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1.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 127-139.e6, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007253

RESUMO

Human spliceosomes contain numerous proteins absent in yeast, whose functions remain largely unknown. Here we report a 3D cryo-EM structure of the human spliceosomal C complex at 3.4 Å core resolution and 4.5-5.7 Å at its periphery, and aided by protein crosslinking we determine its molecular architecture. Our structure provides additional insights into the spliceosome's architecture between the catalytic steps of splicing, and how proteins aid formation of the spliceosome's catalytically active RNP (ribonucleoprotein) conformation. It reveals the spatial organization of the metazoan-specific proteins PPWD1, WDR70, FRG1, and CIR1 in human C complexes, indicating they stabilize functionally important protein domains and RNA structures rearranged/repositioned during the Bact to C transition. Structural comparisons with human Bact, C∗, and P complexes reveal an intricate cascade of RNP rearrangements during splicing catalysis, with intermediate RNP conformations not found in yeast, and additionally elucidate the structural basis for the sequential recruitment of metazoan-specific spliceosomal proteins.


Assuntos
Fatores de Processamento de RNA/química , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Catálise , Células HeLa , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/ultraestrutura , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , RNA/química , RNA/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4956, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009383

RESUMO

Tet-enzyme-mediated 5-hydroxymethylation of cytosines in DNA plays a crucial role in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In RNA also, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has recently been evidenced, but its physiological roles are still largely unknown. Here we show the contribution and function of this mark in mouse ESCs and differentiating embryoid bodies. Transcriptome-wide mapping in ESCs reveals hundreds of messenger RNAs marked by 5hmC at sites characterized by a defined unique consensus sequence and particular features. During differentiation a large number of transcripts, including many encoding key pluripotency-related factors (such as Eed and Jarid2), show decreased cytosine hydroxymethylation. Using Tet-knockout ESCs, we find Tet enzymes to be partly responsible for deposition of 5hmC in mRNA. A transcriptome-wide search further reveals mRNA targets to which Tet1 and Tet2 bind, at sites showing a topology similar to that of 5hmC sites. Tet-mediated RNA hydroxymethylation is found to reduce the stability of crucial pluripotency-promoting transcripts. We propose that RNA cytosine 5-hydroxymethylation by Tets is a mark of transcriptome flexibility, inextricably linked to the balance between pluripotency and lineage commitment.


Assuntos
5-Metilcitosina/análogos & derivados , Diferenciação Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , 5-Metilcitosina/metabolismo , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Corpos Embrioides/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4940, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009411

RESUMO

The HUSH complex represses retroviruses, transposons and genes to maintain the integrity of vertebrate genomes. HUSH regulates deposition of the epigenetic mark H3K9me3, but how its three core subunits - TASOR, MPP8 and Periphilin - contribute to assembly and targeting of the complex remains unknown. Here, we define the biochemical basis of HUSH assembly and find that its modular architecture resembles the yeast RNA-induced transcriptional silencing complex. TASOR, the central HUSH subunit, associates with RNA processing components. TASOR is required for H3K9me3 deposition over LINE-1 repeats and repetitive exons in transcribed genes. In the context of previous studies, this suggests that an RNA intermediate is important for HUSH activity. We dissect the TASOR and MPP8 domains necessary for transgene repression. Structure-function analyses reveal TASOR bears a catalytically-inactive PARP domain necessary for targeted H3K9me3 deposition. We conclude that TASOR is a multifunctional pseudo-PARP that directs HUSH assembly and epigenetic regulation of repetitive genomic targets.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Epigênese Genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Éxons/genética , Genoma , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metilação , NAD/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , RNA/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Transcrição Genética
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1255: 1-6, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949386

