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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 50, 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369699

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the colostrum and fecal microbiota in calves and to investigate whether fecal microbiota composition was related to colostrum microbiota or factors associated with calf health. Colostrum samples were collected in buckets after hand milking of 76 calving cows from 38 smallholder dairy farms. Fecal samples were taken directly from the rectum of 76 calves at birth and at 14 days age. The bacterial community structure in colostrum and feces was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for all samples, and the microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing for a subset of the samples (8 colostrum, 40 fecal samples). There was a significant difference in fecal microbiota composition between day 0 and day 14 samples, but no associations between the microbiota and average daily gain, birth weight, or transfer of passive immunity. At 14 days of age, Faecalibacterium and Butyricicoccus were prevalent in higher relative abundances in the gut of healthy calves compared to calves with diarrhea that had been treated with antimicrobials. Colostrum showed great variation in composition of microbiota but no association to fecal microbiota. This study provides the first insights into the composition of colostrum and fecal microbiota of young dairy calves in southern Vietnam and can form the basis for future more detailed studies.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Colostro/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Microbiota , Leite , Gravidez , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Vietnã
2.
Intern Med ; 59(17): 2089-2094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879200

RESUMO

Objective The relationship between gut microbiota and portal hypertension remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the gut microbiota in portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices and liver cirrhosis. Methods Thirty-six patients (12 patients with portal hypertension, 12 healthy controls, and 12 non-cirrhosis patients) were enrolled in this university hospital study. Intestinal bacteria and statistical analyses were performed up to the genus level using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes, with diversified regions characterizing each bacterium. Results Levels of Lactobacillales were significantly higher (p=0.045) and those of Clostridium cluster IV significantly lower (p=0.014) in patients with portal hypertension than in other patients. This Clostridium cluster contains many butanoic acid-producing strains, including Ruminococcace and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Clostridium cluster IX levels were also significantly lower (p=0.045) in portal hypertension patients than in other patients. There are many strains of Clostridium that produce propionic acid, and the effects on the host and the function of these bacterial species in the human intestine remain unknown. Regarding the Bifidobacterium genus, which is supposed to decrease as a result of cirrhosis, no significant decrease was observed in this study. Conclusion In the present study, we provided information on the characteristics of the gut microbiota of portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices due to liver cirrhosis. In the future, we aim to develop probiotic treatments following further analyses that include the species level, such as the intestinal flora analysis method and next-generation sequencers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão Portal/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(23)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978127

RESUMO

Long-term nitrogen field fertilization often results in significant changes in nitrifying communities that catalyze a key step in the global N cycle. However, whether microcosm studies are able to inform the dynamic changes in communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) under field conditions remains poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the transcriptional activities of nitrifying communities under in situ conditions, and we found that they were largely similar to those of 13C-labeled nitrifying communities in the urea-amended microcosms of soils that had received different N fertilization regimens for 22 years. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts suggested that Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB and Nitrososphaera viennensis-like AOA were significantly stimulated in N-fertilized fresh soils. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the significant increase of AOA and AOB in fresh soils upon nitrogen fertilization could be preserved in the air-dried soils. DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP) further revealed the greatest labeling of Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB and Nitrosospira viennensis-like AOA, despite the strong advantage of AOB over AOA in the N-fertilized soils. Nitrobacter-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) played more important roles than Nitrospira-like NOB in urea-amended SIP microcosms, while the situation was the opposite under field conditions. Our results suggest that long-term fertilization selected for physiologically versatile AOB and AOA that could have been adapted to a wide range of substrate ammonium concentrations. It also provides compelling evidence that the dominant communities of transcriptionally active nitrifiers under field conditions were largely similar to those revealed in 13C-labeled microcosms.IMPORTANCE The role of manipulated microcosms in microbial ecology has been much debated, because they cannot entirely represent the in situ situation. We collected soil samples from 20 field plots, including 5 different treatments with and without nitrogen fertilizers for 22 years, in order to assess active nitrifying communities by in situ transcriptomics and microcosm-based stable-isotope probing. The results showed that chronic N enrichment led to competitive advantages of Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB over N. viennensis-like AOA in soils under field conditions. Microcosm labeling revealed similar results for active AOA and AOB, although an apparent discrepancy was observed for nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. This study suggests that the soil microbiome represents a relatively stable community resulting from complex evolutionary processes over a large time scale, and microcosms can serve as powerful tools to test the theory of environmental filtering on the key functional microbial guilds.


