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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(15): 8900-8922, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370034

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, the major nuclear export pathway for mature mRNAs uses the dimeric receptor TAP/p15, which is recruited to mRNAs via the multisubunit TREX complex, comprising the THO core and different export adaptors. Viruses that replicate in the nucleus adopt different strategies to hijack cellular export factors and achieve cytoplasmic translation of their mRNAs. No export receptors are known in plants, but Arabidopsis TREX resembles the mammalian complex, with a conserved hexameric THO core associated with ALY and UIEF proteins, as well as UAP56 and MOS11. The latter protein is an orthologue of mammalian CIP29. The nuclear export mechanism for viral mRNAs has not been described in plants. To understand this process, we investigated the export of mRNAs of the pararetrovirus CaMV in Arabidopsis and demonstrated that it is inhibited in plants deficient in ALY, MOS11 and/or TEX1. Deficiency for these factors renders plants partially resistant to CaMV infection. Two CaMV proteins, the coat protein P4 and reverse transcriptase P5, are important for nuclear export. P4 and P5 interact and co-localise in the nucleus with the cellular export factor MOS11. The highly structured 5' leader region of 35S RNAs was identified as an export enhancing element that interacts with ALY1, ALY3 and MOS11 in vitro.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/virologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Arabidopsis/virologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Caulimovirus/genética , Caulimovirus/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , RNA Viral/química , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403446

RESUMO

Saliva is a matrix which may act as a vector for pathogen transmission and may serve as a possible proxy for SARS-CoV-2 contagiousness. Therefore, the possibility of detection of intracellular SARS-CoV-2 in saliva by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization is tested, utilizing probes targeting the antisense or sense genomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2. This method was applied in a pilot study with saliva samples collected from healthy persons and those presenting with mild or moderate COVID-19 symptoms. In all participants, saliva appeared a suitable matrix for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Among the healthy, mild COVID-19-symptomatic and moderate COVID-19-symptomatic persons, 0%, 90% and 100% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, respectively. Moreover, the procedure allows for simultaneous measurement of viral load ('presence', sense genomic SARS-CoV-2 RNA) and viral replication ('activity', antisense genomic SARS-CoV-2 RNA) and may yield qualitative results. In addition, the visualization of DNA in the cells in saliva provides an additional cytological context to the validity and interpretability of the test results. The method described in this pilot study may be a valuable diagnostic tool for detection of SARS-CoV-2, distinguishing between 'presence' (viral load) and 'activity' (viral replication) of the virus. Moreover, the method potentially gives more information about possible contagiousness.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , RNA Viral/análise , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Saliva/virologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genômica , Humanos , RNA Antissenso/genética , RNA Antissenso/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403456

RESUMO

Rapid tests for SARS-COV-2 infection are important tools for pandemic control, but current rapid tests are based on proprietary designs and reagents. We report clinical validation results of an open-access lateral flow assay (OA-LFA) design using commercially available materials and reagents, along with RT-qPCR and commercially available comparators (BinaxNOW® and Sofia®). Adult patients with suspected COVID-19 based on clinical signs and symptoms, and with symptoms ≤7 days duration, underwent anterior nares (AN) sampling for the OA-LFA, Sofia®, BinaxNOW ™, and RT-qPCR, along with nasopharyngeal (NP) RT-qPCR. Results indicate a positive predictive agreement with NP sampling as 69% (60% -78%) OA-LFA, 74% (64% - 82%) Sofia®, and 82% (73% - 88%) BinaxNOW™. The implication for these results is that we provide an open-access LFA design that meets the minimum WHO target product profile for a rapid test, that virtually any diagnostic manufacturer could produce.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/análise , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5113, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433821

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a major threat to global health. Here, we investigate the RNA structure and RNA-RNA interactions of wildtype (WT) and a mutant (Δ382) SARS-CoV-2 in cells using Illumina and Nanopore platforms. We identify twelve potentially functional structural elements within the SARS-CoV-2 genome, observe that subgenomic RNAs can form different structures, and that WT and Δ382 virus genomes fold differently. Proximity ligation sequencing identify hundreds of RNA-RNA interactions within the virus genome and between the virus and host RNAs. SARS-CoV-2 genome binds strongly to mitochondrial and small nucleolar RNAs and is extensively 2'-O-methylated. 2'-O-methylation sites are enriched in viral untranslated regions, associated with increased virus pair-wise interactions, and are decreased in host mRNAs upon virus infection, suggesting that the virus sequesters methylation machinery from host RNAs towards its genome. These studies deepen our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity and provide a platform for targeted therapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , RNA Viral/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Metilação de DNA , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA/química , RNA/genética , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5120, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433827

