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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5078, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033266

RESUMO

Metabolic engineering facilitates chemical biosynthesis by rewiring cellular resources to produce target compounds. However, an imbalance between cell growth and bioproduction often reduces production efficiency. Genetic code expansion (GCE)-based orthogonal translation systems incorporating non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins by reassigning non-canonical codons to ncAAs qualify for balancing cellular metabolism. Here, GCE-based cell growth and biosynthesis balance engineering (GCE-CGBBE) is developed, which is based on titrating expression of cell growth and metabolic flux determinant genes by constructing ncAA-dependent expression patterns. We demonstrate GCE-CGBBE in genome-recoded Escherichia coli Δ321AM by precisely balancing glycolysis and N-acetylglucosamine production, resulting in a 4.54-fold increase in titer. GCE-CGBBE is further expanded to non-genome-recoded Bacillus subtilis to balance growth and N-acetylneuraminic acid bioproduction by titrating essential gene expression, yielding a 2.34-fold increase in titer. Moreover, the development of ncAA-dependent essential gene expression regulation shows efficient biocontainment of engineered B. subtilis to avoid unintended proliferation in nature.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vias Biossintéticas , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Código Genético , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Análise do Fluxo Metabólico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , Tirosina/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4676, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938922

RESUMO

Translation efficiency varies considerably between different mRNAs, thereby impacting protein expression. Translation of the stress response master-regulator ATF4 increases upon stress, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We discover here that translation factors DENR, MCTS1 and eIF2D are required to induce ATF4 translation upon stress by promoting translation reinitiation in the ATF4 5'UTR. We find DENR and MCTS1 are only needed for reinitiation after upstream Open Reading Frames (uORFs) containing certain penultimate codons, perhaps because DENR•MCTS1 are needed to evict only certain tRNAs from post-termination 40S ribosomes. This provides a model for how DENR and MCTS1 promote translation reinitiation. Cancer cells, which are exposed to many stresses, require ATF4 for survival and proliferation. We find a strong correlation between DENR•MCTS1 expression and ATF4 activity across cancers. Furthermore, additional oncogenes including a-Raf, c-Raf and Cdk4 have long uORFs and are translated in a DENR•MCTS1 dependent manner.


Assuntos
Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Códon , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HeLa , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Oncogenes , Fases de Leitura Aberta , RNA Mensageiro , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética
3.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 297-307, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748081

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We have developed multiplex genome editing toolkits for citrus that significantly improve citrus genome editing efficacy. CRISPR/Cas systems have been engineered for genome editing in many organisms, including plants. However, the gene editing efficiency in citrus via CRISPR technology remains too low to be implemented for genetic improvement in practice. Moreover, it is very difficult to obtain homozygous or biallelic knockout mutants in citrus. Here, we have developed multiplex genome editing toolkits for citrus including PEG-mediated protoplast transformation, a GFP reporter system that allows the rapid assessment of CRISPR constructs, citrus U6 promoters with improved efficacy, and tRNA-mediated or Csy4-mediated multiplex genome editing. Using the toolkits, we successfully conducted genome modification of embryogenic protoplast cells and epicotyl tissues. We have achieved a biallelic mutation rate of 44.4% and a homozygous mutation rate of 11.1%, representing a significant improvement in citrus genome editing efficacy. In addition, our study lays the foundation for nontransgenic genome editing of citrus.


Assuntos
Citrus/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Homozigoto , Mutação , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Protoplastos , RNA Guia/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008893, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841241

