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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 437-447, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596255

RESUMO

The study evaluated the residual effect of the known enteric methane inhibitor 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP) on anaerobic digestion of cattle feces (feces) in a CH4 potential batch test and two consecutive runs of an anaerobic leach bed reactor at a solids retention time of 40 days. The feces used in this study were collected from beef cattle fed forage- (backgrounding) or grain- (finishing) based diets supplemented with 3NOP in feedlot and metabolism studies. The results showed that CH4 yields were not significantly different from treatments using control feces and feces collected from cattle fed a diet supplemented with 3NOP in both CH4 potential and leach bed studies. Spiking feces with 200 mg 3NOP kg-1 dry matter decreased CH4 production rate by 8.0-18.1% estimated from the Gompertz equation, increased the lag phase time (0.4-3.4 d) in all the treatments, while there was no significant difference in the overall CH4 yield. Results from this study showed that 3NOP can be used as an effective enteric CH4 inhibitor with no residual effect on anaerobic digestion.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Metano/metabolismo , Propanóis , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Fezes , Carne Vermelha
2.
J Environ Qual ; 48(5): 1454-1461, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589722

RESUMO

It is highly desirable to test agricultural emission mitigation strategies in a whole-farm environment to ensure that all aspects of management and production operations are included. However, the large spatial scale of commercial operations makes the dual measurements of control and treatment(s) difficult. We evaluated the application of two micrometeorological methods, a novel concentration ratio method and an inverse dispersion method, where both were used to measure methane (CH) emission reductions in cattle fed the compound 3-nitrooxypropanol compared with cattle fed just the basal diet. In total, there were 1344 cattle used that were located in six pens (∼222 animals per pen). Three adjacent pens to the east and three to the west were designated as the treatment and control blocks, respectively. Underlying the emission reduction method was the assumption of site symmetry between the treatment and control pen blocks in the feedlot. There was, on average, a large CH emission reduction of ∼70% (±18%) due to the additive as found by both micrometeorological methods. Both methods also show a change in the diel distribution (peak emissions after initial morning feeding) and seasonal pattern (a decrease in emission reduction of 7.5 and 26.1% over 90 d). The simplicity of the developed concentration ratio method is expected to have applications for evaluating other mitigation strategies at large commercial scales (e.g., the application of manure additives to pens to reduce odors and ammonia emissions).


Assuntos
Metano , Carne Vermelha , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Esterco , Propanóis
3.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 507-534, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590900

RESUMO

Livestock industries strive to improve the health of their animals and, in the future, they are going to be required to do this with a continued reduction in antimicrobial use. Nutraceuticals represent a group of compounds that may help fill that void because they exert some health benefits when supplemented to livestock. This review is focused on the mechanisms of action, specifically related to the immune responses and health of ruminants. The nutraceutical classes discussed include probiotics, prebiotics, phytonutrients (essential oils and spices), and polyunsaturated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644641

RESUMO

In order to evaluate iron chelate in diets for sows during gestation and lactation and its effects on iron supplementation for piglets, a total of 50 pregnant sows in the third parity order were distributed according to a randomized block design with two treatments: diet without iron chelate supplementation (n=20); diet supplemented with 0.15% of iron chelate (n=30). The litters of sows were distributed into five different treatments: sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets without iron supplementation. No influence of dietary supplementation of iron chelate was verified on the productive parameters of the sows. For the piglets, iron-dextran supplementation promoted higher weaning weight in comparison to non-supplemented piglets, although not differing to those received oral iron supplementation. Thus, iron chelate supplementation did not improve the productive parameters of sows, but it increased iron excretion in the feces, thus requiring iron supplementation for the piglets after birth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Animais Lactentes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Quelantes de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Quelantes de Ferro/análise , Lactação , Gravidez
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180907, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644644

