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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468527

RESUMO

A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.


Assuntos
Cromo , Cyprinidae , Carboidratos da Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta
2.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 179, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aquaculture sector now accounts for almost 50% of all fish for human consumption and is anticipated to provide 62% by 2030. Innovative strategies are being sought to improve fish feeds and feed additives to enhance fish performance, welfare, and the environmental sustainability of the aquaculture industry. There is still a lack of knowledge surrounding the importance and functionality of the teleost gut microbiome in fish nutrition. In vitro gut model systems might prove a valuable tool to study the effect of feed, and additives, on the host's microbial communities. Several in vitro gut models targeted at monogastric vertebrates are now in operation. Here, we report the development of an Atlantic salmon gut model, SalmoSim, to simulate three gut compartments (stomach, pyloric caecum, and midgut) and associated microbial communities. RESULTS: The gut model was established in a series of linked bioreactors seeded with biological material derived from farmed adult marine-phase salmon. We first aimed to achieve a stable microbiome composition representative of founding microbial communities derived from Atlantic salmon. Then, in biological triplicate, the response of the in vitro system to two distinct dietary formulations (fishmeal and fishmeal free) was compared to a parallel in vivo trial over 40 days. Metabarcoding based on 16S rDNA sequencing qPCR, ammoniacal nitrogen, and volatile fatty acid measurements were undertaken to survey the microbial community dynamics and function. SalmoSim microbiomes were indistinguishable (p = 0.230) from their founding inocula at 20 days and the most abundant genera (e.g., Psycrobacter, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas) proliferated within SalmoSim (OTUs accounting for 98% of all reads shared with founding communities). Real salmon and SalmoSim responded similarly to the introduction of novel feed, with majority of the taxa (96% Salmon, 97% SalmoSim) unaffected, while a subset of taxa (e.g., a small fraction of Psychrobacter) was differentially affected across both systems. Consistent with a low impact of the novel feed on microbial fermentative activity, volatile fatty acid profiles were not significantly different in SalmoSim pre- and post-feed switch. CONCLUSION: By establishing stable and representative salmon gut communities, this study represents an important step in the development of an in vitro gut system as a tool for the improvement of fish nutrition and welfare. The steps of the system development described in this paper can be used as guidelines to develop various other systems representing other fish species. These systems, including SalmoSim, aim to be utilised as a prescreening tool for new feed ingredients and additives, as well as being used to study antimicrobial resistance and transfer and fundamental ecological processes that underpin microbiome dynamics and assembly. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Salmo salar , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10688-10699, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472353

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient; however, potential health impacts of high dietary levels of added soluble, highly bioavailable P salts especially are a concern. P sources with lower bioavailability are considered safer. Yet, speciation of different P sources to assess diets' risk to health is challenging. This investigation tested the value of in vitro water extraction and digestion assays to predict in vivo P apparent bioavailability/digestibility in feline diets. Thirty wet (n = 18) and dry (n = 12) format experimental and commercial cat foods were analyzed for nutrient content. Triplicate samples were subjected to in vitro water extraction, single-phase acidic (gastric; G) digestion, and dual-phase gastric and small intestinal (G-SI) digestion assays. Soluble and insoluble P were determined in the supernatant and pellet, respectively. A subset of the diets (seven wet, nine dry diets) was fed to healthy, adult cats (n = 7-24) to determine in vivo apparent P digestibility. Information on the soluble P salt sources and their contribution to total dietary P was available for some diets. Associations between data from the different in vitro assays and in vivo digestibility trials and the influence of different diet parameters were obtained using Pearson correlation and linear regression modeling. The % soluble P obtained from G-SI digestion assay correlated well with in vivo apparent P digestibility for wet (Pearson coefficient 0.926, p = 0.003), but not for dry diets (Pearson coefficient -0.074, p = 0.849). In contrast, the % soluble P determined by water extraction correlated well with the % soluble P salt contribution to total P for dry (Pearson coefficient 0.901, p < 0.001), but not for wet diets (Pearson coefficient -0.407, p = 0.365). Thus, 20 min water extraction can be used to predict soluble P salt content in dry diets; however, differing Ca:P ratios and water solubility of the P sources may affect the outcome and false-positive results can occur. The G-SI digestion assay employed can also be used to predict in vivo P digestibility. However, again, diet format, Ca:P ratios in diets, and possibly other factors can impact the results. Thus, data from in vitro assays to assess P sources and bioavailability need to be interpreted with care.