RESUMO

All tRNAs are extensively modified, and modification deficiency often results in growth defects in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurological or other disorders in humans. In S. cerevisiae, lack of any of several tRNA body modifications results in rapid tRNA decay (RTD) of certain mature tRNAs by the 5'-3' exonucleases Rat1 and Xrn1. As tRNA quality control decay mechanisms are not extensively studied in other eukaryotes, we studied trm8Δ mutants in the evolutionarily distant fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which lack 7-methylguanosine at G46 (m7G46) of their tRNAs. We report here that S. pombe trm8Δ mutants are temperature sensitive primarily due to decay of tRNATyr(GUA) and that spontaneous mutations in the RAT1 ortholog dhp1+ restored temperature resistance and prevented tRNA decay, demonstrating conservation of the RTD pathway. We also report for the first time evidence linking the RTD and the general amino acid control (GAAC) pathways, which we show in both S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. In S. pombe trm8Δ mutants, spontaneous GAAC mutations restored temperature resistance and tRNA levels, and the trm8Δ temperature sensitivity was precisely linked to GAAC activation due to tRNATyr(GUA) decay. Similarly, in the well-studied S. cerevisiae trm8Δ trm4Δ RTD mutant, temperature sensitivity was closely linked to GAAC activation due to tRNAVal(AAC) decay; however, in S. cerevisiae, GAAC mutations increased tRNA loss and exacerbated temperature sensitivity. A similar exacerbated growth defect occurred upon GAAC mutation in S. cerevisiae trm8Δ and other single modification mutants that triggered RTD. Thus, these results demonstrate a conserved GAAC activation coincident with RTD in S. pombe and S. cerevisiae, but an opposite impact of the GAAC response in the two organisms. We speculate that the RTD pathway and its regulation of the GAAC pathway is widely conserved in eukaryotes, extending to other mutants affecting tRNA body modifications.


Assuntos
Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA de Transferência/genética , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/metabolismo , tRNA Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Exorribonucleases/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/genética , tRNA Metiltransferases/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4104, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796835

RESUMO

Transfer RNAs (tRNA) are quintessential in deciphering the genetic code; disseminating nucleic acid triplets into correct amino acid identity. While this decoding function is clear, an emerging theme is that tRNA abundance and functionality can powerfully impact protein production rate, folding, activity, and messenger RNA stability. Importantly, however, the expression pattern of tRNAs is obliquely known. Here we present Quantitative Mature tRNA sequencing (QuantM-tRNA seq), a technique to monitor tRNA abundance and sequence variants secondary to RNA modifications. With QuantM-tRNA seq, we assess the tRNA transcriptome in mammalian tissues. We observe dramatic distinctions in isodecoder expression and known tRNA modifications between tissues. Remarkably, despite dramatic changes in tRNA isodecoder gene expression, the overall anticodon pool of each tRNA family is similar across tissues. These findings suggest that while anticodon pools appear to be buffered via an unknown mechanism, underlying transcriptomic and epitranscriptomic differences suggest a more complex tRNA regulatory landscape.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Animais , Anticódon/genética , Northern Blotting , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/genética
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 311-324, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738225

RESUMO

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitous, ancient enzymes that charge amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules, the essential first step of protein translation. Here, we describe 32 individuals from 21 families, presenting with microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, seizures, peripheral neuropathy, and ataxia, with de novo heterozygous and bi-allelic mutations in asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (NARS1). We demonstrate a reduction in NARS1 mRNA expression as well as in NARS1 enzyme levels and activity in both individual fibroblasts and induced neural progenitor cells (iNPCs). Molecular modeling of the recessive c.1633C>T (p.Arg545Cys) variant shows weaker spatial positioning and tRNA selectivity. We conclude that de novo and bi-allelic mutations in NARS1 are a significant cause of neurodevelopmental disease, where the mechanism for de novo variants could be toxic gain-of-function and for recessive variants, partial loss-of-function.


Assuntos
Aspartato-tRNA Ligase/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Aminoacil-RNA de Transferência/genética , Alelos , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/genética , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , RNA de Transferência/genética , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
7.
Gene ; 762: 145041, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777523

RESUMO

Mitochondrial genome sequencing has become widely used in numerous fields, including systematics, phylogeny, and evolutionary genomics. To elucidate phylogenetic relationships among members of the family Characidae, we sequenced the mitogenomes of four species within this family, namely, Aphyocharax rathbuni, Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi, Hyphessobrycon megalopterus, and Prionobrama filigera. The mitogenomes were found to be 16,678-16,841 bp and encode 37 typical mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNA genes). Gene arrangements in the studied species are consistent with those in the inferred ancestral fish. Most protein-coding genes in these mitogenomes have typical ATN start codons and TAR or an incomplete stop codon T-. Phylogenetic relationships based on Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood methods indicated that A. rathbuni, H. herbertaxelrodi, H. megalopterus, and P. filigera belong to the Characidae family. Of the 15 Characidae species studied, three pairs were of the same genus, but the results for only one pair were well supported. This phylogenetic classification is inconsistent with those described in previous morphological and taxonomic studies on this family. Thus, systematic classification of the Characidae requires further examination. Our findings yield new mitogenomic data that will provide a basis for future phylogenetic and taxonomic studies.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Animais , Caraciformes/classificação , Códon/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3830, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737313

