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1.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 47(3): 106-110, jul.-sept. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189900

RESUMO

La convivencia con la infección por COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) en todos los entornos hospitalarios y de salud supone un reto actual de adaptación, creación de circuitos, protocolos y nuevos modelos de asistencia. Son todavía bastantes las incógnitas a resolver sobre esta infección en la actualidad, y mucho más desconocido es el impacto que la misma supone si lo trasladamos al terreno quirúrgico. La evidencia respecto al efecto del SARS-CoV-2 y cirugía laparoscópica es escasa y de calidad limitada, pero aun así, la laparoscopia ha sido considerada de elección por las distintas sociedades científicas en pacientes COVID para la mayoría de indicaciones en ginecología, por las conocidas ventajas hacia el paciente respecto a la vía abierta: menor morbilidad y estancia hospitalaria y porque comporta procedimientos quirúrgicos autónomos y contenidos respecto a la liberación de humo y donde, además, el instrumental y la disposición en quirófano permiten un alejamiento del cirujano y del resto de profesionales en el área quirúrgica respecto al paciente. A modo global, las dos recomendaciones fundamentales en quirófano de cirugía laparoscópica en esta época COVID incluyen: el uso de equipo de protección personal adecuado para el personal de quirófano y la adopción de precauciones para reducir la exposición al CO2 y el humo quirúrgico que puede producirse en estos procedimientos


Coexistence with COVID-19 infection (coronavirus disease 2019) in all hospital and health care settings is a current challenge of adaptation, as well as the creation of new protocols and care models. At present, there are still many unknowns about this infection, and much more unknown is the impact into the surgical field. Although evidence regarding the effect of SARS-CoV-2 and laparoscopic surgery is scarce, laparoscopy has been considered the method of choice by different scientific societies for most indications in gynaecology during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is due to the advantages over the open route. There is less morbidity and hospital stay, and in addition, as it involves autonomous and contained surgical procedures with respect to smoke release. Moreover, the instruments and the setting in the operating room mean that there can be safe distance from the surgeon and other staff to the patient. Overall, the main recommendations in laparoscopic surgery during the COVID era include: the use of Personal Protective Equipment for operating room personnel, and the adoption of safety measures to reduce CO2 exposure and surgical smoke reléase


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Algoritmos , Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Aerossóis/normas , RNA Viral/sangue , Fatores de Risco
2.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 120, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients diagnosed with COVID-19 may develop a pro-thrombotic state that places them at a dramatically increased lethal risk. Although platelet activation is critical for thrombosis and is responsible for the thrombotic events and cardiovascular complications, the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 remains unclear. METHODS: Using platelets from healthy volunteers, non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 patients, as well as wild-type and hACE2 transgenic mice, we evaluated the changes in platelet and coagulation parameters in COVID-19 patients. We investigated ACE2 expression and direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 virus on platelets by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, Western blot, immunofluorescence, and platelet functional studies in vitro, FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in vivo, and thrombus formation under flow conditions ex vivo. RESULTS: We demonstrated that COVID-19 patients present with increased mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet hyperactivity, which correlated with a decrease in overall platelet count. Detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the blood stream was associated with platelet hyperactivity in critically ill patients. Platelets expressed ACE2, a host cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and TMPRSS2, a serine protease for Spike protein priming. SARS-CoV-2 and its Spike protein directly enhanced platelet activation such as platelet aggregation, PAC-1 binding, CD62P expression, α granule secretion, dense granule release, platelet spreading, and clot retraction in vitro, and thereby Spike protein enhanced thrombosis formation in wild-type mice transfused with hACE2 transgenic platelets, but this was not observed in animals transfused with wild-type platelets in vivo. Further, we provided evidence suggesting that the MAPK pathway, downstream of ACE2, mediates the potentiating role of SARS-CoV-2 on platelet activation, and that platelet ACE2 expression decreases following SARS-COV-2 stimulation. SARS-CoV-2 and its Spike protein directly stimulated platelets to facilitate the release of coagulation factors, the secretion of inflammatory factors, and the formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates. Recombinant human ACE2 protein and anti-Spike monoclonal antibody could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-induced platelet activation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings uncovered a novel function of SARS-CoV-2 on platelet activation via binding of Spike to ACE2. SARS-CoV-2-induced platelet activation may participate in thrombus formation and inflammatory responses in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Trombose/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Células CACO-2 , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células PC-3 , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Agregação Plaquetária/imunologia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Trombose/virologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21825, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effect of combining traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with Western medicine in treating hepatitis C, and to provide an evidence-based medical strategy. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of pegylated interferon (Peginterferon) combined with ribavirin (PR) alone and its combination with TCM were manually retrieved from the Weipu Information Resources System (VIP), Wan Fang Database, PubMed, and the Chinese Journal Full Text Database (CNKI). Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were selected and analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3 software. Suitable tests were also performed to determine the quality, heterogeneity, and sensitivity of the studies included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-eight RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The combination therapy or intervention group showed significantly greater HCV-RNA negative rate post-treatment compared to the monotherapy or the control group (P < .05). In addition, the serum levels of the liver function indicators alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and albumin (ALB) were significantly improved after the combination therapy compared to PR alone (P < .05), while total bilirubin (TB) and r-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were not affected by TCM (P > .05). Finally, the parameters of liver fibrosis were also reduced by the combination therapy more effectively than the monotherapy. CONCLUSION: The combination of TCM and PR can improve the Comprehensive Clinical Efficacy of hepatitis C and have a better negative rate of HCV-RNA with a better benefit in the liver function. The effect of TCM + PR is better than that of PR alone in treating hepatitis C.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Terapia Combinada , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hepacivirus/genética , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , RNA Viral/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Albumina Sérica , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
4.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962125

