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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(16)2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811184

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are adept at evading host antiviral pathways induced by viral double-stranded RNA, including interferon (IFN) signaling, oligoadenylate synthetase-ribonuclease L (OAS-RNase L), and protein kinase R (PKR). While dysregulated or inadequate IFN responses have been associated with severe coronavirus infection, the extent to which the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 activates or antagonizes these pathways is relatively unknown. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infects patient-derived nasal epithelial cells, present at the initial site of infection; induced pluripotent stem cell-derived alveolar type 2 cells (iAT2), the major cell type infected in the lung; and cardiomyocytes (iCM), consistent with cardiovascular consequences of COVID-19 disease. Robust activation of IFN or OAS-RNase L is not observed in these cell types, whereas PKR activation is evident in iAT2 and iCM. In SARS-CoV-2-infected Calu-3 and A549ACE2 lung-derived cell lines, IFN induction remains relatively weak; however, activation of OAS-RNase L and PKR is observed. This is in contrast to Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, which effectively inhibits IFN signaling and OAS-RNase L and PKR pathways, but is similar to mutant MERS-CoV lacking innate immune antagonists. Remarkably, OAS-RNase L and PKR are activated in MAVS knockout A549ACE2 cells, demonstrating that SARS-CoV-2 can induce these host antiviral pathways despite minimal IFN production. Moreover, increased replication and cytopathic effect in RNASEL knockout A549ACE2 cells implicates OAS-RNase L in restricting SARS-CoV-2. Finally, while SARS-CoV-2 fails to antagonize these host defense pathways, which contrasts with other coronaviruses, the IFN signaling response is generally weak. These host-virus interactions may contribute to the unique pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Pulmão/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/imunologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , /imunologia , Células A549 , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Nariz/virologia , Replicação Viral , eIF-2 Quinase
2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(7): 4085-4103, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772581

RESUMO

The most abundant cellular RNA species, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), appears to be a source of massive amounts of non-randomly generated fragments. We found rRNA fragments (rRFs) in immunoprecipitated Argonaute (Ago-IP) complexes in human and mouse cells and in small RNA sequencing datasets. In human Ago1-IP, guanine-rich rRFs were preferentially cut in single-stranded regions of mature rRNAs between pyrimidines and adenosine, and non-randomly paired with cellular transcripts in crosslinked chimeras. Numerous identical rRFs were found in the cytoplasm and nucleus in mouse Ago2-IP. We report specific interaction motifs enriched in rRF-target pairs. Locations of such motifs on rRFs were compatible with the Ago structural features and patterns of the Ago-RNA crosslinking in both species. Strikingly, many of these motifs may bind to double-stranded regions on target RNAs, suggesting a potential pathway for regulating translation by unwinding mRNAs. Occurring on either end of rRFs and matching intronic, untranslated or coding regions in targets, such interaction sites extend the concept of microRNA seed regions. Targeting both borders of certain short introns, rRFs may be involved in their biogenesis or function, facilitated by Ago. Frequently dismissed as noise, rRFs are poised to greatly enrich the known functional spectrum of small RNA regulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica
3.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616106

RESUMO

Dragonflies and damselflies (order Odonata) represent one of the most ancestral insects with metamorphosis, in which they change their habitat, morphology, and behavior drastically from aquatic larvae to terrestrial/aerial adults without pupal stage. Odonata adults have a well-developed color vision and show a remarkable diversity in body colors and patterns across sexes, stages, and species. While many ecological and behavioral studies on Odonata have been conducted, molecular genetic studies have been scarce mainly due to the difficulty in applying gene functional analysis to Odonata. For instance, RNA interference (RNAi) is less effective in the Odonata, as reported in the Lepidoptera. To overcome this problem, we successfully established an RNAi method combined with in vivo electroporation. Here we provide a detailed protocol including a video of the electroporation-mediated RNAi method as follows: preparation of larvae, species identification, preparation of dsRNA/siRNA solution and injection needles, ice-cold anesthesia of larvae, dsRNA/siRNA injection, in vivo electroporation, and individual rearing until adult emergence. The electroporation-mediated RNAi method is applicable to both damselflies (suborder Zygoptera) and dragonflies (suborder Anisoptera). In this protocol, we present the methods for the blue-tailed damselfly Ischnura senegalensis (Coenagrionidae) as an example of damselfly species and the pied skimmer dragonfly Pseudothemis zonata (Libellulidae) as another example of dragonfly species. As representative examples, we show the results of RNAi targeting the melanin synthesis gene multicopper oxidase 2. This RNAi method will facilitate understanding of various gene functions involved in metamorphosis, morphogenesis, color pattern formation, and other biological features of Odonata. Moreover, this protocol may be generally applicable to non-model organisms in which RNAi is less effective in gene suppression due to the inefficiency and low penetrance.