RESUMO

The mammalian mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) and its associated translational factors have evolved to accommodate greater participation of proteins in mitochondrial translation. Here we present the 2.68-3.96 Å cryo-EM structures of the human 55S mitoribosome in complex with the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1mt) in three distinct conformational states, including an intermediate state and a post-translocational state. These structures reveal the role of several mitochondria-specific (mito-specific) mitoribosomal proteins (MRPs) and a mito-specific segment of EF-G1mt in mitochondrial tRNA (tRNAmt) translocation. In particular, the mito-specific C-terminal extension in EF-G1mt is directly involved in translocation of the acceptor arm of the A-site tRNAmt. In addition to the ratchet-like and independent head-swiveling motions exhibited by the small mitoribosomal subunit, we discover significant conformational changes in MRP mL45 at the nascent polypeptide-exit site within the large mitoribosomal subunit that could be critical for tethering of the elongating mitoribosome onto the inner-mitochondrial membrane.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Elongação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/química , RNA Mitocondrial/química , RNA de Transferência/química , Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , RNA Mitocondrial/genética , RNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Ribossomos/ultraestrutura , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16333-16338, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601241

RESUMO

Bacterial transfer RNAs (tRNAs) contain evolutionarily conserved sequences and modifications that ensure uniform binding to the ribosome and optimal translational accuracy despite differences in their aminoacyl attachments and anticodon nucleotide sequences. In the tRNA anticodon stem-loop, the anticodon sequence is correlated with a base pair in the anticodon loop (nucleotides 32 and 38) to tune the binding of each tRNA to the decoding center in the ribosome. Disruption of this correlation renders the ribosome unable to distinguish correct from incorrect tRNAs. The molecular basis for how these two tRNA features combine to ensure accurate decoding is unclear. Here, we solved structures of the bacterial ribosome containing either wild-type [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] containing a reversed 32-38 pair on cognate and near-cognate codons. Structures of wild-type [Formula: see text] bound to the ribosome reveal 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) nucleotide A1913 positional changes that are dependent on whether the codon-anticodon interaction is cognate or near cognate. Further, the 32-38 pair is destabilized in the context of a near-cognate codon-anticodon pair. Reversal of the pairing in [Formula: see text] ablates A1913 movement regardless of whether the interaction is cognate or near cognate. These results demonstrate that disrupting 32-38 and anticodon sequences alters interactions with the ribosome that directly contribute to misreading.


Assuntos
Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA de Transferência/química , RNA de Transferência/genética , Anticódon/química , Anticódon/genética , Anticódon/metabolismo , Pareamento de Bases , Códon/genética , Códon/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Bacteriano/química , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 23S/química , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Ribossomos/química , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Thermus thermophilus/genética , Thermus thermophilus/metabolismo
10.
Life Sci ; 257: 118125, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702444

RESUMO

AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing health problem worldwide. Impaired autophagy has been linked to NAFLD pathogenesis. Whether transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived fragments (tRFs) regulate the progression of NAFLD via autophagy is not clear. Here, we aimed to identify autophagy- or adipogenesis-related tRFs and investigate their roles in NAFLD. METHODS: Small RNA sequencing was performed on NAFLD and control mice, and candidate tRFs were validated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The role of a key tRF was investigated using Oil red O staining, western blotting, qRT-PCR and a luciferase reporter assay. KEY FINDINGS: In NAFLD mice, the expression of p62 was increased and the ratio of LC3B-II/LC3-I was decreased compared to control mice. We identified nine differentially expressed tRFs, among which tRF-3001b was found to be significantly upregulated in NAFLD mice compared to the control liver tissues. Autophagy was decreased in FA (fatty acids)-induced LO2 cells, while silencing of tRF-3001b significantly abrogated the decrease in autophagy and increase in lipid formation. Moreover, chloroquine (CQ) dramatically abrogated the effect of tRF-3001b inhibition on lipid formation. Mechanistically, tRF-3001b targeted and inhibited the expression of the autophagy-related gene Prkaa1. In vivo, tRF-3001b silencing significantly improved pathology and decreased the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in NAFLD mice, while CQ dramatically abrogated the effect of tRF-3001b deficiency. SIGNIFICANCE: tRF-3001b may aggravate the development of NAFLD by inhibiting autophagy via targeting Prkaa1.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA de Transferência/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3154, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572025