RESUMO

A total number of 300 (225 ducks and 75 drakes) Sudani ducks, 28-wk-old were divided into five groups to investigate the effects of dietary L-carnitine (LC) supplementation on productive, hatching and physiological performance as well as nutrients digestibility coefficients. The results indicated that the productive performance and Semen quality parameters (ejaculate volume, sperms concentration and advanced motility) were significantly improved by LC supplementation (150-450 mg /kg diet) as compared to the control. Hatchability of fertile eggs (%) was significantly improved, while total embryonic mortality was significantly decreased by supplementing 300 and 450 mg LC/kg diet. Supplementing different dietary LC levels resulted in significantly high values of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells count and lymphocyte (L) cells percentage, while it decreased heterophils (H) cells and H/L ratio. Serum albumin, total cholesterol and AST enzyme values were significantly low in ducks fed diets supplemented with LC. Serum triglycerides were significantly the lowest by feeding 300 and 450 mg LC/kg diet. Nutrients digestibility coefficients were significantly improved in drakes fed diet supplemented with 450 mg LC/kg diet. Conclusively, dietary LC supplementation at 300 or 450 mg/kg for duck breeders in summer could improve productive, hatching and physiological performance and nutrients digestibility coefficients.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Análise do Sêmen
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10756-10763, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483626

RESUMO

AFEX treatment of crop residues can greatly increase their nutrient availability for ruminants. This study investigated the concentration of acetamide, an ammoniation byproduct, in AFEX-treated crop residues and in milk and meat from ruminants fed these residues. Acetamide concentrations in four AFEX-treated cereal crop residues were comparable and reproducible (4-7 mg/g dry matter). A transient acetamide peak in milk was detected following introduction of AFEX-treated residues to the diet, but an alternative regimen showed the peak can be effectively mitigated. Milk acetamide concentration following this transition was 6 and 10 ppm for cattle and buffalo, respectively, but also decreased over time for cattle while tending to decrease (p = 0.08) for buffalo. There was no difference in acetamide concentration in the meat of cattle consuming AFEX-treated residues for 160 days compared to controls. Further investigation is necessary to determine the metabolism of acetamide in ruminants and a maximum acceptable daily intake for humans.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Leite/química , Acetamidas/metabolismo , Amônia/química , Animais , Búfalos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Leite/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11396-11402, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537068

RESUMO

Phytase is commonly used as a feed enzyme in monogastric animals to increase the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus and other nutrients. The accumulation of myo-inositol phosphate intermediates during phytate degradation in various segments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of Buttiauxella spp. phytase in degrading the phytate in corn, soybean meal, and complete corn-soybean meal diet to myo-inositol phosphate esters (IP1-IP5) and completely dephosphorylated myo-inositol rings using an in vitro model of the poultry upper GIT. Our results show that the phytase hydrolyzes phytate efficiently to small IP esters, whereas the myo-inositol level remains constant between control and phytase treatments. Although the in vitro digestion model does not incorporate all factors that govern phytate hydrolysis, it is a valuable tool for evaluating phytase efficacy at various enzyme doses and with different feed ingredients.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/química , Ração Animal/análise , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Ésteres/química , Fosfatos de Inositol/química , Ácido Fítico/química , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Galinhas , Digestão , Ésteres/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9705-9718, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393722

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is among the most urgent global challenges facing sustainable animal production systems. The use of antibiotics as growth promoters and for infectious disease prevention in intensive animal-farming practices has translated into the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes in an unprecedented fashion. Several multi-resistant bacterial strains have been isolated from food-producing animals, thus constituting an alarming food-safety issue. Many industrial byproducts with potential antimicrobial properties are currently being investigated to identify empirical and affordable solutions/alternatives that can potentially be used in feed for animals. Grape pomace is among such byproducts that gained the attention as a result of its low cost, abundance, and, most importantly, its bioactive and antibacterial properties. This review discusses the recently reported studies with regard to exploring the use of grape pomace (and its extracts) in animal production to control pathogens, along with the promotion of beneficial bacterial species in the gut to ultimately alleviate antibacterial resistance. The review further summarizes realistic expectations connected with grape pomace usage and lists the still-to-be-addressed concerns about its application in animal agriculture.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vitis/química , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9203-9209, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369261

