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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360557

RESUMO

Among the eight human glutathione peroxidase isoforms, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is the only enzyme capable of reducing complex lipid peroxides to the corresponding alcohols. In mice, corruption of the Gpx4 gene leads to embryonic lethality and more detailed expression silencing studies have implicated the enzyme in several physiological processes (e.g., embryonal cerebrogenesis, neuronal function, male fertility). Experiments with conditional knockout mice, in which expression of the Gpx4 gene was silenced in erythroid precursors, indicated a role of Gpx4 in erythropoiesis. To test this hypothesis in a cellular in vitro model we transfected mouse erythroleukemia cells with a Gpx4 siRNA construct and followed the expression kinetics of erythropoietic gene products. Our data indicate that Gpx4 is expressed at high levels in mouse erythroleukemia cells and that expression silencing of the Gpx4 gene delays in vitro erythropoiesis. However, heterozygous expression of a catalytically inactive Gpx4 mutant (Gpx4+/Sec46Ala) did not induce a defective erythropoietic phenotype in different in vivo and ex vivo models. These data suggest that Gpx4 plays a role in erythroid differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia cells but that heterozygous expression of a catalytically inactive Gpx4 is not sufficient to compromise in vivo and ex vivo erythropoiesis.


Assuntos
Eritropoese , Leucemia Eritroblástica Aguda/patologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Animais , Leucemia Eritroblástica Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Eritroblástica Aguda/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo
2.
Planta ; 254(3): 60, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448043

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: 22 nt siRNAs applied to leaves induce production of transitive sRNAs for targeted genes and can enhance local silencing. Systemic silencing was only observed for a GFP transgene. RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism important in regulating gene expression during plant development, response to the environment and defense. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this pathway may lead to future strategies to improve crop traits of value. An abrasion method to deliver siRNAs into leaf cells of intact plants was used to investigate the activities of 21 and 22 nt siRNAs in silencing genes in Nicotiana benthamiana and Amaranthus cruentus. We confirmed that both 21 and 22 nt siRNAs were able to silence a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene in treated leaves of N. benthamiana, but systemic silencing of GFP occurred only when the guide strand contained 22 nt. Silencing in the treated leaves of N. benthamiana was demonstrated for three endogenous genes: magnesium cheletase subunit I (CHL-I), magnesium cheletase subunit H (CHL-H), and GENOMES UNCOUPLED4 (GUN4). However, systemic silencing of these endogenous genes was not observed. Very high levels of transitive siRNAs were produced for GFP in response to treatment with 22 nt siRNAs but only low levels were produced in response to a 21 nt siRNA. The endogenous genes tested also produced transitive siRNAs in response to 22 nt siRNAs. 22 nt siRNAs produced greater local silencing phenotypes than 21 nt siRNAs for three of the genes. These special properties of 22 nt siRNAs were also observed for the CHL-H gene in A. cruentus. These experiments suggest a functional role for transitive siRNAs in amplifying the RNAi response.


Assuntos
Inativação Gênica , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Tabaco/genética
3.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(4): 349-353, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374252

RESUMO

Objective: The pancreatic stellate cells( PSCs) of mice were isolated and cultured and the effects of Notch3 siRNA on PSCs gene expression were detected. Methods: were PSCs of mice were isolated and cultured. The expressions of α-SMA, fibonectin and collagen I in activated PSCs were detected by immunofluorescence. The PSCs were divided into four groups, blank control group (MOCK group), negative siRNA control group (NC group) , Notch3 siRNA group (N3 siRNA group) and Notch3 siRNA-1 group (N3 siRNA-1 group). Cell treatment: the same transfection method was applied to transfect PSCs for 48h. Then total RNA was extracted from each group, and the concentration and purity of RNA was measured. The transcriptome sequencing and analysis were performed by ANOROAD Gene technology (Beijing) co., LTD. Results: The immunofluorescence results showed that α-SMA, fibonectin and collagen I were significantly expressed in activated PSCs. The analysis of the sequencing results showed that the gene expressions of α-SMA, collagen I, fibronectin, CTGF and PCNA of PSCs were down-regulated in N3 siRNA group and N3 siRNA-1 group comparing with NC group. The genes involved in collagen metabolism were up-regulated, the gene expression of positive regulation of collagen biosynthesis was down-regulated, while that of negative regulation of collagen biosynthesis was up-regulated in N3 siRNA group and N3 siRNA-1 group comparing with NC group. The genes that regulated cell aggregation were down-regulated, and the genes that regulated extracellular matrix were down regulated in N3 siRNA group and N3 siRNA-1 group comparing with NC group. Inhibition of Notch3 expression in PSCs could affect the gene expressions of cell adhesion molecule signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and TGF-ß signaling pathway. Conclusion: Inhibition of Notch3 expression can inhibit activation of PSCs , and reduce the ability of proliferation, migration and aggregation and ECM synthesis of PSCs. Inhibition of Notch3 expression may affect other signal pathways such as cell adhesion molecule signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and TGF-ß signaling pathway, but its effects need further validation.