Assuntos
Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Fertilizantes/análise , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA Arqueal/análise , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transcrição Genética
4.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(23)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978131

RESUMO

The compositions of Octopus Spring and Mushroom Spring (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA) microbial mats have been thoroughly studied, but the compositions of the effluent waters that flow above the mats have not. In this study, cells in the mats and overflowing waters of both springs were investigated at multiple sites where Synechococcus spp. are the dominant cyanobacteria (ca. 72°C to ca. 50°C), and on several dates. In addition to microscopic analyses of stained and autofluorescent cells, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the major taxa present and a protein-encoding gene (psaA) was sequenced and analyzed by ecotype simulation to predict species of Synechococcus The mats of both springs were similar in terms of the downstream distribution of predominant taxa detected previously. However, waters above these mats were predominated by taxa that reside in upstream mats or communities above the upper-temperature limit of the mat. A disturbance/recolonization study was performed at a site normally predominated by Synechococcus species adapted to low temperatures. After removing indigenous Synechococcus cells, Synechococcus species adapted to higher temperatures, which were predominant in the water overflowing this site, colonized the newly forming mat. Differences in recolonization under reduced and UV-screened irradiance suggested that, in addition to physical transport, environmental conditions likely select for species that are better adapted to these different conditions and can influence mat recovery. A transport model was developed and used to predict that, in Mushroom Spring, erosion predominates in the narrower and deeper upstream effluents and deposition predominates over erosion in wider and shallower downstream effluents.IMPORTANCE In flowing aquatic systems, cell erosion and deposition are important to the dispersal of cells from one location to another. Very little is known about microbial dispersal and the physical processes that underlie it. This study demonstrates its importance to colonization of downstream surfaces and especially to the recolonization and functioning of disturbed sites. Ecological systems in flowing environments are often, roughly speaking, pseudosteady, in that nutrients enter the system and by-products leave at relatively steady rates. Over time, material inputs and outputs must balance. Measurements of input fluxes (e.g., growth rates and proxies, such as photosynthesis rates) are frequent. However, erosion and deposition of cells are seldom measured and ecological significance is sometimes neglected. The importance of these parameters is immediately evident in any attempt to construct a model of long-time community behavior, as spatial ecological structure is significantly impacted and can be dominated by migration of organisms, even in small numbers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Microbiota , Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Parques Recreativos , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Synechococcus/classificação , Synechococcus/isolamento & purificação , Wyoming
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(23)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948523

RESUMO

In recent years, various studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota influences host metabolism. However, these studies were focused primarily on a single or a limited range of host species, thus preventing a full exploration of possible taxonomic and functional adaptations by gut microbiota members as a result of host-microbe coevolution events. In the current study, the microbial taxonomic profiles of 250 fecal samples, corresponding to 77 host species that cover the mammalian branch of the tree of life, were reconstructed by 16S rRNA gene-based sequence analysis. Moreover, shotgun metagenomics was employed to investigate the metabolic potential of the fecal microbiomes of 24 mammals, and subsequent statistical analyses were performed to assess the impact of host diet and corresponding physiology of the digestive system on gut microbiota composition and functionality. Functional data were confirmed and extended through metatranscriptome assessment of gut microbial populations of eight animals, thus providing insights into the transcriptional response of gut microbiota to specific dietary lifestyles. Therefore, the analyses performed in this study support the notion that the metabolic features of the mammalian gut microbiota have adapted to maximize energy extraction from the host's diet.IMPORTANCE Diet and host physiology have been recognized as main factors affecting both taxonomic composition and functional features of the mammalian gut microbiota. However, very few studies have investigated the bacterial biodiversity of mammals by using large sample numbers that correspond to multiple mammalian species, thus resulting in an incomplete understanding of the functional aspects of their microbiome. Therefore, we investigated the bacterial taxonomic composition of 250 fecal samples belonging to 77 host species distributed along the tree of life in order to assess how diet and host physiology impact the intestinal microbial community by selecting specific microbial players. Conversely, the application of shotgun metagenomics and metatranscriptomics approaches to a group of selected fecal samples allowed us to shed light on both metabolic features and transcriptional responses of the intestinal bacterial community based on different diets.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Metagenômica , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(21)2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826215