RESUMO

With the monitoring of hundreds of pesticides in food and feed, the comminution step is equally crucial as any other to achieve valid results. However, sample processing is often underestimated in its importance and practical difficulty to produce consistent test portions for analysis. The scientific literature is rife with descriptions of microextraction methods, but ironically, sample comminution is often ignored or dismissed as being prosaic, despite it being the foundation upon which the viability of such techniques relies. Cryogenic sample processing using dry ice (-78 °C) is generally accepted in practice, but studies have not shown it to yield representative test portions of <1 g. Remarkably, liquid nitrogen has rarely been used as a cryogenic agent in pesticide residue analysis, presumably as a result of access, cost, and safety concerns. However, real-world implementation of blending unfrozen bulk food portions with liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) using common food processing devices has demonstrated this approach to be safe, simple, fast, and cost-effective and yield high-quality results for various commodities, including increased stability of labile or volatile analytes. For example, analysis of dithiocarbamates as carbon disulfide has shown a significant increase of thiram recoveries (up to 95%) using liquid nitrogen during sample comminution. This perspective is intended to allay concerns among working laboratories about the practical use of liquid nitrogen for improved sample processing in the routine monitoring of pesticide residues in foods and feeds, which also gives promise for feasible test sample size reduction in high-throughput miniaturized methods.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Liofilização/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Gelo-Seco , Liofilização/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Nitrogênio/química
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2845-2853, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418211

RESUMO

The safety of feed derived from genetically modified (GM) crops is one of the focuses of attention. To evaluate the ecotoxicological effects of transgenic mCry1Ac maize (BT799) on fish, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed extruded feeds containing either 20% GM maize (GMF) or its parental control maize (PF), GM maize meal (GMM) or its parental control maize meal (PMM), and a control commercial feed (CF), respectively. The growth performance, histopathology, reproduction, antioxidant enzyme activity and mRNA expression levels of sensitive protein in the liver were investigated over the course of a 98-day feeding trial. The results showed that transgenic mCry1Ac maize had no significant effect on growth, histopathology of the liver, brain and intestinal tract, fecundity, hatching rate of fertilized eggs, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activity, mRNA expression levels of SOD and CAT, or heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and vitellogenin (VTG) in the liver. However, zebrafish fed the commercial feed exhibited significantly greater weight, longer length, and higher specific growth rate than those fed feeds (GMF and PF) and maize meals (GMM and PMM). The hatching rate of zebrafish in the feed groups was significantly lower than that of the maize meal groups and the commercial feed group. The mRNA transcriptional levels of VTG were significantly higher in the liver for the feed groups (3.85±0.76) than that for the maize meal groups (1.60±0.56). These results suggest that transgenic mCry1Ac maize has no ecotoxicological effects on zebrafish. However, the differences in nutrient composition and palatability between the extruded experimental feeds and the commercial feed would lead to significant diffe-rences in some parameters.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Zea mays/genética , Ração Animal , Animais , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Testes de Toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1115-1124, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466151

RESUMO

Sulfur is a key nutrient in swine diets and is associated with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions, odor, and respiratory distress of animals. Due to potential increases in S levels in swine diets by using alternative feedstuffs, a feeding trial study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary S source has on manure slurry chemical properties and gas emissions. A total of 24 gilts averaging 139 kg BW were fed a control diet formulated with corn and soybean meal (CSBM) containing 1.80 g S kg-1 or diets containing 3.50 g S kg-1 feed as supplied by calcium sulfate (CaSO4), distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or feather meal (CFM). Diets were fed for 41 d with an ADFI of 2.70 kg/d. Feces and urine were collected twice daily after each feeding and added to the manure storage containers. At the end of the study, manure slurries were monitored for gas emissions and chemical properties. Dietary S source had a significant effect on excretion of DM, C, N, and S in manure. Pigs fed the diets containing DDGS had significantly higher levels of NH3, VFAs, and phenols in manure compared to pigs fed the CSBM diet. Pigs fed diets with organic S (i.e., DDGS and CFM) had lower emissions of H2S compared to pigs fed the diet with inorganic sulfur (CaSO4). In contrast, there were no significant differences in C or N emissions as affected by dietary treatment. Odor and odorant emissions differed by dietary treatment, with pigs fed the CFM diet having the highest odor emissions as compared to pigs fed the control CSBM diet. Pigs fed diets containing CFM and DDGS had a greater percentage of their chemical odor associated with volatile organic compounds while animals fed the CSBM diet or the diet with CaSO4 had greater percentage associated with H2S emissions.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Enxofre/análise , Ração Animal , Animais , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Sus scrofa , Suínos
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6649-6654, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the degradation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from eastern groundsel (Senecio vernalis) in grass silage prepared with different inoculants. Silages were produced from ryegrass with 230 g kg-1 dry matter (DM) content and mixed with eastern groundsel (9:1; w/w fresh matter basis) containing 5.5 g kg-1 DM PA. Treatments were: CON (untreated control), LP (3.0 × 105 cfu g-1 Lactobacillus plantarum DSMZ 8862/8866) or LBLC (7.3 × 104 cfu g-1 Lactobacillus buchneri LN40177 / Lactobacillus casei LC32909), and each of the treatments in combination with 30 g kg-1 molasses. Silages were prepared in glass jars and opened after 3, 10, and 90 days. Fermentation characteristics were determined and the PAs analyzed. RESULTS: Although the levels of fermentation acids differed between treatments, results indicated good quality of all silages during 90 days. Significant time (P < 0.001) and treatment (P < 0.001) effects were observed for PAs. Concentrations of senecionine and seneciphylline decreased with molasses, declined over time, and were negatively correlated with lactic, propionic, and butyric acid, or with lactic and butyric acid in case of seneciphylline. In all silages, seneciphylline and senecionine N-oxides were undetectable after 3 days, whereas senkirkine, the most abundant PA, remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Silage prepared from grass contaminated with eastern groundsel still contained high PA levels, and was hence a potential health hazard. Molasses supplementation reduced concentrations of senecionine and seneciphylline, while the bacterial inoculants had no effect. Other potentially toxic PA metabolites were not analyzed in the present study and further research is needed. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lolium/química , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/química , Senécio/química , Silagem/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Fermentação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Lolium/microbiologia , Melaço/análise , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/toxicidade , Senécio/toxicidade , Silagem/microbiologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 800-807, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412483