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a global health emergency. To improve the understanding of the systemic component of SARS-CoV-2, we investigated if viral load dynamics in plasma and respiratory samples are associated with antibody response and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in plasma samples from 14 (44%) out of 32 patients. RNAemia was detected in 5 out of 6 fatal cases. Peak IgG values were significantly lower in mild/moderate than in severe (0.6 (interquartile range, IQR, 0.4-3.2) vs. 11.8 (IQR, 9.9-13.0), adjusted p = 0.003) or critical cases (11.29 (IQR, 8.3-12.0), adjusted p = 0.042). IgG titers were significantly associated with virus Ct (Cycle threshold) value in plasma and respiratory specimens ((ß = 0.4, 95% CI (confidence interval, 0.2; 0.5), p < 0.001 and ß = 0.5, 95% CI (0.2; 0.6), p = 0.002). A classification as severe or a critical case was additionally inversely associated with Ct values in plasma in comparison to mild/moderate cases (ß = -3.3, 95% CI (-5.8; 0.8), p = 0.024 and ß = -4.4, 95% CI (-7.2; 1.6), p = 0.007, respectively). Based on the present data, our hypothesis is that the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by a primary RNAemia, as a potential manifestation of a systemic infection. Additionally, the viral load in plasma seems to be associated with a worse disease outcome.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA Viral/análise , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral , Viremia/sangue , Viremia/patologia , Viremia/virologia
5.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(10): 1098-1100, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939033
6.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789516