RESUMO

An orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair is a crucial prerequisite for site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Due to its high codon suppression efficiency and full orthogonality, the pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase/pyrrolysyl-tRNA pair is currently the ideal system for genetic code expansion in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. There is a pressing need to discover or engineer other fully orthogonal translation systems. Here, through rational chimera design by transplanting the key orthogonal components from the pyrrolysine system, we create multiple chimeric tRNA synthetase/chimeric tRNA pairs, including chimera histidine, phenylalanine, and alanine systems. We further show that these engineered chimeric systems are orthogonal and highly efficient with comparable flexibility to the pyrrolysine system. Besides, the chimera phenylalanine system can incorporate a group of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan analogues efficiently in both E. coli and mammalian cells. These aromatic amino acids analogous exhibit unique properties and characteristics, including fluorescence, post-translation modification.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Código Genético , RNA de Transferência , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Quimera/genética , Quimera/metabolismo , Escherichia coli , Células HEK293 , Histidina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Triptofano/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/análogos & derivados
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(13): 7307-7320, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484543

RESUMO

Previously, combined loss of different anticodon loop modifications was shown to impair the function of distinct tRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, each scenario resulted in shared cellular phenotypes, the basis of which is unclear. Since loss of tRNA modification may evoke transcriptional responses, we characterized global transcription patterns of modification mutants with defects in either tRNAGlnUUG or tRNALysUUU function. We observe that the mutants share inappropriate induction of multiple starvation responses in exponential growth phase, including derepression of glucose and nitrogen catabolite-repressed genes. In addition, autophagy is prematurely and inadequately activated in the mutants. We further demonstrate that improper induction of individual starvation genes as well as the propensity of the tRNA modification mutants to form protein aggregates are diminished upon overexpression of tRNAGlnUUG or tRNALysUUU, the tRNA species that lack the modifications of interest. Hence, our data suggest that global alterations in mRNA translation and proteostasis account for the transcriptional stress signatures that are commonly triggered by loss of anticodon modifications in different tRNAs.


Assuntos
Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/deficiência , Nitrogênio/deficiência , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Autofagia , Glucose/metabolismo , Mutação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(12): 6445-6457, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484512

RESUMO

The accuracy in pairing tRNAs with correct amino acids by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) dictates the fidelity of translation. To ensure fidelity, multiple aaRSs developed editing functions that remove a wrong amino acid from tRNA before it reaches the ribosome. However, no specific mechanism within an aaRS is known to handle the scenario where a cognate amino acid is mischarged onto a wrong tRNA, as exemplified by AlaRS mischarging alanine to G4:U69-containing tRNAThr. Here, we report that the mischargeable G4:U69-containing tRNAThr are strictly conserved in vertebrates and are ubiquitously and abundantly expressed in mammalian cells and tissues. Although these tRNAs are efficiently mischarged, no corresponding Thr-to-Ala mistranslation is detectable. Mistranslation is prevented by a robust proofreading activity of ThrRS towards Ala-tRNAThr. Therefore, while wrong amino acids are corrected within an aaRS, a wrong tRNA is handled in trans by an aaRS cognate to the mischarged tRNA species. Interestingly, although Ala-tRNAThr mischarging is not known to occur in bacteria, Escherichia coli ThrRS also possesses robust cross-editing ability. We propose that the cross-editing activity of ThrRS is evolutionarily conserved and that this intrinsic activity allows G4:U69-containing tRNAThr to emerge and be preserved in vertebrates to have alternative functions without compromising translational fidelity.


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/metabolismo , Edição de RNA , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Alanina/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , RNA de Transferência/genética , Treonina/genética , Vertebrados/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3061, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601843

RESUMO

Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is the controlled slippage of the translating ribosome to an alternative frame. This process is widely employed by human viruses such as HIV and SARS coronavirus and is critical for their replication. Here, we developed a high-throughput approach to assess the frameshifting potential of a sequence. We designed and tested >12,000 sequences based on 15 viral and human PRF events, allowing us to systematically dissect the rules governing ribosomal frameshifting and discover novel regulatory inputs based on amino acid properties and tRNA availability. We assessed the natural variation in HIV gag-pol frameshifting rates by testing >500 clinical isolates and identified subtype-specific differences and associations between viral load in patients and the optimality of PRF rates. We devised computational models that accurately predict frameshifting potential and frameshifting rates, including subtle differences between HIV isolates. This approach can contribute to the development of antiviral agents targeting PRF.