RESUMO

Sulfur is an essential nutrient for animal growth but is also associated with odor and morbidity of animals from swine operations. A study was conducted to determine the effects of increasing dietary S levels in swine diets on DM, pH, C, N, S, VFA, indole, and phenol concentrations in the manure, and on the emissions of C-, N-, and S-containing gases. A total of 24 gilts averaging 152 kg BW were fed diets containing 0.19, 0.30, 0.43, or 0.64% dietary S, as supplied by CaSO4, for 31 d, with an ADFI of 3.034 kg d-1. Feces and urine were collected after each feeding and added to manure storage containers. At the end of the study, manure slurries were monitored for gas emissions and chemical properties. Increasing dietary S lowered manure pH by 0.3 units and increased DM, N, and S by 10% for each 1.0 g S increase kg-1 feed intake. Increased dietary S increased NH3, sulfide, butanoic, and pentanoic acid concentrations in manure. Carbon and N emissions were not significantly impacted by dietary S, but S emissions in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) increased by 8% for each 1.0 g S increase kg-1 feed intake. Odor increased by 2% for each 1.0 g increase of S consumed kg-1 feed intake. Phenolic compounds and H2S were the major odorants emitted from manure that increased with increasing dietary S.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta/métodos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Enxofre/análise , Animais , Esterco/análise , Suínos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461683

RESUMO

Previously we showed that, for optimum growth, micronutrient levels should be supplemented above current National Research Council (2011) recommendations for Atlantic salmon when they are fed diets formulated with low levels of marine ingredients. In the present study, the impact of graded levels (100, 200, 400%) of a micronutrient package (NP) on vertebral deformities and bone gene expression were determined in diploid and triploid salmon parr fed low marine diets. The prevalence of radiologically detectable spinal deformities decreased with increasing micronutrient supplementation in both ploidy. On average, triploids had a higher incidence of spinal deformity than diploids within a given diet. Micronutrient supplementation particularly reduced prevalence of fusion deformities in diploids and compression and reduced spacing deformities in triploids. Prevalence of affected vertebrae within each spinal region (cranial, caudal, tail and tail fin) varied significantly between diet and ploidy, and there was interaction. Prevalence of deformities was greatest in the caudal region of triploids and the impact of graded micronutrient supplementation in reducing deformities also greatest in triploids. Diet affected vertebral morphology with length:height (L:H) ratio generally increasing with level of micronutrient supplementation in both ploidy with no difference between ploidy. Increased dietary micronutrients level in diploid salmon increased the vertebral expression of several bone biomarker genes including bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp2), osteocalcin (ostcn), alkaline phosphatase (alp), matrix metallopeptidase 13 (mmp13), osteopontin (opn) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (igf1r). In contrast, although some genes showed similar trends in triploids, vertebral gene expression was not significantly affected by dietary micronutrients level. The study confirmed earlier indications that dietary micronutrient levels should be increased in salmon fed diets with low marine ingredients and that there are differences in nutritional requirements between ploidies.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Diploide , Salmo salar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triploidia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes , Óleos Vegetais , Proteínas de Plantas , Salmo salar/anormalidades , Vitaminas
15.
Food Chem ; 301: 125198, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374533