RESUMO

The risk of petroleum spills coupled with the potential application of chemical dispersants as a spill response strategy necessitates further understanding of the fate of oil and dispersants and their interactive effects during biodegradation. Using Arctic seawater mesocosms amended with either crude oil, Corexit 9500, or both together, we quantified the chemical losses of crude oil and Corexit 9500 and identified microbial taxa implicated in their biodegradation based on shifts in the microbial community structure over a 30-day time course. Chemical analyses included total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for oil loss and the surfactant components dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), Span 80, Tween 80, Tween 85, and the DOSS metabolite ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate (EHSS) for Corexit loss. Changes to the microbial communities and identification of key taxa were determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The nonionic surfactants of Corexit 9500 (Span 80 and Tweens 80 and 85) biodegraded rapidly, dropping to below the limits of detection within 5 days and prior to any detectable initiation of oil biodegradation. This resulted in no observable suppression of petroleum biodegradation in the presence of Corexit compared to that of oil alone. In contrast, biodegradation of DOSS was delayed in the presence of oil, based on the prolonged presence of DOSS and accumulation of the degradation intermediate EHSS that did not occur in the absence of oil. Microbial analyses revealed that oil and Corexit enriched different overall microbial communities, with the presence of both resulting in a community composition that shifted from one more similar to that of Corexit only to one reflecting the oil-only community over time, in parallel with the degradation of predominantly Corexit and then oil components. Some microbial taxa (Oleispira, Pseudofulvibacter, and Roseobacter) responded to either oil or Corexit, suggesting that some organisms may be capable of utilizing both substrates. Together, these findings reveal interactive effects of crude oil and Corexit 9500 on chemical losses and microbial communities as they biodegrade, providing further insight into their fate when copresent in the environment.IMPORTANCE Chemical dispersants such as Corexit 9500 are commonly used in oil spill response and are currently under consideration for use in the Arctic, where their fate and effects have not been well studied. This research was performed to determine the interactive effects of the copresence of crude oil and Corexit 9500 on the degradation of components from each mixture and the associated microbial community structure over time in Arctic seawater. These findings will help yield a better understanding of the biodegradability of dispersant components applied to an oil spill, the temporal microbial community response to dispersed oil, and the fundamental microbial ecology of organic contaminant biodegradation processes in the Arctic marine environment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Microbiota , Petróleo/metabolismo , Regiões Árticas , Biodegradação Ambiental , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Água do Mar/microbiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Related Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has resulted in unprecedented challenges for healthcare systems. One barrier to widespread testing has been a paucity of traditional respiratory viral swab collection kits relative to the demand. Whether other sample collection kits, such as widely available MRSA nasal swabs can be used to detect SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. METHODS: We compared simultaneous nasal MRSA swabs (COPAN ESwabs ® 480C flocked nasal swab in 1mL of liquid Amies medium) and virals wabs (BD H192(07) flexible mini-tip flocked nasopharyngeal swabs in 3mL Universal Transport Medium) for SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing using Simplexa COVID-19 Direct assay on patients over a 4-day period. When the results were discordant, the viral swab sample was run again on the Cepheid Xpert Xpress ® SARS-CoV-2 assay. RESULTS: Of the 81 included samples, there were 19 positives and 62 negatives in viral media and 18 positives and 63 negative in the MRSA swabs. Amongst all included samples, there was concordance between the COPAN ESwabs ® 480C and the viral swabs in 78 (96.3%). CONCLUSION: We found a high rate of concordance in test results between COPAN ESwabs ® 480C in Amies solution and BD H192(07) nasopharyngeal swabs in in 3 mL of Universal Viral Transport medium viral media. Clinicians and laboratories should feel better informed and assured using COPAN ESwabs ® 480C to help in the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
8.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 40, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that cause enteric disease in vertebrates. In pigs, infections are most often asymptomatic, but may result in diarrhoea and poor growth. The most common species detected in pigs are C. suis and C. scrofarum with low zoonotic potential. C. parvum, with higher zoonotic potential, may also be found. As previous knowledge on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in Swedish pigs is scarce, this was investigated in our study. Faecal samples from 13 pig herds were collected and a total of 222 pooled pen samples, from suckling piglets (n = 48), growers, aged 6-12 weeks (n = 57), fatteners, aged 13-24 weeks (n = 67) and adult animals (n = 50) were included. Samples were analysed using microscopy and positive samples were further analysed using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and the 28S rRNA gene to determine species. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in all sampled herds and in 25% (56/222) of the individual pen samples. Infections were most common in growers and fatteners with 51% (29/57) and 35% (20/67) positive samples in each group, respectively. The piglets had 8% (4/48) positive samples and adults had 6% (3/50). Species determination showed C. suis and C. scrofarum in piglets and growers, C. scrofarum in the fatteners, and C. suis and C. parvum in the adults. Although no mixed infections could be confirmed we saw signs of double peaks in the 28S rRNA gene chromatograms, possibly indicating more than one species present per sample. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium spp. were detected on every sampled farm and in 25% of the individual pen samples in our study. We therefore conclude that Cryptosporidium spp. are present and likely common in Swedish pig herds, where pigs are loose and reared on solid floors. However, none of the farms reported any problems with poor weight gain, diarrhoea, or reduced appetite in their pig herds. The pig adapted C. suis and C. scrofarum were the predominant species identified. Two samples were positive for the more zoonotic C. parvum, and pigs should hence not be disregarded as a possible source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 28S/análise , Sus scrofa , Suécia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
9.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(19)2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709723