Assuntos
Eletroporação/métodos , Odonatos/genética , Interferência de RNA , Animais , Injeções , Larva/genética , Fenótipo , Pigmentação , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
4.
Clin Immunol ; 226: 108699, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639276

RESUMO

RNA editing is a fundamental biological process with 2 major forms, namely adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I, recognized as A-to-G) and cytosine-to-uracil (C-to-U) deamination, mediated by ADAR and APOBEC enzyme families, respectively. A-to-I RNA editing has been shown to directly affect the genome/transcriptome of RNA viruses with significant repercussions for viral protein synthesis, proliferation and infectivity, while it also affects recognition of double-stranded RNAs by cytosolic receptors controlling the host innate immune response. Recent evidence suggests that RNA editing may be present in SARS-CoV-2 genome/transcriptome. The majority of mapped mutations in SARS-CoV-2 genome are A-to-G/U-to-C(opposite strand) and C-to-U/G-to-A(opposite strand) substitutions comprising potential ADAR-/APOBEC-mediated deamination events. A single nucleotide substitution can have dramatic effects on SARS-CoV-2 infectivity as shown by the D614G(A-to-G) substitution in the spike protein. Future studies utilizing serial sampling from patients with COVID-19 are warranted to delineate whether RNA editing affects viral replication and/or the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Desaminases APOBEC/metabolismo , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Edição de RNA , Vírus de RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , /genética , Desaminases APOBEC/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , /virologia , Humanos , Mutação , Vírus de RNA/patogenicidade , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , /metabolismo
5.
Cell Rep ; 34(2): 108628, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440148

RESUMO

Recent studies have profiled the innate immune signatures in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and suggest that cellular responses to viral challenge may affect disease severity. Yet the molecular events that underlie cellular recognition and response to SARS-CoV-2 infection remain to be elucidated. Here, we find that SARS-CoV-2 replication induces a delayed interferon (IFN) response in lung epithelial cells. By screening 16 putative sensors involved in sensing of RNA virus infection, we found that MDA5 and LGP2 primarily regulate IFN induction in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further analyses revealed that viral intermediates specifically activate the IFN response through MDA5-mediated sensing. Additionally, we find that IRF3, IRF5, and NF-κB/p65 are the key transcription factors regulating the IFN response during SARS-CoV-2 infection. In summary, these findings provide critical insights into the molecular basis of the innate immune recognition and signaling response to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/metabolismo , /fisiologia , /patologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferons/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , /isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2209: 321-332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201478

RESUMO

Thousands of eukaryotic protein-coding genes are noncanonically spliced to generate circular RNAs that have covalently linked ends. These transcripts are resistant to degradation by exonucleases, which enables some to accumulate to higher levels than the associated linear mRNA. In general, exonic circular RNAs accumulate in the cytoplasm, but functions for most of these transcripts remain unknown. It has been proposed that some may modulate the activity of microRNAs or RNA-binding proteins, be translated to yield protein products, or regulate innate immune responses. Recent work has revealed that circular RNAs are exported from the nucleus in a length-dependent manner and that the subcellular localization of these transcripts can be controlled by the DExH/D-box helicase Hel25E in Drosophila. Here, we describe how RNAi screening combined with subcellular fractionation and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) can be used to identify regulators of circular RNA localization in Drosophila cells. Long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that activate the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway are used to deplete factors of interest followed by biochemical fractionation to separate nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs. RT-qPCR primers that amplify across the backsplicing junction of specific circular RNAs are then used to quantify the relative amounts of these transcripts in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. In total, this approach can be broadly used to characterize circular RNA nuclear export and localization mechanisms, including to identify novel regulatory factors and their breadth of circular RNA targets.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Transporte de RNA , RNA Circular/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008803, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956403