RESUMO

COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which infected >200 million people resulting in >4 million deaths. However, temporal landscape of the SARS-CoV-2 translatome and its impact on the human genome remain unexplored. Here, we report a high-resolution atlas of the translatome and transcriptome of SARS-CoV-2 for various time points after infecting human cells. Intriguingly, substantial amount of SARS-CoV-2 translation initiates at a novel translation initiation site (TIS) located in the leader sequence, termed TIS-L. Since TIS-L is included in all the genomic and subgenomic RNAs, the SARS-CoV-2 translatome may be regulated by a sophisticated interplay between TIS-L and downstream TISs. TIS-L functions as a strong translation enhancer for ORF S, and as translation suppressors for most of the other ORFs. Our global temporal atlas provides compelling insight into unique regulation of the SARS-CoV-2 translatome and helps comprehensively evaluate its impact on the human genome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4848, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381037

RESUMO

There is currently a lack of effective drugs to treat people infected with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the global COVID-19 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 Non-structural protein 13 (NSP13) has been identified as a target for anti-virals due to its high sequence conservation and essential role in viral replication. Structural analysis reveals two "druggable" pockets on NSP13 that are among the most conserved sites in the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Here we present crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 NSP13 solved in the APO form and in the presence of both phosphate and a non-hydrolysable ATP analog. Comparisons of these structures reveal details of conformational changes that provide insights into the helicase mechanism and possible modes of inhibition. To identify starting points for drug development we have performed a crystallographic fragment screen against NSP13. The screen reveals 65 fragment hits across 52 datasets opening the way to structure guided development of novel antiviral agents.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/química , RNA Helicases/química , SARS-CoV-2/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Apoenzimas/química , Apoenzimas/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Fosfatos/química , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , RNA Helicases/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
7.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452352

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic. One of the key components of the coronavirus replication complex are the RNA methyltransferases (MTases), RNA-modifying enzymes crucial for RNA cap formation. Recently, the structure of the 2'-O MTase has become available; however, its biological characterization within the infected cells remains largely elusive. Here, we report a novel monoclonal antibody directed against the SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein nsp10, a subunit of both the 2'-O RNA and N7 MTase protein complexes. Using this antibody, we investigated the subcellular localization of the SARS-CoV-2 MTases in cells infected with the SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Capuzes de RNA/genética , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais/análise , Humanos , Metiltransferases/análise , Metiltransferases/genética , Transporte Proteico , Capuzes de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/análise , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/análise , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rapidly increases the use of mechanical ventilation (MV). Such cases further require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and have a high mortality. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify prognostic biomarkers pathophysiologically reflecting future deterioration of COVID-19. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and outcome data were collected from 102 patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Interleukin (IL)-6 level and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA copy number in plasma were assessed with ELISA kit and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Twelve patients died or required ECMO owing to acute respiratory distress syndrome despite the use of MV. Among various variables, a ratio of oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2), IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA on admission before intubation were strongly predictive of fatal outcomes after the MV use. Moreover, among these variables, combining SpO2/FiO2, IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA showed the highest accuracy (area under the curve: 0.934). In patients with low SpO2/FiO2 (< 261), fatal event-rate after the MV use at the 30-day was significantly higher in patients with high IL-6 (> 49 pg/mL) and SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia (> 1.5 copies/µL) compared to those with high IL-6 or RNAaemia or without high IL-6 and RNAaemia (88% vs. 22% or 8%, log-rank test P = 0.0097 or P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Combining SpO2/FiO2 with high IL-6 and SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia which reflect hyperinflammation and viral overload allows accurately and before intubation identifying COVID-19 patients at high risk for ECMO use or in-hospital death despite the use of MV.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Interleucina-6/sangue , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0244468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432798