RESUMO

Activated sludge is comprised of diverse microorganisms which remediate wastewater. Previous research has characterized activated sludge using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, which can help to address questions on the relative abundance of microorganisms. In this study, we used 16S rRNA transcript sequencing in order to characterize "active" populations (via protein synthesis potential) and gain a deeper understanding of microbial activity patterns within activated sludge. Seasonal abundances of individual populations in activated sludge change over time, yet a persistent group of core microorganisms remains throughout the year which are traditionally classified on presence or absence without monitoring of their activity or growth. The goal of this study was to further our understanding of how the activated sludge microbiome changes between seasons with respect to population abundance, activity, and growth. Triplicate sequencing batch reactors were sampled at 10-min intervals throughout reaction cycles during all four seasons. We quantified the gene and transcript copy numbers of 16S rRNA amplicons using real-time PCR and sequenced the products to reveal community abundance and activity changes. We identified 108 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with stable abundance, activity, and growth throughout the year. Nonproliferating OTUs were commonly human health related, while OTUs that showed seasonal abundance changes have previously been identified as being associated with floc formation and bulking. We observed significant differences in 16S rRNA transcript copy numbers, particularly at lower temperatures in winter and spring. The study provides an analysis of the seasonal dynamics of microbial activity variations in activated sludge based on quantifying and sequencing 16S rRNA transcripts.IMPORTANCE Sequencing batch reactors are a common design for wastewater treatment plants, particularly in smaller municipalities, due to their low footprint and ease of operations. However, like for most treatment plants in temperate/continental climates, the microbial community involved in water treatment is highly seasonal and its biological processes can be sensitive to cold temperatures. The seasonality of these microbial communities has been explored primarily in conventional treatment plants and not in sequencing batch reactors. Furthermore, most studies often only address which organisms are present. However, the activated sludge microbial community is very diverse, and it is often hard to discern which organisms are active and which organisms are simply present. In this study, we applied additional sequencing techniques to also address the issues of which organisms are active and which organisms are growing. By addressing these issues, we gained new insights into seasonal microbial populations dynamics and activity patterns affecting wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos/microbiologia , Transcrição Genética , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Reatores Biológicos , Minnesota , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de RNA
10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(19)2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709727

RESUMO

Global marine sediments harbor a large and highly diverse microbial biosphere, but the mechanism by which this biosphere is established during sediment burial is largely unknown. During burial in marine sediments, concentrations of easily metabolized organic compounds and total microbial cell abundance decrease. However, it is unknown whether some microbial clades increase with depth. We show total population increases in 38 microbial families over 3 cm of sediment depth in the upper 7.5 cm of White Oak River (WOR) estuary sediments. Clades that increased with depth were more often associated with one or more of the following: anaerobes, uncultured, or common in deep marine sediments relative to those that decreased. Maximum doubling times (in situ steady-state growth rates could be faster to balance cell decay) were estimated as 2 to 25 years by combining sedimentation rate with either quantitative PCR (qPCR) or the product of the fraction read abundance of 16S rRNA genes and total cell counts (FRAxC). Doubling times were within an order of magnitude of each other in two adjacent cores, as well as in two laboratory enrichments of Cape Lookout Bight (CLB), NC, sediments (average difference of 28% ± 19%). qPCR and FRAxC in sediment cores and laboratory enrichments produced similar doubling times for key deep subsurface uncultured clades Bathyarchaeota (8.7 ± 1.9 years) and Thermoprofundales/MBG-D (4.1 ± 0.7 years). We conclude that common deep subsurface microbial clades experience a narrow zone of growth in shallow sediments, offering an opportunity for selection of long-term subsistence traits after resuspension events.IMPORTANCE Many studies show that the uncultured microbes that dominate global marine sediments do not actually increase in population size as they are buried in marine sediments; rather, they exist in a sort of prolonged torpor for thousands of years. This is because, although studies have shown biomass turnover in these clades, no evidence has ever been found that deeper sediments have larger populations for specific clades than shallower layers. We discovered that they actually do increase population sizes during burial, but only in the upper few centimeters. This suggests that marine sediments may be a vast repository of mostly nongrowing microbes with a thin and relatively rapid area of cell abundance increase in the upper 10 cm, offering a chance for subsurface organisms to undergo natural selection.