Assuntos
Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Proteínas de Fusão gag-pol/genética , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Células K562 , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA de Transferência/genética
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3061, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546731

RESUMO

Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is the controlled slippage of the translating ribosome to an alternative frame. This process is widely employed by human viruses such as HIV and SARS coronavirus and is critical for their replication. Here, we developed a high-throughput approach to assess the frameshifting potential of a sequence. We designed and tested >12,000 sequences based on 15 viral and human PRF events, allowing us to systematically dissect the rules governing ribosomal frameshifting and discover novel regulatory inputs based on amino acid properties and tRNA availability. We assessed the natural variation in HIV gag-pol frameshifting rates by testing >500 clinical isolates and identified subtype-specific differences and associations between viral load in patients and the optimality of PRF rates. We devised computational models that accurately predict frameshifting potential and frameshifting rates, including subtle differences between HIV isolates. This approach can contribute to the development of antiviral agents targeting PRF.


Assuntos
Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Proteínas de Fusão gag-pol/genética , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Células K562 , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA de Transferência/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401752

RESUMO

Identical codon pairing and co-tRNA codon pairing increase translational efficiency within genes when two codons that encode the same amino acid are translated by the same tRNA before it diffuses from the ribosome. We examine the phylogenetic signal in both identical and co-tRNA codon pairing across 23 428 species using alignment-free and parsimony methods. We determined that conserved codon pairing typically has a smaller window size than the length of a ribosome, and codon pairing tracks phylogenies across various taxonomic groups. We report a comprehensive analysis of codon pairing, including the extent to which each codon pairs. Our parsimony method generally recovers phylogenies that are more congruent with the established phylogenies than our alignment-free method. However, four of the ten taxonomic groups did not have sufficient orthologous codon pairings and were therefore analyzed using only the alignment-free methods. Since the recovered phylogenies using only codon pairing largely match phylogenies from the Open Tree of Life and the NCBI taxonomy, and are comparable to trees recovered by other algorithms, we propose that codon pairing biases are phylogenetically conserved and should be considered in conjunction with other phylogenomic techniques.


Assuntos
Códon/genética , Sequência Conservada/genética , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/genética , Ribossomos/genética
17.
RNA ; 26(9): 1131-1142, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385137

RESUMO

tRNAs constitute the most highly modified class of RNA. Every tRNA contains a unique set of modifications, and Ψ55, m5U54, and m7G46 are frequently found within the elbow of the tRNA structure. Despite the abundance of tRNA modifications, we are only beginning to understand the orchestration of modification enzymes during tRNA maturation. Here, we investigated whether pre-existing modifications impact the binding affinity or catalysis by tRNA elbow modification enzymes. Specifically, we focused on the Escherichia coli enzymes TruB, TrmA, and TrmB which generate Ψ55, m5U54, and m7G46, respectively. tRNAs containing a single modification were prepared, and the binding and activity preferences of purified E. coli TrmA, TruB, and TrmB were examined in vitro. TruB preferentially binds and modifies unmodified tRNA. TrmA prefers to modify unmodified tRNA, but binds most tightly to tRNA that already contains Ψ55. In contrast, binding and modification by TrmB is insensitive to the tRNA modification status. Our results suggest that TrmA and TruB are likely to act on mostly unmodified tRNA precursors during the early stages of tRNA maturation whereas TrmB presumably acts on later tRNA intermediates that are already partially modified. In conclusion, we uncover the mechanistic basis for the preferred modification order in the E. coli tRNA elbow region.