Assuntos
Digestão , Fósforo na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gatos , Dieta/veterinária , Nutrientes , Fósforo
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468517

RESUMO

Fish protein is serving as a source of nutrition for protein starving world. However, sustainable aquaculture products require inexpensive plant by-products due to finite sources of fish meal. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine nutrient utilization, growth performance and hematological indices of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) based diets. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having MOLM as a substitute of fish meal (FM) at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% for the period of 90 days. Fingerlings having initial weight 6.35±0.04g were reared in triplicate tanks at the stocking density of 15 and hand fed at the rate of 5% of total biomass twice regularly. Chromic oxide inclusion level was 1% in diets. After analysis, maximum growth performance and improved digestibility of nutrients were found in fish fed with diet at 10% replacement level as compared to fish fed on control diet and other test diets. Additionally, it was found that the red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration of fish showed a significantly (p<0.05) inverse correlation with the increase in MOLM. In present research, it was concluded that MOLM has good potential to be used as a FM substitute in C. mrigala diet with maximum effect at 10% showing positive hematological indices.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Moringa oleifera , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Dieta
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468521

RESUMO

Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings' body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Linho , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248878, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468535

RESUMO

Biofloc technology is much highlighted these days because of its tremendous effects on aquaculture. Microbes were enriched on cheapest organic carbon source i. e., powdered banana peels and were incorporated in different aquaria rearing grass carp fingerlings under different C/N treatments (10:1, 15:1 and 20:1) and 10% water daily water exchange. The initial growth of fingerlings was recorded. The experiment was settled in triplicates for 60 days and run parallel to control group provided with commercial feed and daily water exchange. Its effect was evaluated by measuring the growth of fingerlings and water parameters of each aquarium. The average % gain in weight and length of fingerlings was obtained significantly highest (28.12 ± 0.30g and 17.29 ± 0.46cm respectively) in aquaria containing pure powdered banana peels with 10% water exchange and C/N ratio was adjusted at 20: 1 (T3) than other treatments and control. Ammonia and other water parameters were also under control in T3 than other experimental and control groups. By all counts, it was concluded that the highest C/N ratio in biofloc system had the potential to increment C. idella growth rate by reducing toxicity and could be used as fish meal substitute.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Carpas , Amônia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carbono
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495169

RESUMO

Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cyprinidae , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
9.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414634

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of including low-fat dried distillers grains (DDG) on young Nellore bulls performance, nutritional parameters, and nitrogen metabolism. Thirty-five Nellore cattle were randomly divided into four diets: without dried distillers grains (D0) or with the inclusion of DDG at 150 g/kg (D150), 300 g/kg (D300), or 450 g/kg (D450). The evaluation period lasted 126 days, and three periods of collection of feces and urine were carried out. Final body weight (P = 0.099) and average daily gain (P = 0.097) tended to decrease linearly; the digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.001), organic matter (P < 0.001), ether extract (P < 0.001) and nonfiber carbohydrates (P < 0.001), and intakes of total digestible nutrients (TDN, P < 0.001) decreased linearly. The increase in crude protein intake (P < 0.001) did not result in an increase in the amount of nitrogen retained (P = 0.540). We concluded that the inclusion of low-fat DDG in finishing diets up to the level of 450 g/kg tends to reduce animal performance and the intake of TDN.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Animais , Peso Corporal , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Ganho de Peso
10.
Animal ; 15(9): 100336, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371468