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a global health emergency. To improve the understanding of the systemic component of SARS-CoV-2, we investigated if viral load dynamics in plasma and respiratory samples are associated with antibody response and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in plasma samples from 14 (44%) out of 32 patients. RNAemia was detected in 5 out of 6 fatal cases. Peak IgG values were significantly lower in mild/moderate than in severe (0.6 (interquartile range, IQR, 0.4-3.2) vs. 11.8 (IQR, 9.9-13.0), adjusted p = 0.003) or critical cases (11.29 (IQR, 8.3-12.0), adjusted p = 0.042). IgG titers were significantly associated with virus Ct (Cycle threshold) value in plasma and respiratory specimens ((ß = 0.4, 95% CI (confidence interval, 0.2; 0.5), p < 0.001 and ß = 0.5, 95% CI (0.2; 0.6), p = 0.002). A classification as severe or a critical case was additionally inversely associated with Ct values in plasma in comparison to mild/moderate cases (ß = -3.3, 95% CI (-5.8; 0.8), p = 0.024 and ß = -4.4, 95% CI (-7.2; 1.6), p = 0.007, respectively). Based on the present data, our hypothesis is that the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by a primary RNAemia, as a potential manifestation of a systemic infection. Additionally, the viral load in plasma seems to be associated with a worse disease outcome.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA Viral/análise , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral , Viremia/sangue , Viremia/patologia , Viremia/virologia
8.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 120, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients diagnosed with COVID-19 may develop a pro-thrombotic state that places them at a dramatically increased lethal risk. Although platelet activation is critical for thrombosis and is responsible for the thrombotic events and cardiovascular complications, the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 remains unclear. METHODS: Using platelets from healthy volunteers, non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 patients, as well as wild-type and hACE2 transgenic mice, we evaluated the changes in platelet and coagulation parameters in COVID-19 patients. We investigated ACE2 expression and direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 virus on platelets by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, Western blot, immunofluorescence, and platelet functional studies in vitro, FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in vivo, and thrombus formation under flow conditions ex vivo. RESULTS: We demonstrated that COVID-19 patients present with increased mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet hyperactivity, which correlated with a decrease in overall platelet count. Detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the blood stream was associated with platelet hyperactivity in critically ill patients. Platelets expressed ACE2, a host cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and TMPRSS2, a serine protease for Spike protein priming. SARS-CoV-2 and its Spike protein directly enhanced platelet activation such as platelet aggregation, PAC-1 binding, CD62P expression, α granule secretion, dense granule release, platelet spreading, and clot retraction in vitro, and thereby Spike protein enhanced thrombosis formation in wild-type mice transfused with hACE2 transgenic platelets, but this was not observed in animals transfused with wild-type platelets in vivo. Further, we provided evidence suggesting that the MAPK pathway, downstream of ACE2, mediates the potentiating role of SARS-CoV-2 on platelet activation, and that platelet ACE2 expression decreases following SARS-COV-2 stimulation. SARS-CoV-2 and its Spike protein directly stimulated platelets to facilitate the release of coagulation factors, the secretion of inflammatory factors, and the formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates. Recombinant human ACE2 protein and anti-Spike monoclonal antibody could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-induced platelet activation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings uncovered a novel function of SARS-CoV-2 on platelet activation via binding of Spike to ACE2. SARS-CoV-2-induced platelet activation may participate in thrombus formation and inflammatory responses in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Trombose/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Células CACO-2 , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células PC-3 , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Agregação Plaquetária/imunologia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Trombose/virologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771762

RESUMO

Until treatment and vaccine for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) becomes widely available, other methods of reducing infection rates should be explored. This study used a retrospective, observational analysis of deidentified tests performed at a national clinical laboratory to determine if circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity rates. Over 190,000 patients from all 50 states with SARS-CoV-2 results performed mid-March through mid-June, 2020 and matching 25(OH)D results from the preceding 12 months were included. Residential zip code data was required to match with US Census data and perform analyses of race/ethnicity proportions and latitude. A total of 191,779 patients were included (median age, 54 years [interquartile range 40.4-64.7]; 68% female. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was 9.3% (95% C.I. 9.2-9.5%) and the mean seasonally adjusted 25(OH)D was 31.7 (SD 11.7). The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was higher in the 39,190 patients with "deficient" 25(OH)D values (<20 ng/mL) (12.5%, 95% C.I. 12.2-12.8%) than in the 27,870 patients with "adequate" values (30-34 ng/mL) (8.1%, 95% C.I. 7.8-8.4%) and the 12,321 patients with values ≥55 ng/mL (5.9%, 95% C.I. 5.5-6.4%). The association between 25(OH)D levels and SARS-CoV-2 positivity was best fitted by the weighted second-order polynomial regression, which indicated strong correlation in the total population (R2 = 0.96) and in analyses stratified by all studied demographic factors. The association between lower SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates and higher circulating 25(OH)D levels remained significant in a multivariable logistic model adjusting for all included demographic factors (adjusted odds ratio 0.984 per ng/mL increment, 95% C.I. 0.983-0.986; p<0.001). SARS-CoV-2 positivity is strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels, a relationship that persists across latitudes, races/ethnicities, both sexes, and age ranges. Our findings provide impetus to explore the role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
10.
Euro Surveill ; 25(36)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760824