Assuntos
Archaea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Rios/microbiologia , Anaerobiose , North Carolina , RNA Arqueal/análise , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Análise de Sequência de RNA
11.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(6): 446-459, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503736

RESUMO

Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (D. officinale) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). A mixture of D. officinale and American ginseng has been shown to enhance cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity, and monocyte/macrophage functions in mice. Here, the effects of a D. officinale and American ginseng mixture on the structure of gut microbial community in dogs were examined using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The data revealed that while the mixture did not change the diversity of gut microbial community significantly, differences among individuals were significantly reduced. Furthermore, the mixture-responsive operational taxonomic units (OTUs) exhibited a phase-dependent expression pattern. Fifty-five OTUs were found to exhibit a mixture-induced expression pattern, among which one third were short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing genera and the others were probiotic genera included Lactobacillus spp., Sutterella, Alistipes, Anaerovorax, Bilophila, Coprococcus, Gordonibacter, Oscillibacter, among others. By contrast, 36% of the OTUs exhibiting a mixture-repressed expression pattern were disease-associated microorganisms, and six genera, namely Actinomyces, Escherichia/Shigella, Fusobacterium, Slackia, Streptococcus and Solobacterium, were associated with cancer. In addition, five genera were closely associated with diabetes, namely Collinsella, Rothia, Howardella, Slackia and Intestinibacter. Our results indicate that this D. officinale and American ginseng mixture may be used as a prebiotic agent to enhance SCFA-producing genera and prevent gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Animais , Cães/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
12.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 26, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus halichoeri infections have been reported in grey seals, a European badger, a Stellar sea lion and humans, but its presence in companion and fur animals is unknown. Since 2010, S. halichoeri-like bacteria (SHL) have been isolated from fur animals and dogs in Finland. Our aim was to retrospectively investigate laboratory records for SHL from canine and fur animal infections, characterize the isolates and compare their genetic relatedness in relation to three reference strains: CCUG 48324T, originating from a grey seal, and strains 67100 and 61265, originally isolated from humans. RESULTS: A total of 138 and 36 SHLs from canine and fur animal infections, respectively, were identified in the laboratory records. SHL was commonly associated with skin infections, but rarely as the only species. A set of 49 canine and 23 fur animal SHLs were further characterized. MALDI-TOF confirmed them as being S. halichoeri. The growth characteristics were consistent with the original findings, but isolates were catalase positive. In total, 17 distinct API 20 Strep patterns were recorded among all 75 isolates tested, of which pattern 5563100 was the most common (n = 30). Antimicrobial resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was common in canine isolates, but rare in fur animal isolates. Three clusters were observed by PFGE, and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed 98.1-100% similarities with the human strains and 98.1-99.5% with the seal strain. A phylogenetic tree of concatenated 16S rRNA and rpoB revealed closely related isolates with two clades. Fifteen canine isolates were identical to the human strains based on concatenated 16S rRNA and rpoB sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus halichoeri appears to be quite a common bacterial species in the skin of dogs and fur animals. The clinical significance of S. halichoeri is uncertain, as it was rarely isolated as a monoculture. No apparent temporal or spatial clustering was detected, but isolates from different sources were genetically very similar. Because many canine isolates were genetically similar to the human reference strains, transmission between dogs and humans may be possible. WGS sequencing of strains from different sources is needed to further investigate the epidemiology and virulence of S. halichoeri.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Raposas , Vison , Cães Guaxinins , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/genética , Animais , Cães , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus/química , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/fisiologia
13.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(5): 306-314, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553074

RESUMO

Objective: High PM 2.5 concentration is the main feature of increasing haze in developing states, but information on its microbial composition remains very limited. This study aimed to determine the composition of microbiota in PM 2.5 in Guangzhou, a city located in the tropics in China. Methods: In Guangzhou, from March 5 th to 10 th, 2016, PM 2.5 was collected in middle volume air samplers for 23 h daily. The 16S rDNA V4 region of the PM 2.5 sample extracted DNA was investigated using high-throughput sequence. Results: Among the Guangzhou samples, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant microbiota accounting for more than 90% of the total microbiota, and Stenotrophomonas was the dominant gram-negative bacteria, accounting for 21.30%-23.57%. We examined the difference in bacterial distribution of PM 2.5 between Beijing and Guangzhou at the genus level; Stenotrophomonas was found in both studies, but Escherichia was only detected in Guangzhou. Conclusion: In conclusion, the diversity and specificity of microbial components in Guangzhou PM 2.5 were studied, which may provide a basis for future pathogenicity research in the tropics.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Material Particulado/análise , Bactérias/classificação , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(16)2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503908