Assuntos
Células Estreladas do Pâncreas , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo I , Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Receptor Notch3
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204592

RESUMO

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 8 (NDUFS8) is a nuclear-encoded core subunit of human mitochondrial complex I. Defects in NDUFS8 are associated with Leigh syndrome and encephalomyopathy. Cell-penetrating peptide derived from the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription protein (TAT) has been successfully applied as a carrier to bring fusion proteins into cells without compromising the biological function of the cargoes. In this study, we developed a TAT-mediated protein transduction system to rescue complex I deficiency caused by NDUFS8 defects. Two fusion proteins (TAT-NDUFS8 and NDUFS8-TAT) were exogenously expressed and purified from Escherichia coli for transduction of human cells. In addition, similar constructs were generated and used in transfection studies for comparison. The results showed that both exogenous TAT-NDUFS8 and NDUFS8-TAT were delivered into mitochondria and correctly processed. Interestingly, the mitochondrial import of TAT-containing NDUFS8 was independent of mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment with TAT-NDUFS8 not only significantly improved the assembly of complex I in an NDUFS8-deficient cell line, but also partially rescued complex I functions both in the in-gel activity assay and the oxygen consumption assay. Our current findings suggest the considerable potential of applying the TAT-mediated protein transduction system for treatment of complex I deficiency.


Assuntos
Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NADH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Complexo de Proteínas da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo de Proteínas da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Transporte Proteico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
5.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 194, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: C-erbB-2 has been confirmed to be an oncogene that participates in cell growth, differentiation and division of tumors. We are wondered if its silenced expression can exert an anti-tumor effect. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the mechanism of C-erbB-2 silencing and IGF-1 pathway on esophageal carcinoma (EC) cell biological behaviors. METHODS: The objects of study were 84 EC patients from Heping Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, with the collection of EC tissue and adjacent normal tissue (> 5 cm away from cancer tissue). C-erbB-2 protein expression in EC tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. Human EC cell line Eca-109 was purchased from Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Based on different transfection protocols, EC cells with logarithmic growth phase of 3-5 passages were divided into blank control group, oe-C-erbB-2 NC group, siRNA C-erbB-2 NC group, oe-C-erbB-2 group, siRNA C-erbB-2 group, OSI-906 group, Rg5 group, Rg5 + siRNA C-erbB-2 NC group and Rg5 + siRNA C-erbB-2 group. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay; cell cycle distribution and apoptosis by flow cytometry; C-erbB-2, IGF-1, IGF-1R and Akt mRNA and protein expressions by qRT-PCR and western blot; and cell invasion and migration by Transwell assay and scratch test. Tumor growth was observed in male BALB/c nude mice (Shanghai Experimental Animal Center) based on Eca109 cell implantation, raising, and measurement. RESULTS: C-erbB-2, IGF-1, IGF-1R and Akt expression were higher in EC tissues than those in adjacent tissues (all P < 0.05). Compared with blank control group, both si-C-erbB-2 and OSI-906 groups had decreased IGF-1, IGF-1R and Akt mRNA and protein expressions, decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion, prolonged G0/G1 phase, shortened S phase, increased cell apoptosis, and inhibited tumor growth (all P < 0.05); while opposite trends were detected in C-erbB-2 vector and Rg5 groups (all P < 0.05), without statistical differences in siRNA C-erbB-2 + Rg5 group (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Silencing C-erbB-2 expression may inhibit EC cell proliferation, promote cell apoptosis and block cell cycle progression by inhibiting IGF-1 pathway activation. The beneficial effect of silencing C-erbB-2 expression can be reversed by promoting the activation of IGF-1 pathway. Findings in our study may provide potential reference for understanding the molecular mechanism of EC and supply possible axis for preventing the development of EC from the perspective of molecular biology.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Neoplasias , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptor IGF Tipo 1 , Transfecção
6.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3317-3326, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We evaluated the impact of FosL1, a member of the activated protein-1 family, on the pathways leading to regional metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the influence of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and short heparin RNA (shRNA) mediated knockdown of FosL1 on cell migration, invasion, and proliferation in vitro as well as on regional metastasis in vivo. The prognostic significance of FosL1 was also analyzed using the Kaplan- Meier plotter using data from an HNSCC patient database. RESULTS: Down-regulation of FosL1 inhibited cell migration, invasion, and proliferation in vitro, decreased the incidence of regional metastases, and prolonged the survival of mice in vivo. We also determined that HNSCC patients with higher expression levels of FosL1 had a significantly shorter survival time than those with low expression of FosL1. CONCLUSION: FosL1 plays a crucial role in promoting cell migration, invasion, and proliferation in HNSCC.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/genética , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Prognóstico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 615859, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220794