RESUMO

In August 2020, during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, five locally acquired cases of dengue virus type 1 were detected in a family cluster in Vicenza Province, North-East Italy where Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are endemic. The primary case was an importation from West Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first outbreak of autochthonous dengue reported in Italy. During the COVID-19 pandemic, screening of febrile travelers from endemic countries is crucial in areas where competent vectors are present.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/diagnóstico , Viagem , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Indonésia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
11.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(10): 1098-1100, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772968
12.
Euro Surveill ; 25(36)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914745

RESUMO

In August 2020, during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, five locally acquired cases of dengue virus type 1 were detected in a family cluster in Vicenza Province, North-East Italy where Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are endemic. The primary case was an importation from West Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first outbreak of autochthonous dengue reported in Italy. During the COVID-19 pandemic, screening of febrile travelers from endemic countries is crucial in areas where competent vectors are present.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/diagnóstico , Viagem , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Indonésia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941512

RESUMO

Until treatment and vaccine for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) becomes widely available, other methods of reducing infection rates should be explored. This study used a retrospective, observational analysis of deidentified tests performed at a national clinical laboratory to determine if circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity rates. Over 190,000 patients from all 50 states with SARS-CoV-2 results performed mid-March through mid-June, 2020 and matching 25(OH)D results from the preceding 12 months were included. Residential zip code data was required to match with US Census data and perform analyses of race/ethnicity proportions and latitude. A total of 191,779 patients were included (median age, 54 years [interquartile range 40.4-64.7]; 68% female. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was 9.3% (95% C.I. 9.2-9.5%) and the mean seasonally adjusted 25(OH)D was 31.7 (SD 11.7). The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was higher in the 39,190 patients with "deficient" 25(OH)D values (<20 ng/mL) (12.5%, 95% C.I. 12.2-12.8%) than in the 27,870 patients with "adequate" values (30-34 ng/mL) (8.1%, 95% C.I. 7.8-8.4%) and the 12,321 patients with values ≥55 ng/mL (5.9%, 95% C.I. 5.5-6.4%). The association between 25(OH)D levels and SARS-CoV-2 positivity was best fitted by the weighted second-order polynomial regression, which indicated strong correlation in the total population (R2 = 0.96) and in analyses stratified by all studied demographic factors. The association between lower SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates and higher circulating 25(OH)D levels remained significant in a multivariable logistic model adjusting for all included demographic factors (adjusted odds ratio 0.984 per ng/mL increment, 95% C.I. 0.983-0.986; p<0.001). SARS-CoV-2 positivity is strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels, a relationship that persists across latitudes, races/ethnicities, both sexes, and age ranges. Our findings provide impetus to explore the role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 574, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) and HIV-associated myelopathy (HAM) are not showing significant reduction in there occurrence. The HAM is a progressive myelopathy that often occur synchronously with severe form of the HAND in patients' having advanced immunosuppression. However, co-existence of less severe form of the HAND and HAM in patient with relatively preserved CD4 cells is rarely reported clinical entity in post cART era. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 16-year old male, acquired HIV infection vertically, was on second line regimen because of virological failure since 3 years. His current CD4 lymphocyte count is 835 cells/uL with viral RNA level of 33,008 copies/mL. Currently presented with progressive forgetfulness, gait imbalance, and a frequent staring episodes without loss of postural tone. Neurological examination was pertinent for cognitive dysfunction with score of 6 on International HIV Dementia Scale (motor speed = 3, psychomotor speed = 2, and memory recall = 1). Lower limbs power is 4-/5, increased deep tendon reflexes, and unsteady gait. Brain MRI revealed diffuse both cortical and white matter T2 and FLAIR hyperintense lesions. Thoracic MRI showed abnormal T2 signal prolongation spanning from mid thoracic cord to conus. Electroencephalography study showed severe generalized slowing with evidence of focal dysrhythmia in bilateral frontotemporal regions. Unremarkable serum vitamin B 12 level (286 ng/mL). Virological failure with the HAND, HAM and seizure was considered. Dolutegravir +3TC + ATV/r regimen and valproate for seizure disorder was started. On 6 months follow up evaluation, he is clinically stable with significant improvement of his symptoms related to seizure disorders and modest improvement of his cognitive dysfunction, as he is now attending his school regularly. However, less improvement was observed reading his gait abnormality. CONCLUSION: This case supports the current understanding regarding the persistent occurrence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder and HIV-associated myelopathy even decades after introduction of cART. Therefore, it's important to screen HIV+ patients for the HAND and HAM even if they have relatively preserved immunity. Because patient can be easily shifted to ART drugs with better CNS penetrating potential to achieve acceptable virological suppression level, to observe sound clinical improvement.