RESUMO

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of five rubber seed oil (RSO) levels (0, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 6%) on hens laying performance, egg quality, and yolks fatty acid composition and cholesterol contents. Three hundred and sixty 30-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens were allotted to 5 groups. The results showed that the egg production was increased in 4% RSO group (P < 0.05), but egg quality parameters and the contents of dry matter, lipid, and protein in yolks were not influenced among treatments (P > 0.05). Yolk cholesterol contents were reduced in RSO supplemental groups (P < 0.05). The concentration of total n-3 PUFA in yolks increased gradually while the ratio of n-6/n-3 decreased gradually with increasing dietary RSO levels (P < 0.001). In conclusion, dietary RSO supplementation increased yolk n-3 PUFA levels, improved yolk color, and reduced yolk cholesterol contents without negative influence on laying performance parameters.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Colesterol/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/química , Gorduras Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Colesterol/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/análise
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 233, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing costs of feed has subsequently increased the costs of production of livestock, thereby decreasing the profit margin of this sector. The utilization of agro-industrial by-products has to some extent substitute some of the corn grains and soyabean meal, commonly used in animal feeds. In Malaysia, palm kernel cake (PKC) is a by-product of the oil palm industry and is frequently used to supply both crude protein (14-16% CP) and energy (11 MJ/kg) in ruminants. The energy and protein content are adequate for maintenance in the majority of ruminants. However, highly available energy supplementation is known to improve growth performance and protein deposition. This study was carried out to determine the effect on the quality of meat and fatty acid composition of the semitendinosus (ST), supraspinatus (SS), and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles of Dorper lambs by including corn as an energy source in a basal diet of PKC urea-treated rice straw. RESULTS: The results show that the LL muscle-drip loss was greater in animals supplemented with 5% corn compared to the other groups. Higher pH values of SS and LL muscles were observed in animals supplemented with 5 and 10% corn. Furthermore, the L* value of ST muscle was increased in lambs fed on 5% corn while, reduced in those fed on 0% corn, but the a* and b* values were not significantly different in the treatment groups. The fatty acid composition of the SS muscles showed that lambs fed on 10% corn had higher levels of sum PUFA n-3 compared to those fed on 0% corn. The concentration of C18:1trans11 and CLA c12 t10 in ST muscle from the lambs fed on supplemented diets were higher than those of the controls. CONCLUSION: This study has concluded the supplementation of corn as a source of energy into a PKC urea-treated rice straw-based diet increased the PUFA concentrations of muscles as compared to control groups.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/normas , Músculo Esquelético/química , Oryza/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Malásia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ovinos , Ureia/química
17.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109885, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307670

RESUMO

Protec™ is a commercial aquafeed (Skretting Italia) containing a combination of glucans, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc (immune support pack). No research information concerning its capability to improve fish immune response is available, so in this study the potential immunomodulatory effects of Protec™ were investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Head kidney (HK) leukocytes from adult fish (100 g, n = 6) were in vitro incubated with Protec™ immune support pack resulting in significantly higher respiratory burst activity and proliferation. Specifically, sonicated Protec™ immune support pack (160 µg/ml) induced a respiratory burst response similar to that promoted by zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while non-sonicated Protec™ immune support pack induced a response comparable to that of cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Moreover, the proliferation of leukocytes exposed to sonicated Protec™ immune support pack (20 µg/ml) was significantly higher than that of cells stimulated with zymosan, and it was comparable to the proliferation of cells stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and LPS. Afterwards, a feeding trial was performed in a rainbow trout farm. Two groups of juvenile rainbow trout (10 g) were acclimated for 7 weeks before the experiment and fed daily with a commercial control diet (Optiline HE, Skretting Italia) at 2% BW/day. At the end of acclimation, one group of fish was fed with Protec™ diet (Skretting Italia) at 2% BW/day whereas the other group continued to feed the control diet at the same level for further 4 weeks. Then, fish were sampled (HK leukocytes from n = 6 fish/group, serum from n = 12 fish/group) or intraperitoneally vaccinated against lactococcosis (n = 160/dietary group/time point). Fish fed the same diets for further 4 weeks after vaccination, then feeding returned to the control diet in both groups until the end of the trial. The specific antibody response was recorded at 4 and 8 weeks after vaccination (n = 12 fish/group). The administration of Protec™ significantly enhanced the respiratory burst activity of leukocytes and the synthesis of specific IgM against Lactococcus garvieae, whereas the serum lysozyme activity was unaffected. The present research suggests that the administration of Protec™ can improve both innate and adaptive immune response of rainbow trout, proving to be an interesting strategy for enhancing the immune reactivity of fish to vaccines.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Lactococcus , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Leucócitos/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/microbiologia , Explosão Respiratória
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121841, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349173

