. Blood metabolites and gastrointestinal tract barrier function were not affected (P ≥ 0.10) by the treatments. These results suggest that increasing dietary uNDF concentration is an effective strategy to improve ruminal pH status in finishing cattle, regardless of the extent of grain processing, whereas manipulating the extent of barley processing did not reduce the risk of ruminal acidosis.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Hordeum , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mastigação , Nutrientes , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
19.
Waste Manag ; 124: 235-243, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636425

RESUMO

Rumen liquid is excellent to effectively degrade lignocellulose. In this study, the suitable rice straw load during anaerobic fermentation of rice straw with rumen liquid as inoculum was explored to improve volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. At 10.0% rice straw load, the highest VFA concentration reached 10821.4 mg/L, and acetic acid and propionic acid were the main components. In 10.0% rice straw load system, high concentration of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) was also observed, and the enzymatic activities at 48 h were higher than those at other rice straw loads. At 10.0% rice straw load, lower diversity and richness of rumen bacteria were found than those at other rice straw loads. Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Ruminococcus were the main rumen bacteria during rice straw degradation, and the rumen bacteria might secret effective lignocellulolytic enzymes to enhance the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of rice straw. The determination of suitable rice straw load will be beneficial to the application of rumen liquid as inoculum in actual production.


Assuntos
Oryza , Rúmen , Anaerobiose , Animais , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Rúmen/metabolismo
20.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564882

RESUMO

Because of its high content of polyphenolic compounds, the dietary inclusion of grape pomace (GP) in ruminant diets can reduce reactive nitrogen (N) and methane emissions and enhance the shelf life and beneficial fatty acids (FAs) content of meat. However, the dietary inclusion of GP beyond a threshold that is still to be determined for feedlot cattle can also compromise nutrient supply and, thus, growth performance. This study investigated the optimum proportion of GP in finishing cattle diets. Nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestion, ruminal pH and fermentation, estimated microbial protein synthesis, route of N excretion, and blood metabolites were measured. Six ruminally fistulated crossbred beef heifers (mean initial body weight ± SD: 714 ± 50.7 kg) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21-d periods. Dietary treatments were 0%, 15%, and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) as GP, with diets containing 84%, 69%, and 54% dry-rolled barley grain, respectively. There was a linear increase (P = 0.07) in DM intake and quadratic change (P ≤ 0.01) in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake. There was a quadratic change (P ≤ 0.04) in apparent total tract DM, NDF, and crude protein digestibility as dietary GP content increased. However, there were no treatment effects (P ≥ 0.18) on total ruminal short-chain FA concentration and duration and area pH < 6.2, 5.8, and 5.5. Although N intake did not differ (269, 262, 253 g/d; P = 0.33) across dietary treatments, feeding GP led to a tendency for a quadratic change (P ≤ 0.07) in ruminal ammonia-N and plasma urea-N concentrations. Total N excretion also changed (quadratic, P = 0.03) because of changes (quadratic, P = 0.02) in fecal N excretion as urinary excretion of N and urea-N did not differ (P ≥ 0.15) across treatments. Feeding GP led to quadratic changes (P ≤ 0.01) in fecal excretion of fiber-bound N. Microbial N flow and apparent N retention also changed (quadratic, P ≤ 0.04) as dietary GP proportion increased. In conclusion, responses to dietary GP proportion were mostly quadratic with indications that nutrient supply as reflected by changes in apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, microbial N supply, and apparent N retention could be compromised beyond a 15% dietary inclusion level.


Assuntos
Rúmen , Vitis , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Hordeum , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo
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