RESUMO

Purpose: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a serious autoimmune disease. Its molecular pathogenesis, especially the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) function, remains unclear. We want to investigate the lncRNA dysregulation profile and their molecular mechanisms in SLE. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome profiles (RNA-seq) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from SLE patients and two published transcriptome datasets to explore lncRNA profiles. The differentially expressed lncRNAs were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR in another set of female patients. We constructed the lncRNA-mRNA regulatory networks by performing weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Dysregulated lncRNA AC007278.2 was repressed by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in Jurkat cells. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to investigate the regulatory mechanism of AC007278.2 on target gene CCR7. Results: We observed dominant up-regulation of transcripts, including mRNAs and lncRNAs, in SLE patients. By WGCNA method, we identified three modules that were highly related to SLE. We then focused on one lncRNA, AC007278.2, with a T-helper 1 lineage-specific expression pattern. We observed consistently higher AC007278.2 expression in SLE patients. Co-expression network revealed that AC007278.2 participated in the innate immune response and inflammatory bowel disease pathways. By knocking down AC007278.2 expression, we found that AC007278.2 could regulate the expression of inflammatory and cytokine stimulus response-related genes, including CCR7, AZU1, and TNIP3. AC007278.2 inhibits the functional CCR7 promoter to repress its transcription, thereby regulating autoimmunity and follicular T-helper cell differentiation. Conclusion: In summary, our study indicated the important regulatory role of lncRNAs in SLE. AC007278.2 may be treated as a novel biomarker for SLE diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Receptores CCR7/metabolismo , Células Th1/fisiologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Receptores CCR7/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
8.
Nano Lett ; 21(15): 6584-6591, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286581

RESUMO

Lipid nanoparticle SNAs (LNP-SNAs) have been synthesized for the delivery of DNA and RNA to targets in the cytoplasm of cells. Both the composition of the LNP core and surface-presented DNA sequences contribute to LNP-SNA activity. G-rich sequences enhance the activity of LNP-SNAs compared to T-rich sequences. In the LNP core, increased cholesterol content leads to greater activity. Optimized LNP-SNA candidates reduce the siRNA concentration required to silence mRNA by 2 orders of magnitude compared to liposome-based SNAs. In addition, the LNP-SNA architectures alter biodistribution and efficacy profiles in mice. For example, mRNA within LNP-SNAs injected intravenously is primarily expressed in the spleen, while mRNA encapsulated by LNPs (no DNA on the surface) was expressed primarily in the liver with a relatively small amount in the spleen. These data show that the activity and biodistribution of LNP-SNA architectures are different from those of conventional liposomal SNAs and therefore potentially can be used to target tissues.