RESUMO

The newly emerged and rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To facilitate a deeper understanding of the viral biology we developed a capture sequencing methodology to generate SARS-CoV-2 genomic and transcriptome sequences from infected patients. We utilized an oligonucleotide probe-set representing the full-length genome to obtain both genomic and transcriptome (subgenomic open reading frames [ORFs]) sequences from 45 SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples with varying viral titers. For samples with higher viral loads (cycle threshold value under 33, based on the CDC qPCR assay) complete genomes were generated. Analysis of junction reads revealed regions of differential transcriptional activity among samples. Mixed allelic frequencies along the 20kb ORF1ab gene in one sample, suggested the presence of a defective viral RNA species subpopulation maintained in mixture with functional RNA in one sample. The associated workflow is straightforward, and hybridization-based capture offers an effective and scalable approach for sequencing SARS-CoV-2 from patient samples.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , DNA Complementar/química , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437579

RESUMO

Long-COVID-19 is a proposed syndrome negatively affecting the health of COVID-19 patients. We present data on self-rated health three to eight months after laboratory confirmed COVID-19 disease compared to a control group of SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. We followed a cohort of 8786 non-hospitalized patients who were invited after SARS-CoV-2 testing between February 1 and April 15, 2020 (794 positive, 7229 negative). Participants answered online surveys at baseline and follow-up including questions on demographics, symptoms, risk factors for SARS-CoV-2, and self-rated health compared to one year ago. Determinants for a worsening of self-rated health as compared to one year ago among the SARS-CoV-2 positive group were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and also compared to the population norm. The follow-up questionnaire was completed by 85% of the SARS-CoV-2 positive and 75% of the SARS-CoV-2 negative participants on average 132 days after the SARS-CoV-2 test. At follow-up, 36% of the SARS-CoV-2 positive participants rated their health "somewhat" or "much" worse than one year ago. In contrast, 18% of the SARS-CoV-2 negative participants reported a similar deterioration of health while the population norm is 12%. Sore throat and cough were more frequently reported by the control group at follow-up. Neither gender nor follow-up time was associated with the multivariate odds of worsening of self-reported health compared to one year ago. Age had an inverted-U formed association with a worsening of health while being fit and being a health professional were associated with lower multivariate odds. A significant proportion of non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, regardless of age, have not returned to their usual health three to eight months after infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452414

RESUMO

Nucleotidylylation is a post-transcriptional modification important for replication in the picornavirus supergroup of RNA viruses, including members of the Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Picornaviridae and Potyviridae virus families. This modification occurs when the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) attaches one or more nucleotides to a target protein through a nucleotidyl-transferase reaction. The most characterized nucleotidylylation target is VPg (viral protein genome-linked), a protein linked to the 5' end of the genome in Caliciviridae, Picornaviridae and Potyviridae. The nucleotidylylation of VPg by RdRp is a critical step for the VPg protein to act as a primer for genome replication and, in Caliciviridae and Potyviridae, for the initiation of translation. In contrast, Coronaviridae do not express a VPg protein, but the nucleotidylylation of proteins involved in replication initiation is critical for genome replication. Furthermore, the RdRp proteins of the viruses that perform nucleotidylylation are themselves nucleotidylylated, and in the case of coronavirus, this has been shown to be essential for viral replication. This review focuses on nucleotidylylation within the picornavirus supergroup of viruses, including the proteins that are modified, what is known about the nucleotidylylation process and the roles that these modifications have in the viral life cycle.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Vírus de RNA de Cadeia Positiva/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Caliciviridae/genética , Caliciviridae/metabolismo , Coronaviridae/genética , Coronaviridae/metabolismo , Genoma Viral , Nidovirales/genética , Nidovirales/metabolismo , Picornaviridae/genética , Picornaviridae/metabolismo , Vírus de RNA de Cadeia Positiva/genética , Potyviridae/genética , Potyviridae/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256447, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity is important to monitor epidemic dynamics and as a mitigation strategy. Given difficulties of large-scale quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) implementation, rapid antigen tests (Rapid Ag-T) have been proposed as alternatives in settings like Mexico. Here, we evaluated diagnostic performance of Rapid Ag-T for SARS-CoV-2 infection and its associated clinical implications compared to qRT-PCR testing in Mexico. METHODS: We analyzed data from the COVID-19 registry of the Mexican General Directorate of Epidemiology up to April 30th, 2021 (n = 6,632,938) and cases with both qRT-PCR and Rapid Ag-T (n = 216,388). We evaluated diagnostic performance using accuracy measures and assessed time-dependent changes in the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC). We also explored test discordances as predictors of hospitalization, intubation, severe COVID-19 and mortality. RESULTS: Rapid Ag-T is primarily used in Mexico City. Rapid Ag-T have low sensitivity 37.6% (95%CI 36.6-38.7), high specificity 95.5% (95%CI 95.1-95.8) and acceptable positive 86.1% (95%CI 85.0-86.6) and negative predictive values 67.2% (95%CI 66.2-69.2). Rapid Ag-T has optimal diagnostic performance up to days 3 after symptom onset, and its performance is modified by testing location, comorbidity, and age. qRT-PCR (-) / Rapid Ag-T (+) cases had higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes (HR 1.54 95% CI 1.41-1.68) and were older, qRT-PCR (+)/ Rapid Ag-T(-) cases had slightly higher risk or adverse outcomes and ≥7 days from symptom onset (HR 1.53 95% CI 1.48-1.59). Cases detected with rapid Ag-T were younger, without comorbidities, and milder COVID-19 course. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid Ag-T could be used as an alternative to qRT-PCR for large scale SARS-CoV-2 testing in Mexico. Interpretation of Rapid Ag-T results should be done with caution to minimize the risk associated with false negative results.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/análise , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Science ; 373(6551): 231-236, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244417