RESUMO

Soybean dregs are restricted as feed additives because they contain anti-nutrient factors. Herein, soybean dreg was bio-transformed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a poly γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) producing stain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S. The maximum γ-PGA production of 65.79 g/kg was reached in a 5 L fermentation system while the conditions are 70% initial moisture of soybean dregs with addition of molasses meal, 12% inoculum size, 30 °C fermentation temperature, initial pH of 8, and 60 h fermentation time. Meanwhile, continuous batch fermentation was proved feasible. After SSF, the anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and tannin were reduced by 98.7%, 97.8%, and 63.2%, respectively. Compared with unfermented soybean dregs, adding fermented soybean dregs to feed increased the average weight gain of rats by 15.6% and reduced the ratio of feed to meat by 11.3%. Therefore, this study provided a feasible strategy for processing soybean dregs as feed additive.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Comportamento Aditivo , Fermentação , Soja/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Ácido Poliglutâmico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Poliglutâmico/biossíntese , Ratos
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7898-7907, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282664

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the effects of silencing HB12 and TT8 genes on protein utilization characteristics of alfalfa. Ground samples of 11 HB12-silenced (HB12i), 5 TT8-silenced (TT8i) and 4 wild type (WT) were incubated in a Daisy II incubator with N15 labeled ammonium sulfate for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. CP degradation and degradational kinetics, microbial nitrogen fractions, and protein metabolic profiles were determined. Moreover, relationships between protein profiles and FTIR spectral parameters were estimated. Results showed that transgenic alfalfa had lower CP degradation, microbial protein, and total available protein compared with WT, especially for HB12i. In addition, CP degradation and protein metabolic profiles were closely correlated with FTIR spectral parameters and thereby could be predicted from spectral parameters. In conclusion, silencing of HB12 and TT8 genes in alfalfa decreased protein degradational and metabolic profiles, which were predictable with FTIR spectral parameters.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Medicago sativa/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Bovinos , Digestão , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Cinética , Medicago sativa/química , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/microbiologia
20.
J Insect Sci ; 19(4)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346626

RESUMO

Striacosta albicosta (Smith) is a key pest of maize and dry beans in North America. It has expanded its distribution from the western Great Plains of the United States to the Great Lakes region in the United States and Canada. There has been limited research on the baseline biological aspects of this insect under controlled conditions. The objective of this study was to detail the biological parameters of S. albicosta feeding on an artificial diet under laboratory conditions. Overall survival from neonate to adult at 26.6 ± 1°C was 36.72% and the total developmental time was approximately 110 d. Survival of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages were 75.71, 98.50, 51.78, and 95.10%, respectively. Average duration of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages was 4.64, 28.20, 41.50, and 25.91 d, respectively. During the larval stage, 92.50% of larvae developed through seven instars and the remaining through six instars. Larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth ratio of 1.60 and 1.47, respectively; however, there was no difference in pupal weight. Eggs laid by field-mated moths showed a fertility of 75.71%, compared with 4.18% from laboratory-reared moths. These data suggest that S. albicosta develop primarily through seven instars and the most vulnerable developmental stage is the prepupa. Laboratory conditions strongly affected fertility success. Information presented here greatly expands our understanding of S. albicosta biology, which can be used to improve the efficiency of laboratory bioassays and management techniques for this critical crop pest.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Mariposas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Reprodução
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