Assuntos
Lipídeos , Nanopartículas , Animais , DNA/genética , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299307

RESUMO

Crop yield is severely affected by biotic and abiotic stresses. Plants adapt to these stresses mainly through gene expression reprogramming at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Recently, the exogenous application of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and RNA interference (RNAi) technology has emerged as a sustainable and publicly acceptable alternative to genetic transformation, hence, small RNAs (micro-RNAs and small interfering RNAs) have an important role in combating biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. RNAi limits the transcript level by either suppressing transcription (transcriptional gene silencing) or activating sequence-specific RNA degradation (post-transcriptional gene silencing). Using RNAi tools and their respective targets in abiotic stress responses in many crops is well documented. Many miRNAs families are reported in plant tolerance response or adaptation to drought, salinity, and temperature stresses. In biotic stress, the spray-induced gene silencing (SIGS) provides an intelligent method of using dsRNA as a trigger to silence target genes in pests and pathogens without producing side effects such as those caused by chemical pesticides. In this review, we focus on the potential of SIGS as the most recent application of RNAi in agriculture and point out the trends, challenges, and risks of production technologies. Additionally, we provide insights into the potential applications of exogenous RNAi against biotic stresses. We also review the current status of RNAi/miRNA tools and their respective targets on abiotic stress and the most common responsive miRNA families triggered by stress conditions in different crop species.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Interferência de RNA , Animais , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Proteção de Cultivos/métodos , Inativação Gênica , Controle de Insetos , Insetos/genética , Insetos/patogenicidade , MicroRNAs/genética , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
10.
Toxicology ; 458: 152841, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216699

RESUMO

The cardiotoxicity of various anticancer therapies, including radiotherapy, can lead to cardiovascular complications. These complications can range from damaging cardiac tissues within the irradiation field to increasing the long-term risks of developing heart failure, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction. We analyzed radiation-induced metabolites capable of mediating critical biological processes, such as inflammation, senescence, and apoptosis. Previously, by applying QTOF-MASS analysis to irradiated human fibroblasts, we identified that metabolite sets of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) were increased in these cells. In this study, radiation-induced LPC accumulation in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and senescence-associated-beta-galactosidase staining, in addition to decreasing their tube-forming ability. Knockdown of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited the increased LPC production induced by radiation, and reduced the radiation-induced cell damage produced by ROS and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Lp-PLA2 depletion abolished the induction of proinflammatory factors, such as interleukin 1ß, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase 2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, as well as adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selection. Likewise, we showed that Lp-PLA2 expression was upregulated in the vasculature of irradiated rat, resulting in increased LPC production and LDL oxidation. Our data demonstrate that radiation-induced LPC production is a potential risk factor for cardiotoxicity that is mediated by Lp-PLA2 activity, suggesting that LPC and Lp-PLA2 offer potential diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cardiovascular damage during radiotherapy.


Assuntos
1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/metabolismo , 1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/efeitos da radiação , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos da radiação , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Aorta/efeitos da radiação , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtúbulos/efeitos da radiação , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203338

RESUMO

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with significant mortality, requiring a thorough understanding of its complex mechanisms to develop novel therapeutics for disease control. Activated p53-dependent apoptosis with dysregulated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression is involved in the SLE pathogenesis and correlated with clinical activity. We examined the expression of apoptosis-related p53-dependent lncRNA, including H19, HOTAIR and lincRNA-p21 in SLE-associated DAH patients. Increased lincRNA-p21 levels were detected in circulating mononuclear cells, mainly in CD4+ and CD14+ cells. Higher expression of p53, lincRNA-p21 and cell apoptosis was identified in lung tissues. Lentivirus-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-transduced stable transfectants were created for examining the targeting efficacy in lncRNA. Under pristane stimulation, alveolar epithelial cells had increased p53, lincRNA-p21 and downstream Bax levels with elevated apoptotic ratios. After pristane injection, C57/BL6 mice developed DAH with increased pulmonary expression of p53, lincRNA-p21 and cell apoptosis. Intra-pulmonary delivery of shRNA targeting lincRNA-p21 reduced hemorrhage frequencies and improved anemia status through decreasing Bax expression and cell apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate increased p53-dependent lncRNA expression with accelerated cell apoptosis in the lungs of SLE-associated DAH patients, and show the therapeutic potential of targeting intra-pulmonary lncRNA expression in a pristane-induced model of DAH.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemorragia/genética , Hemorragia/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/genética , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Masculino , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/microbiologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
12.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 4047-4052, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling plays a role in inducing malignant phenotypes in several aggressive types of cancers. To create a conclusive therapy targeting TrkB/BDNF signaling in solid refractory cancers, the biological significance of TrkB/BDNF signaling was analyzed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three PDAC cell lines were used as target cells to investigate proliferation and invasiveness. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the TrkB tyrosine kinase inhibitor k252a were used as TrkB/BDNF signaling inhibitors. RESULTS: All PDAC cell lines expressed TrkB and BDNF. When TrkB and BDNF were inhibited by siRNA or k252a, the invasiveness of PANC-1 and SUIT-2 cells significantly decreased. When TrkB was inhibited by siRNA or k252a, proliferation was significantly inhibited in PDAC cells. CONCLUSION: TrkB/BDNF signaling may be a new therapeutic target for PDAC. Therapies targeting TrkB/BDNF signaling may be a conclusive cancer therapy for refractory solid cancer.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Receptor trkB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkB/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281151