RESUMO

Teleost fish represent an invaluable repertoire of host species to study the factors shaping animal-associated microbiomes. Several studies have shown that the phylogenetic structure of the fish gut microbiome is driven by species-specific (e.g., host ancestry, genotype, or diet) and habitat-specific (e.g., hydrochemical parameters and bacterioplankton composition) factors. However, our understanding of other host-associated microbial niches, such as the skin mucus microbiome, remains limited. The goal of our study was to explore simultaneously the phylogenetic structure of the fish skin mucus and gut microbiome and compare the effect of species- and habitat-specific drivers on the structure of microbial communities in both tissues. We sampled 114 wild fish from 6 populations of 3 ecologically and phylogenetically contrasting Amazonian teleost species. Water samples were collected at each site, and 10 physicochemical parameters were characterized. The skin mucus, gut, and water microbial communities were characterized using a metabarcoding approach targeting the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA. Our results showed a significant distinction between the phylogenetic profile and diversity of the microbiome from each microbial niche. Skin mucus and bacterioplankton communities were significantly closer in composition than gut and free-living communities. Species-specific factors mostly modulated gut bacterial communities, while the skin mucus microbiome was predominantly associated with environmental physicochemistry and bacterioplankton community structure. These results suggest that the variable skin mucus community is a relevant target for the development of microbial biomarkers of environmental status, while the more conserved gut microbiome is better suited to study long-term host-microbe interactions over evolutionary time scales.IMPORTANCE Whether host-associated microbiomes are mostly shaped by species-specific or environmental factors is still unresolved. In particular, it is unknown to what extent microbial communities from two different host tissues from the same host respond to these factors. Our study is one of the first to focus on the microbiome of teleost fish to shed a light on this topic as we investigate how the phylogenetic structure of microbial communities from two distinct fish tissues are shaped by species- and habitat-specific factors. Our study showed that in contrast to the teleost gut microbiome, skin mucus communities are highly environment dependent. This result has various implications: (i) the skin mucus microbiome should be used, rather than the gut, to investigate bacterial biomarkers of ecosystem perturbance in the wild, and (ii) the gut microbiome is better suited for studies of the drivers of phylosymbiosis, or the coevolution of fish and their symbionts.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Caraciformes/microbiologia , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Brasil , Ecossistema , Membrana Mucosa/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(16)2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503911

RESUMO

Traditional fermentations have been widely studied from the microbiological point of view, but little is known from the functional perspective. In this work, nitrogen fixation by free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria was conclusively demonstrated in pozol, a traditional Mayan beverage prepared with nixtamalized and fermented maize dough. Three aspects of nitrogen fixation were investigated to ensure that fixation actually happens in the dough: (i) the detection of acetylene reduction activity directly in the substrate, (ii) the presence of potential diazotrophs, and (iii) an in situ increase in acetylene reduction by inoculation with one of the microorganisms isolated from the dough. Three genera were identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA and nifH genes as Kosakonia, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter, and their ability to fix nitrogen was confirmed.IMPORTANCE Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are found in different niches, as symbionts in plants, in the intestinal microbiome of several insects, and as free-living microorganisms. Their use in agriculture for plant growth promotion via biological nitrogen fixation has been extensively reported. This work demonstrates the ecological and functional importance that these bacteria can have in food fermentations, reevaluating the presence of these genera as an element that enriches the nutritional value of the dough.


Assuntos
Acetileno/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacter/metabolismo , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella/metabolismo , México , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases/análise , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
16.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(16)2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561577