RESUMO

The Dearing isolate of Mammalian orthoreovirus (T3D) is a prominent model of virus-host relationships and a candidate oncolytic virotherapy. Closely related laboratory strains of T3D, originating from the same ancestral T3D isolate, were recently found to exhibit significantly different oncolytic properties. Specifically, the T3DPL strain had faster replication kinetics in a panel of cancer cells and improved tumor regression in an in vivo melanoma model, relative to T3DTD. In this study, we discover that T3DPL and T3DTD also differentially activate host signalling pathways and downstream gene transcription. At equivalent infectious dose, T3DTD induces higher IRF3 phosphorylation and expression of type I IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) than T3DPL. Using mono-reassortants with intermediate replication kinetics and pharmacological inhibitors of reovirus replication, IFN responses were found to inversely correlate with kinetics of virus replication. In other words, slow-replicating T3D strains induce more IFN signalling than fast-replicating T3D strains. Paradoxically, during co-infections by T3DPL and T3DTD, there was still high IRF3 phosphorylation indicating a phenodominant effect by the slow-replicating T3DTD. Using silencing and knock-out of RIG-I to impede IFN, we found that IFN induction does not affect the first round of reovirus replication but does prevent cell-cell spread in a paracrine fashion. Accordingly, during co-infections, T3DPL continues to replicate robustly despite activation of IFN by T3DTD. Using gene expression analysis, we discovered that reovirus can also induce a subset of genes in a RIG-I and IFN-independent manner; these genes were induced more by T3DPL than T3DTD. Polymorphisms in reovirus σ3 viral protein were found to control activation of RIG-I/ IFN-independent genes. Altogether, the study reveals that single amino acid polymorphisms in reovirus genomes can have large impact on host gene expression, by both changing replication kinetics and by modifying viral protein activity, such that two closely related T3D strains can induce opposite cytokine landscapes.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Replicação Viral , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Citocinas , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/fisiologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4242, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843637

RESUMO

Membraneless organelles are sites for RNA biology including small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) mediated gene silencing. How small ncRNAs utilise phase separated environments for their function is unclear. We investigated how the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway engages with the membraneless organelle P granule in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proteomic analysis of the PIWI protein PRG-1 reveals an interaction with the constitutive P granule protein DEPS-1. DEPS-1 is not required for piRNA biogenesis but piRNA-dependent silencing: deps-1 mutants fail to produce the secondary endo-siRNAs required for the silencing of piRNA targets. We identify a motif on DEPS-1 which mediates a direct interaction with PRG-1. DEPS-1 and PRG-1 form intertwining clusters to build elongated condensates in vivo which are dependent on the Piwi-interacting motif of DEPS-1. Additionally, we identify EDG-1 as an interactor of DEPS-1 and PRG-1. Our study reveals how specific protein-protein interactions drive the spatial organisation and piRNA-dependent silencing within membraneless organelles.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Proteômica , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
9.
J Virol ; 94(18)2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641477

RESUMO

Positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants and replicate inside host cells by coopting numerous host factors and subcellular membranes. To gain insights into the assembly of viral replicase complexes (VRCs) and dissect the roles of various lipids and coopted host factors, we have reconstituted Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) replicase using artificial giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). We demonstrate that reconstitution of VRCs on GUVs with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like phospholipid composition results in a complete cycle of replication and asymmetrical RNA synthesis, which is a hallmark of (+)RNA viruses. TBSV VRCs assembled on GUVs provide significant protection of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) replication intermediate against the dsRNA-specific RNase III. The lipid compositions of GUVs have pronounced effects on in vitro TBSV replication, including (-) and (+)RNA synthesis. The GUV-based assay has led to the discovery of the critical role of phosphatidylserine in TBSV replication and a novel role for phosphatidylethanolamine in asymmetrical (+)RNA synthesis. The GUV-based assay also showed stimulatory effects by phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate [PI(3)P] and ergosterol on TBSV replication. We demonstrate that eEF1A and Hsp70 coopted replicase assembly factors, Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the membrane-bending ESCRT factors, are required for reconstitution of the active TBSV VRCs in GUVs, further supporting that the novel GUV-based in vitro approach recapitulates critical steps and involves essential coopted cellular factors of the TBSV replication process. Taken together, this novel GUV assay will be highly suitable to dissect the functions of viral and cellular factors in TBSV replication.IMPORTANCE Understanding the mechanism of replication of positive-strand RNA viruses, which are major pathogens of plants, animals, and humans, can lead to new targets for antiviral interventions. These viruses subvert intracellular membranes for virus replication and coopt numerous host proteins, whose functions during virus replication are not yet completely defined. To dissect the roles of various host factors in Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) replication, we have developed an artificial giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV)-based replication assay. The GUV-based in vitro approach recapitulates critical steps of the TBSV replication process. GUV-based reconstitution of the TBSV replicase revealed the need for a complex mixture of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, in TBSV replication. The GUV-based approach will be useful to dissect the functions of essential coopted cellular factors.