RESUMO

The application of siRNA in gene therapy is mainly limited because of the problems with its transport into cells. Utilization of cationic dendrimers as siRNA carriers seems to be a promising solution in overcoming these issues, due to their positive charge and ability to penetrate cell membranes. The following two types of carbosilane dendrimers were examined: CBD-1 and CBD-2. Dendrimers were complexed with pro-apoptotic siRNA (Mcl-1 and Bcl-2) and the complexes were characterized by measuring their zeta potential, circular dichroism and fluorescence of ethidium bromide associated with dendrimers. CBD-2/siRNA complexes were also examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Both dendrimers form complexes with siRNA. Moreover, the cellular uptake and influence on the cell viability of the dendrimers and dendriplexes were evaluated using microscopic methods and XTT assay on MCF-7 cells. Microscopy showed that both dendrimers can transport siRNA into cells; however, a cytotoxicity assay showed differences in the toxicity of these dendrimers.


Assuntos
RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , Silanos/farmacologia , Cátions , Sobrevivência Celular , Dicroísmo Circular , Dendrímeros/química , Dendrímeros/farmacologia , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/genética , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Silanos/química , Silanos/metabolismo
14.
F1000Res ; 10: 1, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34316353

RESUMO

Current bioinformatics workflows for PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) analysis focus primarily on germline-derived piRNAs and piRNA-clusters. Frequently, they suffer from outdated piRNA databases, questionable quantification methods, and lack of reproducibility. Often, pipelines specific to miRNA analysis are used for the piRNA research in silico. Furthermore, the absence of a well-established database for piRNA annotation, as for miRNA, leads to uniformity issues between studies and generates confusion for data analysts and biologists. For these reasons, we have developed WIND ( Workflow for p IRNAs a Nd beyon D), a bioinformatics workflow that addresses the crucial issue of piRNA annotation, thereby allowing a reliable analysis of small RNA sequencing data for the identification of piRNAs and other small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) that in the past have been incorrectly classified as piRNAs. WIND allows the creation of a comprehensive annotation track of sncRNAs combining information available in RNAcentral, with piRNA sequences from piRNABank, the first database dedicated to piRNA annotation. WIND was built with Docker containers for reproducibility and integrates widely used bioinformatics tools for sequence alignment and quantification. In addition, it includes Bioconductor packages for exploratory data and differential expression analysis. Moreover, WIND implements a "dual" approach for the evaluation of sncRNAs expression level quantifying the aligned reads to the annotated genome and carrying out an alignment-free transcript quantification using reads mapped to the transcriptome. Therefore, a broader range of piRNAs can be annotated, improving their quantification and easing the subsequent downstream analysis. WIND performance has been tested with several small RNA-seq datasets, demonstrating how our approach can be a useful and comprehensive resource to analyse piRNAs and other classes of sncRNAs.