RESUMO

Many of the studies in Campos grasslands focus on management aspects such as the control of herbage allowance, and application of nutrients and/or overseeding with legumes. However, there is little literature on how the Campos grassland resource is utilised, especially regarding the grazing pattern and the relationship between pasture quantity and quality on daily grazing activities. The study of the ingestive behaviour in species-rich and heterogeneous native grasslands during daylight hours, and understanding how animals prioritise quality or quantity of intake in relation to pasture attributes, are important to comprehend the ingestive-digestive processes modulating the energy intake of animals and to achieve a better grazing management. Therefore, the objective was to describe and quantify the daily grazing behaviour of growing cattle grazing native pasture with different structures as a result of different management practices, and study the relationship of pasture attributes and intake through multivariate analysis. The study was carried out at the Faculty of Agronomy, Paysandú, Uruguay. Treatments were native grassland, overseeding with Trifolium pratense and Lotus tenuis + phosphorus, and native pasture + nitrogen-phosphorus. Grazing activities were discriminated into grazing, searching (defined when animals take 1-2 bites in one feeding station and then change to another feeding station and so on), ruminating and idling. The probability of time allocated to each activity was continuously measured during daylight hours (0700-1930) and was related to pasture structure and forage quality using regression tree models, while the bite rate was determined every 2 h. The diurnal pattern of growing cattle showed grazing and searching sessions, followed by ruminating and idling sessions. The length of sessions (as the probability of time allocated to each activity) varied throughout the day. The grazing probability was greater during afternoon than morning and midday (0.74 vs 0.45 vs 0.46, respectively), and it was associated with higher bite rate (34.2 bites/min). Regression tree models showed different grazing, searching and ruminating strategies according to pasture attributes. During the morning, animals modified grazing, searching, ruminating and idling strategies according to bite rate, crude protein in diet and herbage allowance. At midday, they only adjusted ruminating and idling, while during afternoon sessions, grazing activities were modified by pasture quantity attributes such as herbage mass and herbage allowance. By controlling the herbage allowance, herbage mass and pasture height, animals prioritise quality in the morning and quantity in the afternoon, integrating and modifying the grazing-searching and ruminating-idling pattern.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Pradaria , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Lactação
11.
Animal ; 15(9): 100325, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371470

RESUMO

In response to the increased concern over agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, more detailed assessments of current methane emissions and their variation, within and across individual dairy farms and cattle, are of interest for research and policy development. This assessment will provide insights into possible changes needed to reduce GHG emissions, the nature and direction of these changes, ways to influence farmer behavior and areas to maximize the adoption of emerging mitigation technologies. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the variation in enteric fermentation methane emissions within and among seasonal calving dairy farms with the majority of nutritional requirements met through grazed pasture; (2) use this variation to assess the potential of new individual animal emission monitoring technologies and their impact on mitigation policy. We used a large database of cow performance records for milk production and survival from 2 398 herds in New Zealand, and simulation to account for unobserved variation in feed efficiency and methane emissions per unit of feed. Results showed an average of 120 ± 31.4 kg predicted methane (CH4) per cow per year after accounting for replacement costs, ranging 8.9-323 kg CH4/cow per year. Whereas milk production, survival and predicted live weight were reasonably effective at predicting both individual and herd average levels of per cow feed intake, substantial within animal variation in emissions per unit of feed reduced the ability of these variables to predict variation in per animal methane output. Animal-level measurement technologies predicting only feed intake but not emissions per unit of feed are unlikely to be effective for advancing national policy goals of reducing dairy farming enteric methane output. This is because farmers seek to profitably utilize all farm feed resources available, so improvements in feed efficiency will not result in the reduction in feed utilization required to reduce methane emissions. At a herd level, average per cow milk production and live weight could form the basis of assigning a farm-level point of obligation for methane emissions. In conclusion, a comprehensive national database infrastructure that was tightly linked to animal identification and movement systems, and captured live weight data from existing farm-level recording systems, would be required to make this effective. Additional policy and incentivization mechanisms would still be required to encourage farmer uptake of mitigation interventions, such as novel feed supplements or vaccines that reduce methane emissions per unit of feed.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Metano , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fazendas , Feminino , Leite
12.
Animal ; 15(9): 100333, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371471