Assuntos
RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Tombusvirus/genética , Lipossomas Unilamelares/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Bioensaio , Linhagem Celular , Retículo Endoplasmático/química , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/genética , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/virologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Ribonuclease III/genética , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Tabaco/citologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/virologia , Tombusvirus/metabolismo , Lipossomas Unilamelares/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628709

RESUMO

The antibacterial efficacy of the tetracycline antibiotics has been greatly reduced by the development of resistance, hence a decline in their clinical use. The hok/sok locus is a type I toxin/antitoxin plasmid stability element, often associated with multi-drug resistance plasmids, especially ESBL-encoding plasmids. It enhances host cell survivability and pathogenicity in stressful growth conditions, and increases bacterial tolerance to ß-lactam antibiotics. The hok/sok locus forms dsRNA by RNA:RNA interactions between the toxin encoding mRNA and antitoxin non-coding RNA, and doxycycline has been reported to bind dsRNA structures and inhibit their cleavage/processing by the dsRNase, RNase III. This study investigated the antibacterial activities of doxycycline in hok/sok host bacteria cells, the effects on hok/sok-induced changes in growth and the mechanism(s) involved. Diverse strains of E. coli were transformed with hok/sok plasmids and assessed for doxycycline susceptibility and growth changes. The results show that the hok/sok locus increases bacterial susceptibility to doxycycline, which is more apparent in strains with more pronounced hok/sok-induced growth effects. The increased doxycycline susceptibility occurs despite ß-lactam resistance imparted by hok/sok. Doxycycline was found to induce bacterial death in a manner phenotypically characteristic of Hok toxin expression, suggesting that it inhibits the toxin/antitoxin dsRNA degradation, leading to Hok toxin expression and cell death. In this way, doxycycline could counteract the multi-drug resistance plasmid maintenance/propagation, persistence and pathogenicity mechanisms associated with the hok/sok locus, which could potentially help in efforts to mitigate the rise of antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo
11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 7958-7972, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597966

RESUMO

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine in duplex RNA, a modification that exhibits a multitude of effects on RNA structure and function. Recent studies have identified ADAR1 as a potential cancer therapeutic target. ADARs are also important in the development of directed RNA editing therapeutics. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism of the ADAR reaction will advance efforts to develop ADAR inhibitors and new tools for directed RNA editing. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of a fragment of human ADAR2 comprising its deaminase domain and double stranded RNA binding domain 2 (dsRBD2) bound to an RNA duplex as an asymmetric homodimer. We identified a highly conserved ADAR dimerization interface and validated the importance of these sequence elements on dimer formation via gel mobility shift assays and size exclusion chromatography. We also show that mutation in the dimerization interface inhibits editing in an RNA substrate-dependent manner for both ADAR1 and ADAR2.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/química , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Edição de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
12.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000723, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511224

RESUMO

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) afflicts over 60 million people worldwide and leads to severe pathological outcomes in chronic cases. The nematode parasites (Nematoda: Filarioidea) that cause LF require both arthropod (mosquito) intermediate hosts and mammalian definitive hosts for their propagation. The invasion and migration of filarial worms through host tissues are complex and critical to survival, yet little is known about the receptors and signaling pathways that mediate directed migration in these medically important species. In order to better understand the role of chemosensory signaling in filarial worm taxis, we employ comparative genomics, transcriptomics, reverse genetics, and chemical approaches to identify putative chemosensory receptor proteins and perturb chemotaxis phenotypes in filarial worms. We find that chemoreceptor family size is correlated with the presence of environmental (extrahost) stages in nematode life cycles, and that filarial worms contain compact and highly diverged chemoreceptor complements and lineage-specific ion channels that are predicted to operate downstream of chemoreceptor activation. In Brugia malayi, an etiological agent of LF, chemoreceptor expression patterns correspond to distinct parasite migration events across the life cycle. To interrogate the role of chemosensation in the migration of larval worms, arthropod and mammalian infectious stage Brugia parasites were incubated in nicotinamide, an agonist of the nematode transient receptor potential (TRP) channel OSM-9. Exposure of microfilariae to nicotinamide alters intramosquito migration, and exposure of L3s reduces chemotaxis toward host-associated cues in vitro. Nicotinamide also potently modulates thermosensory responses in L3s, suggesting a polymodal sensory role for Brugia osm-9. Reverse genetic studies implicate both Brugia osm-9 and the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel subunit tax-4 in larval chemotaxis toward host serum, and these ion channel subunits partially rescue sensory defects in Caenorhabditis elegans osm-9 and tax-4 knock-out strains. Together, these data reveal genetic and functional diversification of chemosensory signaling proteins in filarial worms and encourage a more thorough investigation of clade- and parasite-specific facets of nematode sensory receptor biology.