Assuntos
RNA Interferente Pequeno , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA-Seq , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fluxo de Trabalho
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4451-4470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234436

RESUMO

Background: Liver fibrosis is a chronic liver disease with excessive production of extracellular matrix proteins, leading to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Purpose: This study aimed at the development of a novel derivative of polyethyleneimine (PEI) that can effectively deliver transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) siRNA and inhibit chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) for TGFß silencing and CXCR4 Inhibition, respectively, to treat CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in a mouse model. Methods: Cyclam-modified PEI (PEI-Cyclam) was synthesized by incorporating cyclam moiety into PEI by nucleophilic substitution reaction. Gel electrophoresis confirmed the PEI-Cyclam polyplex formation and stability against RNAase and serum degradation. Transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer were employed for the morphology, particle size, and zeta potential, respectively. The gene silencing and CXCR4 targeting abilities of PEI-Cyclam polyplex were evaluated by luciferase and CXCR4 redistribution assays, respectively. The histological and immunohistochemical staining determined the anti-fibrotic activity of PEI-Cyclam polyplex. The TGFß silencing of PEI-Cyclam polyplex was authenticated by Western blotting. Results: The 1H NMR of PEI-Cyclam exhibited successful incorporation of cyclam content onto PEI. The PEI-Cyclam polyplex displayed spherical morphology, positive surface charge, and stability against RNAse and serum degradation. Cyclam modification decreased the cytotoxicity and demonstrated CXCR4 antagonistic and luciferase gene silencing efficiency. PEI-Cyclam/siTGFß polyplexes decreased inflammation, collagen deposition, apoptosis, and cell proliferation, thus ameliorating liver fibrosis. Also, PEI-Cyclam/siTGFß polyplex significantly downregulated α-smooth muscle actin, TGFß, and collagen type III. Conclusion: Our findings validate the feasibility of using PEI-Cyclam as a siRNA delivery vector for simultaneous TGFß siRNA delivery and CXCR4 inhibition for the combined anti-fibrotic effects in a setting of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Polietilenoimina/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , RNA Interferente Pequeno/química , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/deficiência
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204950

RESUMO

The dysregulation of autophagy is important in the development of many cancers, including thyroid cancer, where V600EBRAF is a main oncogene. Here, we analyse the effect of V600EBRAF inhibition on autophagy, the mechanisms involved in this regulation and the role of autophagy in cell survival of thyroid cancer cells. We reveal that the inhibition of V600EBRAF activity with its specific inhibitor PLX4720 or the depletion of its expression by siRNA induces autophagy in thyroid tumour cells. We show that V600EBRAF downregulation increases LKB1-AMPK signalling and decreases mTOR activity through a MEK/ERK-dependent mechanism. Moreover, we demonstrate that PLX4720 activates ULK1 and increases autophagy through the activation of the AMPK-ULK1 pathway, but not by the inhibition of mTOR. In addition, we find that autophagy blockade decreases cell viability and sensitize thyroid cancer cells to V600EBRAF inhibition by PLX4720 treatment. Finally, we generate a thyroid xenograft model to demonstrate that autophagy inhibition synergistically enhances the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of V600EBRAF inhibition in vivo. Collectively, we uncover a new role of AMPK in mediating the induction of cytoprotective autophagy by V600EBRAF inhibition. In addition, these data establish a rationale for designing an integrated therapy targeting V600EBRAF and the LKB1-AMPK-ULK1-autophagy axis for the treatment of V600EBRAF-positive thyroid tumours.


Assuntos
Proteína Homóloga à Proteína-1 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Mutação/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
17.
Science ; 373(6550)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210850

RESUMO

The plant male germline undergoes DNA methylation reprogramming, which methylates genes de novo and thereby alters gene expression and regulates meiosis. Here, we reveal the molecular mechanism underlying this reprogramming. We demonstrate that genic methylation in the male germline, from meiocytes to sperm, is established by 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) transcribed from transposons with imperfect sequence homology. These siRNAs are synthesized by meiocyte nurse cells (tapetum) through activity of CLSY3, a chromatin remodeler absent in other anther cells. Tapetal siRNAs govern germline methylation throughout the genome, including the inherited methylation patterns in sperm. Tapetum-derived siRNAs also silence germline transposons, safeguarding genome integrity. Our results reveal that tapetal siRNAs are sufficient to reconstitute germline methylation patterns and drive functional methylation reprogramming throughout the male germline.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Epigênese Genética , Herança Paterna , Pólen/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Metilação de DNA , Meiose/genética , Mitose/genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4498, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301931