Assuntos
Transferases Intramoleculares/genética , Pseudouridina/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , tRNA Metiltransferases/genética , Escherichia coli/genética
18.
RNA ; 26(9): 1094-1103, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385138

RESUMO

N 6-threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t6A) is a nucleoside modification found in all kingdoms of life at position 37 of tRNAs decoding ANN codons, which functions in part to restrict translation initiation to AUG and suppress frameshifting at tandem ANN codons. In Bacteria the proteins TsaB, TsaC (or C2), TsaD, and TsaE, comprise the biosynthetic apparatus responsible for t6A formation. TsaC(C2) and TsaD harbor the relevant active sites, with TsaC(C2) catalyzing the formation of the intermediate threonylcarbamoyladenosine monophosphate (TC-AMP) from ATP, threonine, and CO2, and TsaD catalyzing the transfer of the threonylcarbamoyl moiety from TC-AMP to A37 of substrate tRNAs. Several related modified nucleosides, including hydroxynorvalylcarbamoyl adenosine (hn6A), have been identified in select organisms, but nothing is known about their biosynthesis. To better understand the mechanism and structural constraints on t6A formation, and to determine if related modified nucleosides are formed via parallel biosynthetic pathways or the t6A pathway, we carried out biochemical and biophysical investigations of the t6A systems from E. coli and T. maritima to address these questions. Using kinetic assays of TsaC(C2), tRNA modification assays, and NMR, our data demonstrate that TsaC(C2) exhibit relaxed substrate specificity, producing a variety of TC-AMP analogs that can differ in both the identity of the amino acid and nucleotide component, whereas TsaD displays more stringent specificity, but efficiently produces hn6A in E. coli and T. maritima tRNA. Thus, in organisms that contain modifications such as hn6A in their tRNA, we conclude that their origin is due to formation via the t6A pathway.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Nucleosídeos/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , Adenosina/genética , Monofosfato de Adenosina/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Aminoácidos/genética , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Conformação Proteica , Especificidade por Substrato/genética , Thermotoga maritima/genética , Treonina/genética
19.
RNA ; 26(9): 1291-1298, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439717

RESUMO

Queuosine (Q) is a conserved tRNA modification in bacteria and eukaryotes. Eukaryotic Q-tRNA modification occurs through replacing the guanine base with the scavenged metabolite queuine at the wobble position of tRNAs with G 34U35N36 anticodon (Tyr, His, Asn, Asp) by the QTRT1/QTRT2 heterodimeric enzyme encoded in the genome. In humans, Q-modification in tRNATyr and tRNAAsp are further glycosylated with galactose and mannose, respectively. Although galactosyl-Q (galQ) and mannosyl-Q (manQ) can be measured by LC/MS approaches, the difficulty of detecting and quantifying these modifications with low sample inputs has hindered their biological investigations. Here we describe a simple acid denaturing gel and nonradioactive northern blot method to detect and quantify the fraction of galQ/manQ-modified tRNA using just microgram amounts of total RNA. Our method relies on the secondary amine group of galQ/manQ becoming positively charged to slow their migration in acid denaturing gels commonly used for tRNA charging studies. We apply this method to determine the Q and galQ/manQ modification kinetics in three human cells lines. For Q-modification, tRNAAsp is modified the fastest, followed by tRNAHis, tRNATyr, and tRNAAsn Compared to Q-modification, glycosylation occurs at a much slower rate for tRNAAsp, but at a similar rate for tRNATyr Our method enables easy access to study the function of these enigmatic tRNA modifications.


Assuntos
Géis/química , Nucleosídeo Q/química , RNA de Transferência/química , RNA de Transferência/genética , Anticódon/química , Anticódon/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glicosilação , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nucleosídeo Q/genética , Aminoacilação de RNA de Transferência/genética
20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(11): 6223-6233, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374873

RESUMO

As cells encounter adverse environmental conditions, such as hypoxia, oxidative stress or nutrient deprivation, they trigger stress response pathways to protect themselves until transient stresses have passed. Inhibition of translation is a key component of such cellular stress responses and mounting evidence has revealed the importance of a class of tRNA-derived small RNAs called tiRNAs in this process. The most potent of these small RNAs are those with the capability of assembling into tetrameric G-quadruplex (G4) structures. However, the mechanism by which these small RNAs inhibit translation has yet to be elucidated. Here we show that eIF4G, the major scaffolding protein in the translation initiation complex, directly binds G4s and this activity is required for tiRNA-mediated translation repression. Targeting of eIF4G results in an impairment of 40S ribosome scanning on mRNAs leading to the formation of eIF2α-independent stress granules. Our data reveals the mechanism by which tiRNAs inhibit translation and demonstrates novel activity for eIF4G in the regulation of translation.


Assuntos
Fator de Iniciação 4G em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Quadruplex G , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA de Transferência/química , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 4F em Eucariotos/química , Fator de Iniciação 4F em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Humanos , Iniciação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos/metabolismo
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