Assuntos
Complexo AIDS Demência/complicações , Complexo AIDS Demência/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Doenças da Medula Espinal/complicações , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Carga Viral , Complexo AIDS Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo AIDS Demência/imunologia , Adolescente , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Seguimentos , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Viral/sangue , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 575, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with the high case-fatality rate, and lack of vaccines. We aimed to systematically analysed the epidemiological characteristics, clinical signs, routine laboratory diagnosis, risk factors, and outcomes. METHODS: Documents on SFTS were collected by searching the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang Data, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases from 2011 to 2018. Meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager and Stata software. RESULTS: Twenty-five articles involving 4143 cases were included. Diarrhea (odds ratio (OR) =1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 to 2.42, P = 0.02), and vomiting (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.39, P = 0.04) on admission were associated with the fatal outcomes of SFTS. Compared to patients with mild symptoms, patients with severe symptoms had significantly elevated levels of lactic acid dehydrogenase (standard mean difference (SMD) =1.27, 95% CI: 0.59 to 1.94), alanine aminotransferase (SMD = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.85), aspirate aminotransferase (SMD = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.69 to 1.32), and creatine kinase (SMD = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.33) but had reduced platelet counts (SMD = -0.87, 95% CI: - 1.16 to - 0.58) and albumin levels (SMD = -1.00, 95% CI: - 1.32 to - 0.68). The risk factors for poor prognosis included age (mean difference (MD) =6.88, 95% CI: 5.41 to 8.35) and farming (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.06 to 3.80). For the risk factors of contracting SFTS, the incidence of SFTS related to tick bites was 24% [95% CI: 0.18 to 0.31]. The pooled case-fatality rate of SFTS patients was 18% [95% CI: 0.16 to 0.21]. CONCLUSIONS: China is the country with the highest incidence of SFTS. May to July was the peak of the epidemic, and farmers were a high-risk group. The risk factor for SFTS included age (poor prognosis) and tick bites (contracting SFTS). Patients with severe diarrhea and vomiting symptoms on admission should be noted. Clinicians could use routine laboratory parameters and clinical symptoms as references for clinically suspected cases, classification of SFTS, and timely treatment, especially in basic hospitals.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Febre por Flebótomos/complicações , Febre por Flebótomos/epidemiologia , Phlebovirus/imunologia , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Leucopenia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Febre por Flebótomos/sangue , Febre por Flebótomos/virologia , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome , Trombocitopenia/virologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 632, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral relapse is a major concern in hepatitis C virus (HCV) antiviral therapy. Currently, there are no satisfactory methods to predict viral relapse, especially in the era of direct acting antivirals in which the virus often quickly becomes undetectable using PCR-based approaches that focus on a small viral region. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides an alternative option for viral detection in a genome-wide manner. However, owing to the overwhelming dominance of human genetic content in clinical specimens, direct detection of HCV by NGS has a low sensitivity and hence viral enrichment is required. METHODS: Based on template-dependent multiple displacement amplification (tdMDA), an improved method for whole genome amplification (Wang et al., 2017. Biotechniques 63, 21-27), we evaluated two strategies to enhance the sensitivity of NGS-based HCV detection: duplex-specific nuclease (DSN)-mediated depletion of human sequences and HCV probe-based capture sequencing. RESULTS: In DSN-mediated depletion, human sequences were significantly reduced in the two HCV serum samples tested, 65.3% → 55.6% → 33.7% (#4727) and 68.6% → 56% → 21% (#4970), respectively for no normalization, self- and driver-applied normalization. However, this approach was associated with a loss of HCV sequences perhaps due to its micro-homology with the human genome. In capture sequencing, HCV-mapped sequencing reads occupied 96.8% (#4727) and 22.14% (#4970) in NGS data, equivalent to 1936x and 7380x enrichment, respectively. Capture sequencing was then applied to ten serum samples collected at the end of HCV antiviral therapy. Interestingly, the number of HCV-mapped reads was significantly higher in relapsed patients (n = 5) than those from patients with sustained virological response (SVR) (n = 5), 102.4 ± 72.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.55, p = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provides concept evidence for a highly sensitive HCV detection by capture sequencing. The abundance difference of HCV sequencing reads at the end of HCV antiviral therapy could be applied to predict treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Resposta Viral Sustentada
18.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(11): 1220-1223, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792249