Assuntos
Brugia Malayi/genética , Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , Culicidae/parasitologia , Filariose Linfática/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia , Genoma , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Larva , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/agonistas , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Temperatura
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(10): 5572-5590, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365187

RESUMO

RNA decay is a key element of mitochondrial RNA metabolism. To date, the only well-documented machinery that plays a role in mtRNA decay in humans is the complex of polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) and SUV3 helicase, forming the degradosome. REXO2, a homolog of prokaryotic oligoribonucleases present in humans both in mitochondria and the cytoplasm, was earlier shown to be crucial for maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, but its function in mitochondria has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we created a cellular model that enables the clear dissection of mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial functions of human REXO2. We identified a novel mitochondrial short RNA, referred to as ncH2, that massively accumulated upon REXO2 silencing. ncH2 degradation occurred independently of the mitochondrial degradosome, strongly supporting the hypothesis that ncH2 is a primary substrate of REXO2. We also investigated the global impact of REXO2 depletion on mtRNA, revealing the importance of the protein for maintaining low steady-state levels of mitochondrial antisense transcripts and double-stranded RNA. Our detailed biochemical and structural studies provide evidence of sequence specificity of the REXO2 oligoribonuclease. We postulate that REXO2 plays dual roles in human mitochondria, 'scavenging' nanoRNAs that are produced by the degradosome and clearing short RNAs that are generated by RNA processing.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Proteínas 14-3-3/química , Proteínas 14-3-3/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/química , Biomarcadores Tumorais/fisiologia , Exorribonucleases/química , Exorribonucleases/fisiologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Especificidade por Substrato
14.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(4): e21692, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441400

RESUMO

The southern green stink bug (SGSB, Nezara viridula) is an emerging polyphagous pest in many regions of the world. RNA interference (RNAi) is a valuable method for understanding gene function and holds great potential for pest management. However, RNAi efficiency is variable among insects and the differences in transport of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) are one of the major factors that contribute to this variability. In this study, Cy3 labeled dsRNA was used to track the transport of dsRNA in SGSB tissues. Cy3_dsRNA was detected in the hemocytes, fat body (FB), epidermis, and midgut tissues at 24-72 hr after injection. Orally delivered Cy3_dsRNA or Cypher-5E labeled dsRNA was mostly detected in the midgut and a few signals were detected in parts of the FB and epidermis. Both injected and fed Cy3_dsRNA showed stronger signals in SGSB tissues when compared to Cy3_siRNA (small interfering RNA) or Cy3_shRNA (short hairpin RNA). dsRNA targeting the gene for a vacuolar-sorting protein, SNF7, induced higher knockdown of the target gene and greater SGSB mortality compared to siRNA or shRNA targeting this gene. 32 P-labeled dsRNA injected into SGSB was processed into siRNA, but fed 32 P-labeled dsRNA was not efficiently processed into siRNA. These data suggest that transport of orally delivered dsRNA across the midgut epithelium is not efficient in SGSB which may contribute to variable RNAi efficiency. Targeting genes expressed in the midgut rather than other tissues and using dsRNA instead of siRNA or shRNA would be more effective for RNAi-mediated control of this pest.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Heterópteros/genética , Injeções , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno
15.
Gene ; 752: 144783, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428699