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of polyphenol intake such as improved nitrogen retention make them interesting feed supplements for ruminants. In contrast, dietary polyphenols may have adverse effects on the bioavailability of nutrients and palatability of the feed which might impair growth performance. The beneficial and adverse effects might differ between different ruminant species as well as between direct intake and intake of polyphenol metabolites via suckling when supplemented to lactating dams. This study investigated the effects of maternal and direct polyphenol supplementation via grape seed extract in sheep and goats on growth, slaughter performance, meat quality and fatty acid profile. The diet of lactating East Friesian Dairy sheep (n = 11) and Saanen goats (n = 9) and of their lambs (n = 16) and kids (n = 13), respectively, was supplemented either with grape seed extract (dams: 7.4% and offspring: 5.6%, P) or without (C). This resulted in four groups per species, namely maternalC/offspringC, maternalC/offspringP, maternalP/offspringC, and maternalP/offspringP. In lambs but not in goats, maternalP increased average daily gain and improved slaughter performance whereas offspringP had no effect. Maternal and offspring diet did not affect physicochemical meat quality in lambs, but direct intake of grape seed extract increased rancid aroma of burger patties. In goat kids, both maternal and offspring diets slightly affected meat colour. While groups of meat fatty acids (FAs) were not affected by diet in both species, maternalP in lambs as well as maternalP and offspringP in goat kids increased the meat n-6 to n-3 FA ratio compared to the respective control groups. In goat kid but not in lamb meat, direct intake of polyphenols affected the proportions of several rumen biohydrogenation intermediates. In conclusion, grape seed extract can be applied in both the maternal and offspring diets in sheep and goats while maintaining or even improving offspring growth performance and carcass quality. Only few species-specific effects of grape seed extract supplementation were observed, and additive effects were scarce. Larger studies are required to confirm the observed species-specific growth response to maternalP during lactation. The underlying reasons for this differential response need to be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Cabras , Polifenóis , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Lactação , Carne/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101338, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358951

RESUMO

A meta-analysis was developed to model performance depression in heat stress (HS), to analyze the influence of HS type (cyclic or constant), and to assess the correlation between dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and HS in broilers. Two databases (Dat) with performance and temperature were constructed (initial phase - up to 21 d of age - 14 articles, 7,667 animals, average replicate number treatment-ARN/T, 5 and growing phase - over 21 d of age - 74 articles and 25,145 broilers, ARN/T, 7). The criteria for article selection were (1) experiments using at least 2 temperatures (thermoneutral and high temperature); (2) results of ADFI and ADG; (3) feed and water ad libitum during the experiment. Each treatment was classified as cyclic or constant HS and the HS group response was calculated relative to the thermoneutral group. Performance was evaluated as raw data or as relativized information (indicated as "HS effect or ≠"), expressed as a percentage of the difference between results. The models to predict "HS effect" showed that for the initial phase, only ADG was influenced by HS, while for the grower phase, prediction equations were created for ADFI and ADG. Considering the simplest models, there was a reduction of 1.4% in ADFI and 2.1% in ADG for each unit (°C) above the upper critical temperature for broilers older than 21 d. Feed conversion (FC) was not affected by HS in any of the studied phases. Constant HS proved to be more negative than cyclic HS to broiler performance after 21 d of age. The relation between DEB and performance of broilers under HS was analyzed considering broilers over 21 d of age, and very weak correlations were observed. It was concluded that HS affects broilers over 21 d more, although FC is not affected. ADFI is the most important variable affected by HS and the relation between the DEB of the diet and HS is very weak. The empirical models generated in this study accurately predicted ADG and ADFI of broilers exposed to HS and can be used to minimize those effects on poultry production.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101375, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358953