RESUMO

Clinical single-cell biomedicine has become a new emerging discipline, which integrates single-cell RNA and DNA sequencing, proteomics, and functions with clinical phenomes, therapeutic responses, and prognosis. It is of great value to discover disease-, phenome-, and therapy-specific diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets on the basis of the principle of clinical single-cell biomedicine. This book reviews the roles of single-cell sequencing and methylation in diseases and explores disease-specific alterations of single-cell sequencing and methylation, especially focusing on potential applications of methodologies on human single-cell sequencing and methylation, on potential correlations between those changes with pulmonary diseases, and on potential roles of signaling pathways that cause heterogeneous cellular responses during treatment. This book also emphasizes the importance of methodologies in clinical practice and application, the potential of perspectives, challenges and solutions, and the significance of single-cell preparation standardization. Alterations of DNA and RNA methylation, demethylation in lung diseases, and a deep knowledge about the regulation and function of target gene methylation for diagnosing and treating diseases at the early stage are also provided. Importantly, this book aims to apply the measurement of single-cell sequencing and methylation for clinical diagnosis and treatment and to understand clinical values of those parameters and to headline and foresee the potential values of the application of single-cell sequencing in non-cancer diseases.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Doença/genética , Análise de Sequência , Análise de Célula Única , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteômica , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4708, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948758

RESUMO

While the field of microbiology has adapted to the study of complex microbiomes via modern meta-omics techniques, we have not updated our basic knowledge regarding the quantitative levels of DNA, RNA and protein molecules within a microbial cell, which ultimately control cellular function. Here we report the temporal measurements of absolute RNA and protein levels per gene within a mixed bacterial-archaeal consortium. Our analysis of this data reveals an absolute protein-to-RNA ratio of 102-104 for bacterial populations and 103-105 for an archaeon, which is more comparable to Eukaryotic representatives' humans and yeast. Furthermore, we use the linearity between the metaproteome and metatranscriptome over time to identify core functional guilds, hence using a fundamental biological feature (i.e., RNA/protein levels) to highlight phenotypical complementarity. Our findings show that upgrading multi-omic toolkits with traditional absolute measurements unlocks the scaling of core biological questions to dynamic and complex microbiomes, creating a deeper insight into inter-organismal relationships that drive the greater community function.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Microbiano , Humanos , Metabolômica , Fenótipo , Proteoma , Proteômica , Transcriptoma , Leveduras
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4871, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978399

RESUMO

Precision genome engineering has dramatically advanced with the development of CRISPR/Cas base editing systems that include cytosine base editors and adenine base editors (ABEs). Herein, we compare the editing profile of circularly permuted and domain-inlaid Cas9 base editors, and find that on-target editing is largely maintained following their intradomain insertion, but that structural permutation of the ABE can affect differing RNA off-target events. With this insight, structure-guided design was used to engineer an SaCas9 ABE variant (microABE I744) that has dramatically improved on-target editing efficiency and a reduced RNA-off target footprint compared to current N-terminal linked SaCas9 ABE variants. This represents one of the smallest AAV-deliverable Cas9-ABEs available, which has been optimized for robust on-target activity and RNA-fidelity based upon its stereochemistry.


Assuntos
Adenina/química , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/métodos , Engenharia Genética/métodos , RNA/metabolismo , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Citosina , DNA , Exoma , Genoma , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Edição de RNA
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4825, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973178

RESUMO

Short regulatory RNA molecules underpin gene expression and govern cellular state and physiology. To establish an alternative layer of control over these processes, we generated chimeric regulatory RNAs that interact reversibly and light-dependently with the light-oxygen-voltage photoreceptor PAL. By harnessing this interaction, the function of micro RNAs (miRs) and short hairpin (sh) RNAs in mammalian cells can be regulated in a spatiotemporally precise manner. The underlying strategy is generic and can be adapted to near-arbitrary target sequences. Owing to full genetic encodability, it establishes optoribogenetic control of cell state and physiology. The method stands to facilitate the non-invasive, reversible and spatiotemporally resolved study of regulatory RNAs and protein function in cellular and organismal environments.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Células Fotorreceptoras/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008205, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903255

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) can map cell types, states and transitions during dynamic biological processes such as tissue development and regeneration. Many trajectory inference methods have been developed to order cells by their progression through a dynamic process. However, when time series data is available, most of these methods do not consider the available time information when ordering cells and are instead designed to work only on a single scRNA-seq data snapshot. We present Tempora, a novel cell trajectory inference method that orders cells using time information from time-series scRNA-seq data. In performance comparison tests, Tempora inferred known developmental lineages from three diverse tissue development time series data sets, beating state of the art methods in accuracy and speed. Tempora works at the level of cell clusters (types) and uses biological pathway information to help identify cell type relationships. This approach increases gene expression signal from single cells, processing speed, and interpretability of the inferred trajectory. Our results demonstrate the utility of a combination of time and pathway information to supervise trajectory inference for scRNA-seq based analysis.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Software , Algoritmos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Mioblastos/metabolismo , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(4): 048104, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794805