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi), which employs double-strand RNA (dsRNA) or small interference RNA (siRNA), is a popular reverse genetic manipulation tool to study gene function. Presently, there is few reports on the implementation of RNAi on the insulin-like androgenic gland gene (IAG) in red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. In this study, the effective sequence of siRNA and optimal injection dose were determined, and the effects of RNAi using dsRNA, siRNA, and long-term RNAi were investigated. The results showed that the doses of 0.5 and 1 µg/g of body weight of IAG-siRNA3 produced significantly better inhibition than 0.1 µg/g. qPCR assays showed that both dsRNA and siRNA silenced the IAG expression in five tissues (brain, ventral nerve cord, androgenic gland, testis, and vas deferens) in adult P. clarkii, with the effectiveness decreasing over time, inhibiting the production of spermatid. dsRNA exhibited a longer interference effect than siRNA in adults. For long-term interference (P. clarkii juveniles were injected 7 times with 1 µg/g of body weight of IAG-dsRNA), and found that the secondary sexual characteristics of juveniles were affected, while the control group developed normally. The results of this study could lay the foundation for crayfish sex reversal with IAG RNAi, and provide the reference for those studies in which the technique of RNAi was used.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/genética , Hormônios Gonadais/genética , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Astacoidea/metabolismo , Hormônios Gonadais/metabolismo , Masculino , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Testículo/metabolismo
16.
Mol Cell ; 78(5): 862-875.e8, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348780

RESUMO

Nuclear RNA interference (RNAi) pathways work together with histone modifications to regulate gene expression and enact an adaptive response to transposable RNA elements. In the germline, nuclear RNAi can lead to trans-generational epigenetic inheritance (TEI) of gene silencing. We identified and characterized a family of nuclear Argonaute-interacting proteins (ENRIs) that control the strength and target specificity of nuclear RNAi in C. elegans, ensuring faithful inheritance of epigenetic memories. ENRI-1/2 prevent misloading of the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3 with small RNAs that normally effect maternal piRNAs, which prevents precocious nuclear translocation of NRDE-3 in the early embryo. Additionally, they are negative regulators of nuclear RNAi triggered from exogenous sources. Loss of ENRI-3, an unstable protein expressed mostly in the male germline, misdirects the RNAi response to transposable elements and impairs TEI. The ENRIs determine the potency and specificity of nuclear RNAi responses by gating small RNAs into specific nuclear Argonautes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Nuclear/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
17.
Nature ; 580(7803): 391-395, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296175

RESUMO

The biological function of Z-DNA and Z-RNA, nucleic acid structures with a left-handed double helix, is poorly understood1-3. Z-DNA-binding protein 1 (ZBP1; also known as DAI or DLM-1) is a nucleic acid sensor that contains two Zα domains that bind Z-DNA4,5 and Z-RNA6-8. ZBP1 mediates host defence against some viruses6,7,9-14 by sensing viral nucleic acids6,7,10. RIPK1 deficiency, or mutation of its RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM), triggers ZBP1-dependent necroptosis and inflammation in mice15,16. However, the mechanisms that induce ZBP1 activation in the absence of viral infection remain unknown. Here we show that Zα-dependent sensing of endogenous ligands induces ZBP1-mediated perinatal lethality in mice expressing RIPK1 with mutated RHIM (Ripk1mR/mR), skin inflammation in mice with epidermis-specific RIPK1 deficiency (RIPK1E-KO) and colitis in mice with intestinal epithelial-specific FADD deficiency (FADDIEC-KO). Consistently, functional Zα domains were required for ZBP1-induced necroptosis in fibroblasts that were treated with caspase inhibitors or express RIPK1 with mutated RHIM. Inhibition of nuclear export triggered the Zα-dependent activation of RIPK3 in the nucleus resulting in cell death, which suggests that ZBP1 may recognize nuclear Z-form nucleic acids. We found that ZBP1 constitutively bound cellular double-stranded RNA in a Zα-dependent manner. Complementary reads derived from endogenous retroelements were detected in epidermal RNA, which suggests that double-stranded RNA derived from these retroelements may act as a Zα-domain ligand that triggers the activation of ZBP1. Collectively, our results provide evidence that the sensing of endogenous Z-form nucleic acids by ZBP1 triggers RIPK3-dependent necroptosis and inflammation, which could underlie the development of chronic inflammatory conditions-particularly in individuals with mutations in RIPK1 and CASP817-20.