RESUMO

In mammals, early resistance to viruses relies on interferons, which protect differentiated cells but not stem cells from viral replication. Many other organisms rely instead on RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by a specialized Dicer protein that cleaves viral double-stranded RNA. Whether RNAi also contributes to mammalian antiviral immunity remains controversial. We identified an isoform of Dicer, named antiviral Dicer (aviD), that protects tissue stem cells from RNA viruses-including Zika virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-by dicing viral double-stranded RNA to orchestrate antiviral RNAi. Our work sheds light on the molecular regulation of antiviral RNAi in mammalian innate immunity, in which different cell-intrinsic antiviral pathways can be tailored to the differentiation status of cells.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Ribonuclease III/genética , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/enzimologia , Células-Tronco/virologia , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Linhagem Celular , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/química , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Isoenzimas/química , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Organoides/enzimologia , Organoides/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/enzimologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/imunologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ribonuclease III/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/enzimologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
16.
ACS Chem Biol ; 16(8): 1469-1481, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328734

RESUMO

The programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting element (PFSE) of SARS-CoV-2 is a well conserved structured RNA found in all coronaviruses' genomes. By adopting a pseudoknot structure in the presence of the ribosome, the PFSE promotes a ribosomal frameshifting event near the stop codon of the first open reading frame Orf1a during translation of the polyprotein pp1a. Frameshifting results in continuation of pp1a via a new open reading frame, Orf1b, that produces the longer pp1ab polyprotein. Polyproteins pp1a and pp1ab produce nonstructural proteins NSPs 1-10 and NSPs 1-16, respectively, which contribute vital functions during the viral life cycle and must be present in the proper stoichiometry. Both drugs and sequence alterations that affect the stability of the -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting element disrupt the stoichiometry of the NSPs produced, which compromise viral replication. For this reason, the -1 programmed frameshifting element is considered a promising drug target. Using chaperone assisted RNA crystallography, we successfully crystallized and solved the three-dimensional structure of the PFSE. We observe a three-stem H-type pseudoknot structure with the three stems stacked in a vertical orientation stabilized by two triple base pairs at the stem 1/stem 2 and stem 1/stem 3 junctions. This structure provides a new conformation of PFSE distinct from the bent conformations inferred from midresolution cryo-EM models and provides a high-resolution framework for mechanistic investigations and structure-based drug design.


Assuntos
Cristalografia/métodos , Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico/fisiologia , Chaperonas Moleculares , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Viral/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
17.
Sci Signal ; 14(690)2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230209

RESUMO

Inorganic polyphosphates (polyPs) are linear polymers composed of repeated phosphate (PO4 3-) units linked together by multiple high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. In addition to being a source of energy, polyPs have cytoprotective and antiviral activities. Here, we investigated the antiviral activities of long-chain polyPs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In molecular docking analyses, polyPs interacted with several conserved amino acid residues in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the host receptor that facilitates virus entry, and in viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). ELISA and limited proteolysis assays using nano- LC-MS/MS mapped polyP120 binding to ACE2, and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed interactions between ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and identified the specific amino acid residues involved. PolyP120 enhanced the proteasomal degradation of both ACE2 and RdRp, thus impairing replication of the British B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant. We thus tested polyPs for functional interactions with the virus in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 and Caco2 cells and in primary human nasal epithelial cells. Delivery of a nebulized form of polyP120 reduced the amounts of viral positive-sense genomic and subgenomic RNAs, of RNA transcripts encoding proinflammatory cytokines, and of viral structural proteins, thereby presenting SARS-CoV-2 infection in cells in vitro.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração por Inalação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Células CACO-2 , Chlorocebus aethiops , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/química , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/genética , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Polifosfatos/administração & dosagem , Polifosfatos/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Nat Chem Biol ; 17(9): 975-981, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253909