RESUMO

This study compares the metabolic properties of kojibiose, trehalose, sucrose, and xylitol upon incubation with representative oral bacteria as monocultures or synthetic communities or with human salivary bacteria in a defined medium. Compared to sucrose and trehalose, kojibiose resisted metabolism during a 48-h incubation with monocultures, except for Actinomyces viscosus Incubations with Lactobacillus-based communities, as well as salivary bacteria, displayed kojibiose metabolism, yet to a lesser extent than sucrose and trehalose. Concurring with our in vitro findings, screening for carbohydrate-active enzymes revealed that only Lactobacillus spp. and A. viscosus possess enzymes from glycohydrolase (GH) families GH65 and GH15, respectively, which are associated with kojibiose metabolism. Donor-dependent differences in salivary microbiome composition were noted, and differences in pH drop during incubation indicated different rates of sugar metabolism. However, functional analysis indicated that lactate, acetate, and formate evenly dominated the metabolic profile for all sugars except for xylitol. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and α-diversity markers revealed that a significant shift of the microbiome community by sugars was more pronounced in sucrose and trehalose than in kojibiose and xylitol. In Streptococcus spp., a taxon linked to cariogenesis dominated in sucrose (mean ± standard deviation, 91.8 ± 6.4%) and trehalose (55.9 ± 38.6%), representing a high diversity loss. In contrast, Streptococcus (5.1 ± 3.7%) was less abundant in kojibiose, which instead was dominated by Veillonella (26.8 ± 19.6%), while for xylitol, Neisseria (29.4 ± 19.1%) was most abundant. Overall, kojibiose and xylitol incubations stimulated cariogenic species less yet closely maintained an abundance of key phyla and genera of the salivary microbiome, suggesting that kojibiose has low cariogenic properties.IMPORTANCE This study provides a detailed scientific insight on the metabolism of a rare disaccharide, kojibiose, whose mass production has recently been made possible. While the resistance of kojibiose was established with monocultures, delayed utilization of kojibiose was observed with communities containing lactobacilli and A. viscosus as well as with complex communities of bacteria from human saliva. Kojibiose is, therefore, less metabolizable than sucrose and trehalose. Moreover, although conventional sugars cause distinct shifts in salivary microbial communities, our study has revealed that kojibiose is able to closely maintain the salivary microbiome composition, suggesting its low cariogenic properties. This study furthermore underscores the importance and relevance of microbial culture and ex vivo mixed cultures to study cariogenicity and substrate utilization; this is in sharp contrast with tests that solely rely on monocultures such as Streptococcus mutans, which clearly fail to capture complex interactions between oral microbiota.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo , Xilitol/metabolismo , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Sacarose/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(14)2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414799

RESUMO

Biobeds, designed to minimize pesticide point source contamination, rely mainly on biodegradation processes. We studied the interactions of a biobed microbial community with the herbicide isoproturon (IPU) to explore the role of the pdmA gene, encoding the large subunit of an N-demethylase responsible for the initial demethylation of IPU, via quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) and the effect of IPU on the diversity of the total bacterial community and its active fraction through amplicon sequencing of DNA and RNA, respectively. We further investigated the localization and dispersal mechanisms of pdmAB in the biobed packing material by measuring the abundance of the plasmid pSH (harboring pdmAB) of the IPU-degrading Sphingomonas sp. strain SH (previously isolated from the soil used in the biobed) compared with the abundance of the pdmA gene and metagenomic fosmid library screening. pdmA abundance and expression increased concomitantly with IPU mineralization, verifying its major role in IPU transformation in the biobed system. DNA- and RNA-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed no effects on bacterial diversity. The pdmAB-harboring plasmid pSH showed a consistently lower abundance than pdmA, suggesting the localization of pdmAB in replicons other than pSH. Metagenomic analysis identified four pdmAB-carrying fosmids. In three of these fosmids, the pdmAB genes were organized in a well-conserved operon carried by sphingomonad plasmids with low synteny with pSH, while the fourth fosmid contained an incomplete pdmAB cassette localized in a genomic fragment of a Rhodanobacter strain. Further analysis suggested a potentially crucial role of IS6 and IS256 in the transposition and activation of the pdmAB operon.IMPORTANCE Our study provides novel insights into the interactions of IPU with the bacterial community of biobed systems, reinforces the assumption of a transposable nature of IPU-degrading genes, and verifies that on-farm biobed systems are hot spots for the evolution of pesticide catabolic traits.


Assuntos
Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genes Bacterianos , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Compostos de Fenilureia/metabolismo , Sphingomonas/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Sphingomonas/metabolismo
18.
J Vis Exp ; (158)2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420999