RESUMO

The amount and timing of growth are important factors that affect age at first egg, body conformation, reproductive performance, and hunger in broiler breeders. To investigate the effect of growth pattern on feeding motivation and reproductive performance, 10 unique growth trajectories were designed with 2 levels of the amount of early growth and 5 levels of timing of growth around puberty. A 3-phase Gompertz model that described growth in phase 1 (prepubertal), phase 2 (pubertal), and phase 3 (postpubertal) was used to design the growth trajectories. Second growth phase inflection point (I2) was advanced by 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% of the coefficient estimated from the breeder-recommended target BW. The growth trajectories were designed with 2 discrete levels of total gain in the prepubertal phase (g1); g1 was either the prepubertal phase gain coefficient, estimated from the breeder-recommended BW (Standard g1) target, or 10% higher (High g1). Forty females were randomly assigned to the growth trajectories using a precision feeding (PF) system. Analysis of covariance was conducted on dependent variables in ten 4-wk periods with g1 and periods as discrete fixed effects, I2 as a continuous fixed effect, and age as a random effect. Differences were reported at P ≤ 0.05. For every week of earlier I2, body weight at photostimulation (BWPS) increased by 126 g; BW at first egg (BWFE) increased by 94 g; 24 wk shank length increased by 0.038 and 1.495 mm in the Standard g1 and High g1 treatments; 24 wk body fat increased by 0.38%; pullets came to lay earlier by 0.49 d; egg weight (EW) increased by 0.27 g; egg production and egg mass (EM) increased by 0.33 egg/hen/d and 0.916 g/d in the High g1 treatment but decreased by 0.27 egg/hen/d and 0.29 g/d in the Standard g1 treatment, respectively. Increasing g1 reduced feeding motivation index by 1.6 and 0.8 visits/meal during rearing and laying phase, respectively. Earlier pubertal growth showed prominent effects on the reproductive performance.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Motivação , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Maturidade Sexual
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101386, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358954

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of glycerol monolaurate (GML) supplementation on egg production, biochemical indices, and gut microbiota of broiler breeders at the late stage of production. Total of 180 healthy Qingyuan Partridge broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1) corn-soybean meal based diet, and 2) basal diet supplemented with 300 mg glycerol monolaurate/kg. Each treatment group had 6 replicates with 15 birds within each replicate. The experiment started at wk 33 and lasted for 8 weeks. Feed conversion rate, egg weight, egg shape index, shell breaking strength, and shell thickness were not different between control and treatment groups. Supplementation of GML significantly decreased the egg breaking rate. All blood chemical indices and antioxidant parameters were not affected by GML except total antioxidant capacity which increased significantly with GML supplementation. Alpha diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson, Chao1, Ace, goods_coverage, and PD_whole tree) were not different between the 2 groups. Composition of cecal microbiota was not affected by GML supplementation except Euryarchaeota and Proteobacteria at phylum level. Overall, supplementation of glycerol monolaurate at 300 mg/kg level improved eggshell quality but its effect on cecal microbiota composition was limited on broiler breeders at the late stage of production.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Lauratos , Monoglicerídeos , Óvulo
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101358, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358955

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) or Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) on growth performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and the cecal microflora in broiler chickens. In total, 360 male, 1-day-old Cobb 500 birds were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group was fed a basal diet; the B. subtilis group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5 × 109 CFU/kg B. subtilis; the B. licheniformis group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5 × 109 CFU/kg B. licheniformis. Results showed that chickens supplemented with either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis had comparatively higher (P < 0.05) body weight and average daily gain, whereas no difference (P > 0.05) was observed in feed efficiency. Concentrations of serum IgA, IgY, and IgM, as well as anti-inflammatory IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and proinflammatory IL-1ß and IL-6 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by B. subtilis or B. licheniformis supplementation. Moreover, chickens fed with diets supplemented by either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis had greater antioxidant capacity, indicated by the notable increases (P < 0.05) in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, along with decrease (P < 0.05) in malondialdehyde. Compared to the control group, levels of SCFA, excluding acetic and propionic acid, in cecal content had improved (P < 0.05) by adding B. licheniformis, and significant increase (P < 0.05) in acetic and butyric acid was observed with B. subtilis supplementation. Microbial analysis showed that both B. subtilis or B. licheniformis supplementation could increase butyrate-producing bacteria such as Alistipes and Butyricicoccus, and decrease pathogenic bacteria such as the Synergistetes and Gammaproteobacteria. In summary, dietary supplemented with B. subtilis or B. licheniformis improved growth performance, immune status, and antioxidant capacity, increased SCFA production, and modulated cecal microbiota in chickens. Moreover, B. licheniformis was more effective than B. subtilis with the same supplemental amount.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Bacillus subtilis , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Masculino
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101362, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358957