RESUMO

In animal germlines, PIWI proteins and the associated PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect genome integrity by silencing transposons. Here we report the extensive sequence and quantitative correlations between 2',3'-cyclic phosphate-containing RNAs (cP-RNAs), identified using cP-RNA-seq, and piRNAs in the Bombyx germ cell line and mouse testes. The cP-RNAs containing 5'-phosphate (P-cP-RNAs) identified by P-cP-RNA-seq harbor highly consistent 5'-end positions as the piRNAs and are loaded onto PIWI protein, suggesting their direct utilization as piRNA precursors. We identified Bombyx RNase Kappa (BmRNase κ) as a mitochondria-associated endoribonuclease which produces cP-RNAs during piRNA biogenesis. BmRNase κ-depletion elevated transposon levels and disrupted a piRNA-mediated sex determination in Bombyx embryos, indicating the crucial roles of BmRNase κ in piRNA biogenesis and embryonic development. Our results reveal a BmRNase κ-engaged piRNA biogenesis pathway, in which the generation of cP-RNAs promotes robust piRNA production.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bombyx , Linhagem Celular , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Ácidos Fosfatídicos/química , RNA/química , RNA/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Testículo/metabolismo
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 177: 104906, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301367

RESUMO

The response of insects to orally delivered double-stranded RNA ranges widely among taxa studied to date. Long dsRNA does elicit a response in stink bugs but the dose required to achieve an effect is relatively high compared to other insects such Colorado potato beetle or western corn rootworm. Improving the delivery of dsRNA to stink bugs will improve the likelihood of using RNA-based biocontrols for the management of these economically important pests. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) is a useful molecule with which to test improvements in the delivery of double stranded RNA in the neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, since shRNA alone does not elicit a clear effect like that for long dsRNA. Here, we show for the first time the oral delivery of shRNA triggering RNA interference (RNAi) in E. heros using 4 nm cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) coated with diethylamioethyl dextran (Dextran-DEAE) as a carrier. We identified particle properties (coating composition and degree of substitution, hydrodynamic diameter, and zeta potential) and shRNA loading rates (Ce:shRNA mass ratio) that resulted in successful transcript reduction or RNAi. When the Z-average diameter of CeO2 Dextran-DEAE-shRNA NP complex was less than 250 nm and the zeta potential was in the 15-25 mV range (Ce:shRNA mass ratio of 0.7:1), significant mortality attributed to RNAi was observed with a shRNA concentration in feeding solution of 250 ng/µl. The degradation of the targeted troponin transcript by NP-delivered shRNA was equivalent to that observed with long dsRNA, while naked shRNA transcript reduction was not statistically significant. Elemental mapping by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe confirmed uptake and distribution of Ce throughout the body with the highest concentrations found in gut tissue. Taken together, our results suggest that a nanoparticle delivery system can improve the delivery of RNA-based biocontrols to E. heros, and therefore its attractiveness as an application in the management of this important pest in soybean production.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Heterópteros/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
20.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 560, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Root knot nematodes (RKN) are plant parasitic nematodes causing major yield losses of widely consumed food crops such as rice (Oryza sativa). Because non-coding RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNA), microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are key regulators of various plant processes, elucidating their regulation during this interaction may lead to new strategies to improve crop protection. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize rice siRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs responsive to early infection with RKN Meloidogyne graminicola (Mg), based on sequencing of small RNA, degradome and total RNA libraries from rice gall tissues compared with uninfected root tissues. RESULTS: We found 425 lncRNAs, 3739 siRNAs and 16 miRNAs to be differentially expressed between both tissues, of which a subset was independently validated with RT-qPCR. Functional prediction of the lncRNAs indicates that a large part of their potential target genes code for serine/threonine protein kinases and transcription factors. Differentially expressed siRNAs have a predominant size of 24 nts, suggesting a role in DNA methylation. Differentially expressed miRNAs are generally downregulated and target transcription factors, which show reduced degradation according to the degradome data. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this work is the first to focus on small and long non-coding RNAs in the interaction between rice and Mg, and provides an overview of rice non-coding RNAs with the potential to be used as a resource for the development of new crop protection strategies.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Oryza , RNA Longo não Codificante , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Oryza/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Tylenchoidea/genética
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