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a pathogen classified by the United Nations (UN) as a dangerous category B biological substance. For the sake of the workers' safety, handling of all samples presumed to carry Mtb must be conducted in a containment level (CL) 3 laboratory. The TB molecular bacterial load assay (TB-MBLA) test is a reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test that quantifies Mtb bacillary load using primers and dual-labelled probes for 16S rRNA. We describe the use of heat inactivation to render TB samples noninfectious while preserving RNA for the TB-MBLA. A 1 mL aliquot of the sputum sample in tightly closed 15 mL centrifuge tubes is boiled for 20 min at either 80 °C, 85 °C, or 95 °C to inactivate Mtb bacilli. Cultivation of the heat inactivated and control (live) samples for 42 days confirmed the death of TB. The inactivated sample is then spiked with 100 µL of the extraction control and RNA is extracted following the standard RNA isolation procedure. No growth was observed in the cultures of heat treated samples. The isolated RNA is subjected to real-time RT-qPCR, which amplifies a specific target in the Mtb 16S rRNA gene, yielding results in the form of quantification cycles (Cq). A standard curve is used to translate Cq into bacterial load, or estimated colony forming units per mL (eCFU/mL). There is an inverse relationship between Cq and the bacterial load of a sample. The limitation is that heat inactivation lyses some cells, exposing the RNA to RNases that cause a loss of <1 log10eCFU/mL (i.e., <10 CFU/mL). Further studies will determine the proportion of very low burden patients that cause false negative results due to heat inactivation.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , RNA Bacteriano/análise , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Carga Bacteriana/instrumentação , Carga Bacteriana/normas , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Manejo de Espécimes , Tuberculose/microbiologia
19.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(14)2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358014

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has far-reaching effects on host organism health, so understanding the processes that underlie microbial community assembly in the developing gut is a current research priority. Here, a holothurian (also known as sea cucumber; phylum Echinodermata) host is explored as a promising model system for studying the assembly of the gut microbiome. Holothurians have a unique capacity for evisceration (expulsion of the internal organs), followed by rapid regeneration of the gut, decoupling host ontogeny from gut tissue development and permitting experimental manipulation of the gut microbiome in mature host individuals. Here, evisceration was induced in the sea cucumber Sclerodactyla briareus, and regenerating stomach and intestine microbiomes were characterized before and on days 0, 13, 17, and 20 after evisceration using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Regenerating stomach and intestine tissues had microbial communities significantly different from those of mature tissues, with much higher alpha diversity and evenness of taxa in regenerating tissues. Despite immersion in a diverse pool of sediment and seawater microbes in flowthrough seawater aquaria, regenerating gut microbiomes differed at each stage of regeneration and displayed a highly similar community structure among replicates, providing evidence for deterministic host selection of a specific microbial consortium. Moreover, regenerating gut tissues acquired a microbiome that likely conferred energetic and immune advantages to the sea cucumber host, including microbes that can fix carbon and degrade invading pathogens.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiome is pertinent to many aspects of animal health, and there is a great need for natural but tractable experimental systems to examine the processes shaping gut microbiome assembly. Here, the holothurian (sea cucumber) Sclerodactyla briareus was explored as an experimental system to study microbial colonization in the gut, as S. briareus individuals have the ability to completely eviscerate and rapidly regenerate their digestive organs. After induced evisceration, microbial community assembly was characterized over 20 days in regenerating animals. This study demonstrated that colonization of the sea cucumber gut was deterministic; despite immersion in a diverse consortium of environmental microbes, a specific subset of microbes proliferated in the gut, including taxa that likely conferred energetic and immune advantages to the host. Sea cucumbers have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of gut microbiome assembly, as rapid and repeatable gut tissue regeneration provides a promising and tractable experimental system.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Regeneração , Pepinos-do-Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Intestinos/fisiologia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
20.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2662-2674, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359603

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem that contributes to host nutrition and health. However, our current knowledge of the relationship between ambient temperature and gut microbiota of poultry is still limited. The objective of the present study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of ducks exposed to high ambient temperature. Sixty 60-day-old Shaoxing ducks were allocated to control and heat-treated groups. The ducks in the control group were kept at 25°C, and the ducks in the heat treatment group were raised at 30-40°C, which simulated the temperature change of day and night in summer. After 15 D, the intestinal contents of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained from 6 ducks of each group. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified based on the V4-V5 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA. The results showed that Firmicutes was the dominant bacterial phylum with the highest abundance in the contents of the small intestine of ducks, and the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes in all 3 intestinal segments was increased by high temperature. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was found to be the most dominant bacterial genus across 3 gut segments, and its abundance was increased in ducks under heat treatment. Compared with the corresponding intestine segment of control ducks, a total of 36 genera in the duodenum, 19 genera in the jejunum, and 6 genera in the ileum of heat-treated ducks were found to be significantly different in the abundance (linear discriminant analysis score >3.0, P < 0.05). Functional prediction of gut microbiota revealed that high temperature caused changes in the abundance of metabolism and transcription-related pathways. It is noteworthy that most of the altered pathways are related to metabolism. In conclusion, high temperature induced remarkable taxonomic changes in the gut microbiome of ducks, which might be related to the negative effects of high temperature in ducks. Our present study provided an important theoretical ground for high-temperature intervention.


Assuntos
Patos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Temperatura Alta , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Distribuição Aleatória
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