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading worldwide and poses an imminent threat to public health. We encountered 2 cases of COVID-19 with progression resulting in severe respiratory failure and improvement without any specific treatment. To examine the course of infection, we performed reverse-transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction assay with serum specimens, and serum SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in both cases when body temperature increased and respiratory status deteriorated. We, then examined, retrospectively and prospectively, the clinical course during hospitalization by performing serial examinations of serum SARS-CoV-2 RNA status. The findings from our cases suggest that not only is detection of viremia useful as a predictive marker of severity, but also serial serum SARS-CoV-2 RNA results can be helpful for predicting the clinical course.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , RNA Viral/sangue , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Viremia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Insuficiência Respiratória/sangue , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Viremia/complicações , Viremia/virologia
19.
N Engl J Med ; 383(6): 537-545, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015 and 2016, Colombia had a widespread outbreak of Zika virus. Data from two national population-based surveillance systems for symptomatic Zika virus disease (ZVD) and birth defects provided complementary information on the effect of the Zika virus outbreak on pregnancies and infant outcomes. METHODS: We collected national surveillance data regarding cases of pregnant women with ZVD that were reported during the period from June 2015 through July 2016. The presence of Zika virus RNA was identified in a subgroup of these women on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (rRT-PCR) assay. Brain or eye defects in infants and fetuses and other adverse pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women who had laboratory-confirmed ZVD and for whom data were available regarding pregnancy outcomes. We compared the nationwide prevalence of brain and eye defects during the outbreak with the prevalence both before and after the outbreak period. RESULTS: Of 18,117 pregnant women with ZVD, the presence of Zika virus was confirmed in 5926 (33%) on rRT-PCR. Of the 5673 pregnancies with laboratory-confirmed ZVD for which outcomes had been reported, 93 infants or fetuses (2%) had brain or eye defects. The incidence of brain or eye defects was higher among pregnancies in which the mother had an onset of ZVD symptoms in the first trimester than in those with an onset during the second or third trimester (3% vs. 1%). A total of 172 of 5673 pregnancies (3%) resulted in pregnancy loss; after the exclusion of pregnancies affected by birth defects, 409 of 5426 (8%) resulted in preterm birth and 333 of 5426 (6%) in low birth weight. The prevalence of brain or eye defects during the outbreak was 13 per 10,000 live births, as compared with a prevalence of 8 per 10,000 live births before the outbreak and 11 per 10,000 live births after the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed ZVD, brain or eye defects in infants or fetuses were more common during the Zika virus outbreak than during the periods immediately before and after the outbreak. The frequency of such defects was increased among women with a symptom onset early in pregnancy. (Funded by the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Surtos de Doenças , Anormalidades do Olho/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/epidemiologia , Feto/anormalidades , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(11): 1220-1223, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654302

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading worldwide and poses an imminent threat to public health. We encountered 2 cases of COVID-19 with progression resulting in severe respiratory failure and improvement without any specific treatment. To examine the course of infection, we performed reverse-transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction assay with serum specimens, and serum SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in both cases when body temperature increased and respiratory status deteriorated. We, then examined, retrospectively and prospectively, the clinical course during hospitalization by performing serial examinations of serum SARS-CoV-2 RNA status. The findings from our cases suggest that not only is detection of viremia useful as a predictive marker of severity, but also serial serum SARS-CoV-2 RNA results can be helpful for predicting the clinical course.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , RNA Viral/sangue , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Viremia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Insuficiência Respiratória/sangue , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Viremia/complicações , Viremia/virologia
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