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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 745-774, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032704

RESUMO

This review focuses on factors associated with mold production in feedstuffs and major mycotoxins affecting ruminants in North America. Ruminants are often considered less sensitive to mycotoxins owing to rumen microflora metabolism to less toxic compounds. However, ruminants occupy wide agricultural niches that expose animals to diverse toxins under widely different environmental and nutritional conditions. Often the moldy and potentially highly contaminated feeds end up at feedlots. Less than optimal feedstuffs creating suboptimal rumen microbial flora could result in decreased ruminal capacity to detoxify certain mycotoxins and adverse effects. Numerous mycotoxins and clinical effects in ruminants are discussed.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Micotoxinas/envenenamento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ruminantes , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Micotoxicose/metabolismo , América do Norte
2.
Waste Manag ; 118: 600-609, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010691

RESUMO

Food loss and waste are serious threats to the sustainability of our food systems. Innovative and multi-faced solutions are continuously being proposed, tested and implemented by researchers, government authorities, non-government bodies and food industries to tackle this problem of food waste. Insect-based bioconversions have been reported as a marketable solution for reducing food waste. This rather novel approach can efficiently convert several tonnes of food waste into valuable products including human food, animal feed, fertiliser and other secondary industrial compounds. This paper couples the production of edible insects with the valorisation of food waste, providing an attractive key for closing the loop of food value chain. Current status of insect processing and their importance in circular economy is also discussed in detail.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Ração Animal , Animais , Insetos Comestíveis , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Insetos
3.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 829-867, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish an analytical method for determination of 20 kinds of ß-receptor blockers residues in animal foods by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS). METHODS: The samples of animal foods were enzymatic hydrolysis by trichloroacetic acid(TCA), purified by MCX column. The separation was performed on a Waters ACQUITYTM BEH C_(18 )column(100 mm×2. 1 mm, 1. 7 µm), then the target compounds were detected by UPLC-MS/MS with ESI positive ion scan in mode of multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) and quantified by matrix matched external standard method. RESULTS: At the spiked level of 1, 2 and 4 µg/kg, the recoveries of each compound were in the range of 61. 9%-119. 1% with the relative standard deviations of 1. 5%-28. 4%(n=6). The qualitative limits of detections were 0. 01-0. 15 µg/kg and the quantitative limits were 0. 03-0. 50 µg/kg for the 20 targets compounds. By using the established method, the target compounds in 30 animal foods were detected, and no excessive veterinary drug residue were detected. CONCLUSION: The established method is simple, rapid, high sensitivity and good stability, with a wide variety and a certain development. It can provide more convenient and fast detection method support for the daily monitoring of veterinary drug residues in animal foods.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ração Animal , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
4.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 220-227, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016352

RESUMO

The economic viability of corn biorefineries depends heavily on the sale of coproducts as animal feeds, but elevated phosphorus (P) contents can exacerbate manure management issues. Phosphorus removal from light steep water and thin stillage, two concentrated in-process aqueous streams at wet milling and dry-grind corn biorefineries, could simultaneously generate concentrated fertilizer and low-P animal feeds, but little is known regarding how differences in stream composition affect removal. To address this data gap, we show that the solubility of P in light steep filtrate (LSF) and thin stillage filtrate (TSF) exhibits distinct sensitivity to calcium (Ca) and base addition due to differences in P fractionation and protein abundance. In LSF, P was primarily organic, and near-complete removal of P (96%) was observed at pH 8 and a Ca/total P (TP) ratio of 2. In TSF, TP removal was lower (81%), and there was more equal distribution of organic and orthophosphate, indicating that the Ca requirements of inorganic P precipitation were a limiting factor. The C/H/N ratio, elemental characterization, and crude protein analysis of the precipitated solids indicated that coprecipitation of amorphous solids containing Ca, Mg, and K with soluble proteins facilitated removal of P, particularly in LSF. Although the removal mechanisms and solubility limits differed, these results highlighted the magnitude (40-70 mM) and efficacy (80-96%) of P recovery from two biorefinery streams.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Zea mays , Ração Animal , Animais , Fracionamento Químico , Água
5.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 324-334, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016426

RESUMO

Managing a sustainable dairy farm requires balancing phosphorus (P) imports and exports that enter and leave through the farm gate. Over the long term, P surpluses will elevate soil-test P concentrations above crop requirements through routine land applications of manure. The objectives of this study were aimed at Virginia dairy farms (a) to determine P mass balances, (b) to define potential guidelines for a sustainable and feasible zone of operation based on P balance and P use efficiency, and (c) to assess risk factors driving P surplus and P use inefficiencies. Data on farm-gate P imports and exports via feed, manure, crops, fertilizers, bedding, animals, and milk were collected for 58 dairy farms in Virginia. There was no relationship between farm P balance and milk production, indicating that a P surplus was not necessary for good milk productivity. A feasible P balance limit was calculated below which 75% of farms could operate, and this was 18.7 kg P ha-1 . Two risk factors were identified for farms having a P balance above this limit: (a) land application of poultry litter and (b) excessive import of P through feed. Combined dairy and beef operations generally had more land and a lower P balance, whereas having combined dairy and poultry did not raise the P balance as long as poultry litter was exported. Dairy farms in Virginia can operate with a sustainable P balance as long as they avoid using excessive poultry litter and pay attention to P imported through purchased feed.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Fósforo/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Nitrogênio/análise , Virginia
6.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1384-1395, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016445