RESUMO

Unusual knot-like structures recently discovered in viral exoribonuclease-resistant RNAs (xrRNAs) prevent digestion by host RNases to create subgenomic RNAs enhancing infection and pathogenicity. xrRNAs are proposed to prevent digestion through mechanical resistance to unfolding. However, their unfolding force has not been measured, and the factors determining RNase resistance are unclear. Furthermore, how these knots fold remains unknown. Unfolding a Zika virus xrRNA with optical tweezers revealed that it was the most mechanically stable RNA yet observed. The knot formed by threading the 5' end into a three-helix junction before pseudoknot interactions closed a ring around it. The pseudoknot and tertiary contacts stabilizing the threaded 5' end were both required to generate extreme force resistance, whereas removing a 5'-end contact produced a low-force knot lacking RNase resistance. These results indicate mechanical resistance plays a central functional role, with the fraction of molecules forming extremely high-force knots determining the RNase resistance level.


Assuntos
RNA Viral/metabolismo , Zika virus/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , Estresse Mecânico
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4176, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234134

RESUMO

Mammalian reovirus (MRV) is the prototypical member of genus Orthoreovirus of family Reoviridae. However, lacking high-resolution structures of its RNA polymerase cofactor µ2 and infectious particle, limits understanding of molecular interactions among proteins and RNA, and their contributions to virion assembly and RNA transcription. Here, we report the 3.3 Å-resolution asymmetric reconstruction of transcribing MRV and in situ atomic models of its capsid proteins, the asymmetrically attached RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) λ3, and RdRp-bound nucleoside triphosphatase µ2 with a unique RNA-binding domain. We reveal molecular interactions among virion proteins and genomic and messenger RNA. Polymerase complexes in three Spinoreovirinae subfamily members are organized with different pseudo-D3d symmetries to engage their highly diversified genomes. The above interactions and those between symmetry-mismatched receptor-binding σ1 trimers and RNA-capping λ2 pentamers balance competing needs of capsid assembly, external protein removal, and allosteric triggering of endogenous RNA transcription, before, during and after infection, respectively.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/metabolismo , Orthoreovirus/ultraestrutura , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/ultraestrutura , Linhagem Celular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Viral , Macaca mulatta , Nucleosídeo-Trifosfatase/ultraestrutura , Orthoreovirus/genética , Orthoreovirus/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/ultraestrutura , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/ultraestrutura , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/ultraestrutura , Ativação Transcricional , Montagem de Vírus/genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204305

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein (S protein) acquired a unique new 4 amino acid -PRRA- insertion sequence at amino acid residues (aa) 681-684 that forms a new furin cleavage site in S protein as well as several new glycosylation sites. We studied various statistical properties of the -PRRA- insertion at the RNA level (CCUCGGCGGGCA). The nucleotide composition and codon usage of this sequence are different from the rest of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. One of such features is two tandem CGG codons, although the CGG codon is the rarest codon in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. This suggests that the insertion sequence could cause ribosome pausing as the result of these rare codons. Due to population variants, the Nextstrain divergence measure of the CCU codon is extremely large. We cannot exclude that this divergence might affect host immune responses/effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, possibilities awaiting further investigation. Our experimental studies show that the expression level of original RNA sequence "wildtype" spike protein is much lower than for codon-optimized spike protein in all studied cell lines. Interestingly, the original spike sequence produces a higher titer of pseudoviral particles and a higher level of infection. Further mutagenesis experiments suggest that this dual-effect insert, comprised of a combination of overlapping translation pausing and furin sites, has allowed SARS-CoV-2 to infect its new host (human) more readily. This underlines the importance of ribosome pausing to allow efficient regulation of protein expression and also of cotranslational subdomain folding.


Assuntos
RNA Viral/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Células COS , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Uso do Códon , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutagênese , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
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