RESUMO

Growth performance, organ weight, ceca digesta short chain fatty acids (SCFA), jejunal histomorphometry, tibia ash, apparent retention (AR) of components and caloric efficiency were investigated in broiler chicken strains differing in growth rate fed diets with multienzyme supplement (MES). The strains differed in estimated time to reach 2.1 kg BW: 37, 43, 47, and 50 d and were designated C, F, J, and N, respectively. A corn-soybean meal diet was formulated for 2-phase program (starter and grower) and fed without or with MES containing phytase, protease and fiber-degrading enzymes. A total of 640-day-old chicks (42.3 + 0.01 g/bird) were housed in cages (5 cockerels and 5 pullets/cage) and allocated to give 8 replicates/ strain and diet combination. Equal amount of feed was fed based on observed ad-libitum intake of C strain in the starter (d 0-14) and grower (d 15-28). Body weight was monitored, grab excreta samples taken and at completion of allocated feed one bird per cage necropsied for samples. With exception of P, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) and ceca digesta acetic acid, there was no (P > 0.05) interaction between strain and MES on examined responses. Strains differed (P < 0.01) on growth, FCR, gizzard weight, tibia ash, breast weight, ceca digesta concentration of lactic, propionic, and isobutyric acid and caloric efficiency. The final body weight (BW) was 1,344, 1,134, 959, and 916 g/bird for C, F, J, and N, respectively. Corresponding caloric efficiency was 4,930, 5,807, 6,680 and 7,199 kcal/kg BW gain, respectively. Birds fed MES had higher BW gain (P < 0.05) in grower phase, larger gizzard, higher AR of CP, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, and Ca than non-MES birds. In conclusion, growth rate influenced organ attributes, nutrient, and caloric utilization. Enzyme supplementation improved growth in grower phase and nutrient utilization independent of strain, suggesting that effects of feed enzymes are not influenced by inherent growth rate.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Nutrientes , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Soja , Zea mays
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101372, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364120

RESUMO

The global poultry trend toward the more responsible use of antibiotics is becoming recurrent and has demanded the need to generate new natural alternatives. Probiotics have gained importance as an option to use as growth promoters. This study aimed to evaluate Bacillus subtillis QST713 as a substitute for an antibiotic growth promoter (BMD). A total of 150 male broilers were assigned to three dietary treatments: 1) control diet (CO), 2) control diet + 500 g/t of BMD (AGP), and 3) control diet + 100 g/t of B. subtilis QST713 (PB), respectively. Each treatment was monitored for 5 wk for the productive variables: body weight, accumulated feed consumption, food conversion, and European efficiency factor. At the end of each week, fresh fecal samples were cultured and quantified for E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and Lactobacillus spp. At the end of the trial, blood samples were analyzed for hemogram and intestinal samples (anterior portion) for histomorphometry. The data were statistically analyzed with an analysis of variance and subjected to a least significant difference test (Tukey). The zootechnical yields were similar in the AGP and PB groups (P ˃ 0.05); both superior to the control group. In the hematological profiles, no difference was observed between the experimental groups. E. coli and Enterococcus counts were significantly lower (P ˂ 0.05), and Lactobacillus counts were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) higher in the PB group, relative to CO and AGP groups. No differences (P ˃ 0.05) were found in bacterial counts between the CO and AGP groups. The intestinal mucosa and villi in the PB group were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) longer and with less deeper crypts than CO and AGP groups. We conclude that B. subtillis QST713, used at the suggested commercial dose (100 g/ton), is an effective growth-promoting alternative to BMD that modulates the microbiota and intestinal architecture, thus producing zootechnical yields consistent with BMD.