RESUMO

The RNA world scenario posits replication by RNA polymerases. On early Earth, a geophysical setting is required to separate hybridized strands after their replication and to localize them against diffusion. We present a pointed heat source that drives exponential, RNA-catalyzed amplification of short RNA with high efficiency in a confined chamber. While shorter strands were periodically melted by laminar convection, the temperature gradient caused aggregated polymerase molecules to accumulate, protecting them from degradation in hot regions of the chamber. These findings demonstrate a size-selective pathway for autonomous RNA-based replication in natural nonequilibrium conditions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , RNA/química , RNA/genética , Catálise , DNA/química , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/química , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Planeta Terra , Evolução Molecular , Temperatura Alta , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA/metabolismo
11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 375, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the barriers to incorporating RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) into biomedical studies continue to decrease, the complexity and size of RNA-Seq experiments are rapidly growing. Paired, longitudinal, and other correlated designs are becoming commonplace, and these studies offer immense potential for understanding how transcriptional changes within an individual over time differ depending on treatment or environmental conditions. While several methods have been proposed for dealing with repeated measures within RNA-Seq analyses, they are either restricted to handling only paired measurements, can only test for differences between two groups, and/or have issues with maintaining nominal false positive and false discovery rates. In this work, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical negative binomial generalized linear mixed model framework that can flexibly model RNA-Seq counts from studies with arbitrarily many repeated observations, can include covariates, and also maintains nominal false positive and false discovery rates in its posterior inference. RESULTS: In simulation studies, we showed that our proposed method (MCMSeq) best combines high statistical power (i.e. sensitivity or recall) with maintenance of nominal false positive and false discovery rates compared the other available strategies, especially at the smaller sample sizes investigated. This behavior was then replicated in an application to real RNA-Seq data where MCMSeq was able to find previously reported genes associated with tuberculosis infection in a cohort with longitudinal measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Failing to account for repeated measurements when analyzing RNA-Seq experiments can result in significantly inflated false positive and false discovery rates. Of the methods we investigated, whether they model RNA-Seq counts directly or worked on transformed values, the Bayesian hierarchical model implemented in the mcmseq R package (available at https://github.com/stop-pre16/mcmseq ) best combined sensitivity and nominal error rate control.


Assuntos
RNA/química , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Tuberculose/genética , Tuberculose/patologia
12.
PLoS Biol ; 18(7): e3000710, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667910

RESUMO

During gestation, uterine smooth muscle cells transition from a state of quiescence to one of contractility, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this transition at a genomic level are not well-known. To better understand these events, we evaluated the epigenetic landscape of the mouse myometrium during the pregnant, laboring, and postpartum stages. We generated gestational time point-specific enrichment profiles for histone H3 acetylation on lysine residue 27 (H3K27ac), histone H3 trimethylation of lysine residue 4 (H3K4me3), and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) occupancy by chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq), as well as gene expression profiles by total RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Our findings reveal that 533 genes, including known contractility-driving genes (Gap junction alpha 1 [Gja1], FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene [Fos], Fos-like antigen 2 [Fosl2], Oxytocin receptor [Oxtr], and Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (Ptgs2), for example), are up-regulated at day 19 during active labor because of an increase in transcription at gene bodies. Labor-associated promoters and putative intergenic enhancers, however, are epigenetically activated as early as day 15, by which point the majority of genome-wide H3K27ac or H3K4me3 peaks present in term laboring tissue is already established. Despite this early exhibited histone signature, increased noncoding enhancer RNA (eRNA) production at putative intergenic enhancers and recruitment of RNAPII to the gene bodies of labor-associated loci were detected only during labor. Our findings indicate that epigenetic activation of the myometrial genome precedes active labor by at least 4 days in the mouse model, suggesting that the myometrium is poised for rapid activation of contraction-associated genes in order to exit the state of quiescence.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Loci Gênicos , Trabalho de Parto/genética , Miométrio/fisiologia , Contração Uterina/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Código das Histonas/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Genéticos , Gravidez , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
13.
Nat Protoc ; 15(8): 2568-2588, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651564