Assuntos
Inflamação/metabolismo , Necroptose , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/genética , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/genética , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/patologia
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 190, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis, caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, is a neglected tropical disease with remarkable morbidity in humans and a problem of worldwide economic importance in livestock industry. Understanding the molecular basis of the parasite growth and development is essential for the disease diagnosis, management and control. The tetraspanin (TSP) family of proteins are transmembrane proteins with a role in many physiological processes of eukaryotic organisms. TSPs present in the tegumental surface of platyhelminths play pivotal roles in host-parasite interaction. However, little is known about the role of TSPs in growth and development in the Platyhelminthes. To understand the role of TSP1 in the growth and development of E. granulosus we investigated the effect of EgTSP1-specific long dsRNA in different in vitro stages of the parasite. METHODS: Different stages of E. granulosus, protoscoleces and strobilated worms, were cultivated In vitro in di-phasic media. Using long dsRNA and two delivery methods, i.e. electroporation and electro-soaking, EgTSP1 silencing was performed with an EgTSP1-specific dsRNA. The TSP1 expression profile was assessed as well as the biological and ultrastructural properties of the parasites. RESULTS: After three days of dsRNA treatment, EgTSP1 expression was significantly reduced in both stages of E. granulosus as compared to irrelevant/unrelated dsRNA and untreated controls. Silencing expression of EgTSP1 in different stages of E. granulosus resulted in reduced viability and body contractions, inhibition of protoscoleces evagination and distinctive tegumental changes. Ultrastructural morphology of the strobilated worms treated with EgTSP1-specific dsRNA was indicative of the microtriches impairments and vacuolated tegument compared to the control helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study suggest that EgTSP1 plays important structural roles in tegument configuration in E. granulosus. EgTSP1 is proved to be a potential target for the development of vaccines and RNAi-based drugs.


Assuntos
Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Tetraspaninas/genética , Animais , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomia & histologia , Echinococcus granulosus/metabolismo , Echinococcus granulosus/ultraestrutura , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tetraspaninas/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4481, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161317

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 13 (SCV nsP13), a superfamily 1 helicase, plays a central role in viral RNA replication through the unwinding of duplex RNA and DNA with a 5' single-stranded tail in a 5' to 3' direction. Despite its putative role in viral RNA replication, nsP13 readily unwinds duplex DNA by cooperative translocation. Herein, nsP13 exhibited different characteristics in duplex RNA unwinding than that in duplex DNA. nsP13 showed very poor processivity on duplex RNA compared with that on duplex DNA. More importantly, nsP13 inefficiently unwinds duplex RNA by increasing the 5'-ss tail length. As the concentration of nsP13 increased, the amount of unwound duplex DNA increased and that of unwound duplex RNA decreased. The accumulation of duplex RNA/nsP13 complexes increased as the concentration of nsP13 increased. An increased ATP concentration in the unwinding of duplex RNA relieved the decrease in duplex RNA unwinding. Thus, nsP13 has a strong affinity for duplex RNA as a substrate for the unwinding reaction, which requires increased ATPs to processively unwind duplex RNA. Our results suggest that duplex RNA is a preferred substrate for the helicase activity of nsP13 than duplex DNA at high ATP concentrations.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/enzimologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Cinética , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 5987-5996, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123111

RESUMO

Endogenous retroviruses and long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that are closely related to retroviruses. Desilenced endogenous retroviruses are associated with human autoimmune disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Caenorhabditis elegans and related Caenorhabditis spp. contain LTR retrotransposons and, as described here, numerous integrated viral genes including viral envelope genes that are part of LTR retrotransposons. We found that both LTR retrotransposons and endogenous viral elements are silenced by ADARs [adenosine deaminases acting on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)] together with the endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) factor ERI-6/7, a homolog of MOV10 helicase, a retrotransposon and retrovirus restriction factor in human. siRNAs corresponding to integrated viral genes and LTR retrotransposons, but not to DNA transposons, are dependent on the ADARs and ERI-6/7. siRNAs corresponding to palindromic repeats are independent of the ADARs and ERI-6/7, and are in fact increased in adar- and eri-6/7-defective mutants because of an antiviral RNAi response to dsRNA. Silencing of LTR retrotransposons is dependent on downstream RNAi factors and P granule components but is independent of the viral sensor DRH-1/RIG-I and the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3. The activation of retrotransposons in the ADAR- and ERI-6/7/MOV10-defective mutant is associated with the induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a common response to viral infection. The overlap between genes induced upon viral infection and infection with intracellular pathogens and genes coexpressed with retrotransposons suggests that there is a common response to different types of foreign elements that includes a response to proteotoxicity presumably caused by the burden of replicating pathogens and expressed retrotransposons.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interferência de RNA , Retroelementos/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/virologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genes Virais/genética , Humanos , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/genética
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