Assuntos
Bacitracina , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacillus subtilis , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Escherichia coli , Masculino
19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378033

RESUMO

The present study evaluated enteric CH4 production, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), and rumen fermentation in feedlot cattle supplemented with increasing concentrations of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP). A total of 100 crossbred steers (body weight, 421 ± 11 kg) was randomly assigned to one of four treatments (n = 25/treatment): control (no 3-NOP) or low (100 mg/kg DM), medium (125 mg/kg DM), and high (150 mg/kg DM) doses of 3-NOP. The study was comprised of 28 d of adaptation followed by three 28-d periods, with CH4 measured for 7 d per period and cattle remaining on their respective diets throughout the 112-d study. Each treatment group was assigned to a pen, with the cattle and diets rotated among pens weekly to allow the animals to access the GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) system stationed in one of the pens for CH4 measurement. Measured concentration (mg/kg DM) of 3-NOP in the total diet consumed (basal diet + GEM pellet) was 85.6 for low, 107.6 for medium, and 124.5 for high doses of 3-NOP. There was a treatment × period interaction (P < 0.001) for DMI; compared with control, the DMI was less for the low and high doses in period 1, with no differences thereafter. Compared with control (10.78 g/kg DMI), CH4 yield (g/kg DMI) was decreased (P < 0.001) by 52%, 76%, and 63% for low, medium, and high doses of 3-NOP, respectively. A treatment × period effect (P = 0.048) for CH4 yield indicated that the low dose decreased in efficacy from 59% decrease in periods 1 and 2 to 37% decrease in period 3, while the efficacy of the medium and high doses remained consistent over time. Irrespective of dose, hydrogen emissions increased by 4.9-fold (P < 0.001), and acetate:propionate ratio in rumen fluid decreased (P = 0.045) with 3-NOP supplementation, confirming that other hydrogen-utilizing pathways become more important in the CH4-inhibited rumen. The study indicates that supplementation of corn-based finishing diets with 3-NOP using a medium dose is an effective CH4 mitigation strategy for commercial beef feedlots with a 76% decrease in CH4 yield. Further research is needed to determine the effects of 3-NOP dose on weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle at a commercial scale.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Metano , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Propanóis , Rúmen
20.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378038

RESUMO

This study investigated the different addition levels of iron (Fe) in growing-finishing pigs and the effect of different Fe levels on growth performance, hematological status, intestinal barrier function, and intestinal digestion. A total of 1,200 barrows and gilts ([Large White × Landrace] × Duroc) with average initial body weight (BW; 27.74 ± 0.28 kg) were housed in 40 pens of 30 pigs per pen (gilts and barrows in half), blocked by BW and gender, and fed five experimental diets (eight replicate pens per diet). The five experimental diets were control diet (basal diet with no FeSO4 supplementation), and the basal diet being supplemented with 150, 300, 450, or 600 mg/kg Fe as FeSO4 diets. The trial lasted for 100 d and was divided into the growing phase (27 to 60 kg of BW) for the first 50 d and the finishing phase (61 to 100 kg of BW) for the last 50 d. The basal diet was formulated with an Fe-free trace mineral premix and contained 203.36 mg/kg total dietary Fe in the growing phase and 216.71 mg/kg in the finishing phase based on ingredient contributions. And at the end of the experiment, eight pigs (four barrows and four gilts) were randomly selected from each treatment (selected one pig per pen) for digesta, blood, and intestinal samples collection. The results showed that the average daily feed intake (P = 0.025), average daily gain (P = 0.020), and BW (P = 0.019) increased linearly in the finishing phase of pigs fed with the diets containing Fe. On the other hand, supplementation with different Fe levels in the diet significantly increased serum iron and transferrin saturation concentrations (P < 0.05), goblet cell numbers of duodenal villous (P < 0.001), and MUC4 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) for pigs in the 450 and 600 mg/kg Fe groups was greater (P < 0.05) than for pigs in the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 450 to 600 mg/kg Fe improved the growth performance of pigs by changing hematological status and by enhancing intestinal goblet cell differentiation and AID of AA.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Ferro na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Suínos
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