RESUMO

RNA-protein interactions play a pivotal role in cell homeostasis and disease, but current approaches to study them require a considerable amount of starting material, favor the recovery of only a subset of RNA species or are complex and time-consuming. We recently developed orthogonal organic phase separation (OOPS): a quick, efficient and reproducible method to purify cross-linked RNA-protein adducts in an unbiased way. OOPS avoids molecular tagging or the capture of polyadenylated RNA. Instead, it is based on sampling the interface of a standard TRIzol extraction to enrich RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and their cognate bound RNA. OOPS specificity is achieved by digesting the enriched interfaces with RNases or proteases to release the RBPs or protein-bound RNA, respectively. Here we present a step-by-step protocol to purify protein-RNA adducts, free protein and free RNA from the same sample. We further describe how OOPS can be applied in human cell lines, Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Escherichia coli and how it can be used to study RBP dynamics.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Proteoma/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/isolamento & purificação , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Transcriptoma , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Proteoma/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Fluxo de Trabalho
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 7623-7639, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644123

RESUMO

RNA therapeutics are a promising strategy to treat genetic diseases caused by the overexpression or aberrant splicing of a specific protein. The field has seen major strides in the clinical efficacy of this class of molecules, largely due to chemical modifications and delivery strategies that improve nuclease resistance and enhance cell penetration. However, a major obstacle in the development of RNA therapeutics continues to be the imprecise, difficult, and often problematic nature of most methods used to measure cell penetration. Here, we review these methods and clearly distinguish between those that measure total cellular uptake of RNA therapeutics, which includes both productive and non-productive uptake, and those that measure cytosolic/nuclear penetration, which represents only productive uptake. We critically analyze the benefits and drawbacks of each method. Finally, we use key examples to illustrate how, despite rigorous experimentation and proper controls, our understanding of the mechanism of gymnotic uptake of RNA therapeutics remains limited by the methods commonly used to analyze RNA delivery.


Assuntos
RNA/metabolismo , RNA/uso terapêutico , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas Genéticas , Humanos , MicroRNAs/uso terapêutico , Microscopia Eletrônica , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , RNA/química , RNA/farmacocinética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3422, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647223

RESUMO

The Integrator complex processes 3'-ends of spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). Furthermore, it regulates transcription of protein coding genes by terminating transcription after unstable pausing. The molecular basis for Integrator's functions remains obscure. Here, we show that INTS10, Asunder/INTS13 and INTS14 form a separable, functional Integrator module. The structure of INTS13-INTS14 reveals a strongly entwined complex with a unique chain interlink. Unexpected structural homology to the Ku70-Ku80 DNA repair complex suggests nucleic acid affinity. Indeed, the module displays affinity for DNA and RNA but prefers RNA hairpins. While the module plays an accessory role in snRNA maturation, it has a stronger influence on transcription termination after pausing. Asunder/INTS13 directly binds Integrator's cleavage module via a conserved C-terminal motif that is involved in snRNA processing and required for spermatogenesis. Collectively, our data establish INTS10-INTS13-INTS14 as a nucleic acid-binding module and suggest that it brings cleavage module and target transcripts into proximity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/química , Autoantígeno Ku/química , Mutação/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , RNA/química , RNA/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18701-18710, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690679

RESUMO

Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a DNA-binding transcription factor that either activates or represses gene expression. YY1 has previously been implicated in the transcriptional silencing of many retroviruses by binding to DNA sequences in the U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). We here show that YY1 overexpression leads to profound activation, rather than repression, of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) expression, while YY1 down-regulation reduces HTLV-1 expression. The YY1 responsive element mapped not to YY1 DNA-binding sites in the HTLV-1 LTR but to the R region. The HTLV-1 R sequence alone is sufficient to provide YY1 responsiveness to a nonresponsive promoter, but only in the sense orientation and only when included as part of the mRNA. YY1 binds to the R region of HTLV-1 RNA in vitro and in vivo, leading to increased transcription initiation and elongation. The findings indicate that YY1 is a potent transactivator of HTLV-1 gene expression acting via binding viral RNA, rather than DNA.


Assuntos
Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/genética , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , RNA/metabolismo , Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética , Fator de Transcrição YY1 , Células HEK293 , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Ligação Proteica/genética , RNA/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Fator de Transcrição YY1/genética , Fator de Transcrição YY1/metabolismo
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(13): 7520-7531, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678884

RESUMO

2'-5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) are innate immune sensors of cytosolic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and play a critical role in limiting viral infection. dsRNA binding induces allosteric structural changes in OAS1 that reorganize its catalytic center to promote synthesis of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate and thus activation of endoribonuclease L. Specific RNA sequences and structural motifs can also enhance activation of OAS1 through currently undefined mechanisms. To better understand these drivers of OAS activation, we tested the impact of defined sequence changes within a short dsRNA that strongly activates OAS1. Both in vitro and in human A549 cells, appending a 3'-end single-stranded pyrimidine (3'-ssPy) can strongly enhance OAS1 activation or have no effect depending on its location, suggesting that other dsRNA features are necessary for correct presentation of the motif to OAS1. Consistent with this idea, we also find that the dsRNA binding position is dictated by an established consensus sequence (WWN9WG). Unexpectedly, however, not all sequences fitting this consensus activate OAS1 equivalently, with strong dependence on the identity of both partially conserved (W) and non-conserved (N9) residues. A picture thus emerges in which both specific RNA features and the context in which they are presented dictate the ability of short dsRNAs to activate OAS1.


Assuntos
2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/metabolismo , Sequência Consenso , RNA/química , 2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/química , Células A549 , Regulação Alostérica , Sítio Alostérico , Domínio Catalítico , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , RNA/metabolismo
19.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(7): 767-778, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601371

RESUMO

Following fertilization in mammals, the gametes are reprogrammed to create a totipotent zygote, a process that involves de novo establishment of chromatin domains. A major feature occurring during preimplantation development is the dramatic remodelling of constitutive heterochromatin, although the functional relevance of this is unknown. Here, we show that heterochromatin establishment relies on the stepwise expression and regulated activity of SUV39H enzymes. Enforcing precocious acquisition of constitutive heterochromatin results in compromised development and epigenetic reprogramming, which demonstrates that heterochromatin remodelling is essential for natural reprogramming at fertilization. We find that de novo H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) in the paternal pronucleus after fertilization is catalysed by SUV39H2 and that pericentromeric RNAs inhibit SUV39H2 activity and reduce H3K9me3. De novo H3K9me3 is initially non-repressive for gene expression, but instead bookmarks promoters for compaction. Overall, we uncover the functional importance for the restricted transmission of constitutive heterochromatin during reprogramming and a non-repressive role for H3K9me3.


Assuntos
Centrômero/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Heterocromatina/genética , Histonas/genética , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , RNA/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236744, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730309

RESUMO

Repeated exposures to environmental allergens in susceptible individuals drive the development of type 2 inflammatory conditions such as asthma, which have been traditionally considered to be mainly mediated by Th2 cells. However, emerging evidence suggest that a new innate cell type, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), plays a central role in initiating and amplifying a type 2 response, even in the absence of adaptive immunity. At present, the regulatory mechanisms for controlling ILC2 activation remain poorly understood. Here we report that respiratory delivery of immunogenic extracellular RNA (exRNAs) derived from RNA- and DNA-virus infected cells, was able to activate a protective response against acute type 2 lung immunopathology and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) induced by IL-33 and a fungal allergen, A. flavus, in mice. Mechanistically, we found that the innate immune responses triggered by exRNAs had a potent suppressive effect in vivo on the proliferation and function of ILC2 without the involvement of adaptive immunity. We further provided the loss-of-function genetic evidence that the TLR3- and MAVS-mediated signaling axis is essential for the inhibitory effects of exRNAs in mouse lungs. Thus, our results indicate that the host detection of extracellular immunostimulatory RNAs generated during respiratory viral infections have an important function in the regulation of ILC2-driven acute lung inflammation.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , RNA/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/fisiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/fisiologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/imunologia , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Pneumonia/patologia , RNA/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/fisiologia
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