RESUMO

Nutrients excreted from animals affect the nutritive value of manure as a soil amendment as well as the composition of gases emitted from manure storage facilities. There is a dearth of information, however, on how diet type in combination with dietary particle size affects nutrients deposited into manure storage facilities and how this affects manure composition and gas emissions. To fill this knowledge gap, an animal feeding trial was performed to evaluate potential interactive effects between feed particle size and diet composition on manure characteristics and manure-derived gaseous emissions. Forty-eight finishing pigs housed in individual metabolism crates that allowed for daily collection of urine and feces were fed diets differing in fiber content and particle size. Urine and feces were collected and stored in 446-L stainless steel containers for 49 d. There were no interactive effects between diet composition and feed particle size on any manure or gas emission parameter measured. In general, diets higher in fiber content increased manure nitrogen (N), carbon (C), and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and increased manure VFA emissions but decreased manure ammonia emissions. Decreasing the particle size of the diet lowered manure N, C, VFAs, phenolics, and indole concentrations and decreased manure emissions of total VFAs. Neither diet composition nor particle size affected manure greenhouse gas emissions.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Esterco , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Gases , Tamanho da Partícula , Suínos
7.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13454, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959464

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of substituting ear corn silage (ECS) for commercial formula feed on milk production and milk fatty acid profiles in grazing dairy farms during the summer season. A field survey was conducted on five grazing dairy farms in every summer month of 2017, 2018, and 2019. Three of the five farms substituted fresh ECS for the commercial formula feed at a ratio of 2:1 from July of each year (ECS farms). Other farms maintained the same feeding management as before (non-ECS farms). An interview survey was conducted on each farm to calculate feed intake and milk yield per cow. Feed and milk samples were collected in each survey. Milk compositions and milk fatty acid profiles were determined. The substitution of ECS for the commercial formula feed did not affect milk yield or milk composition, but ECS farms maintained low levels of milk urea compared with non-ECS farms (p < .01). The ECS substitution also influenced some of the milk fatty acid proportions; C16:0 and C16:1 increased, and trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2, and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased, while these fatty acid proportions were maintained in non-ECS farms throughout the summer season (p < .05).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140665, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927525

RESUMO

This study screened six different species of forest plants and then further evaluated the most promising plant, giant milkweed (Calotropis gigantea), for the potential to improve nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) through inhibiting rumen protozoa in vitro. Ground leaves of giant milkweed at 1.6 and 3.2 mg/mL decreased the counts of Entodinium cells by 41.30% and 58.89%, respectively, and damaged their cell surface structure. Dasytricha, Isotricha, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex, and Diplodinium were not affected, while total bacterial and archaeal populations did not decrease. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration decreased by 50.64% and 33.33% at 1.6 g/mL and 3.2 mg/mL, respectively. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and methane production remained unaffected, but butyrate production increased. The giant milkweed leaves contained (per gram of dry matter) 3636 µg phenolics including 205.9 µg of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2079 µg flavonoids including 1197.5 µg of quercetin and 91.4 µg of myricetin, and 490 µg alkaloids including 219.8 µg of anthraquinone glycosides. The effective inhibition of Entodinium was accompanied by a decrease in NH3-N concentration, and methane production did not increase except for the dose of 1.6 mg/mL. Giant milkweed may be used as a new feed additive or an alternative to chemicals or antibiotics for sustainable animal husbandry enhancing NUE in ruminants.


Assuntos
Calotropis , Cilióforos , Microbiota , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta , Fermentação , Metano , Rúmen
9.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 775-789, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943303

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is a metalloid that exists as a red amorphous powder, reddish crystal, silver-gray crystal, or brown-black solid. Its potency as a nutrient and a toxicant is such that few people have seen the pure element. It is easy to lose sight of the narrow margin between too little and too much. The most common cause of selenosis is accidental or intentional overuse of supplements. Many target organs and effects of Se toxicity are similar to those of Se deficiency, so laboratory confirmation is necessary. Prevention consists of minimizing exposure to seleniferous feedstuffs and optimizing dietary factors that might aggravate selenosis.


Assuntos
Envenenamento/veterinária , Ruminantes , Selênio/envenenamento , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/envenenamento , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/envenenamento , Envenenamento/etiologia
10.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 641-652, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948411

RESUMO

Ionophores are a commonly used feed additive for animals and when used properly are safe. When feed mis-mixing occurs and an elevated dose of ionophore is given, a toxicosis can develop. Myocardial and skeletal muscles are the targets of a toxicosis. In many species there is a delay from the time of ingestion of a toxic dose in feed to when clinical signs occur. This makes it difficult to collect the feed in question that was at an elevated concentration. Cardiac troponins in serum can be used to make a diagnosis of an ionophore toxicosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Ionóforos/administração & dosagem , Ionóforos/envenenamento , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo
11.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 653-659, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948412

RESUMO

Corn co-products are a co-product of the dry and wet corn-milling ethanol manufacturing industry. The dry mill corn co-product is distiller's grains. Distillers grain can be further categorized into dry distillers grains (DDG), DDG with solubles, wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS), modified WDGS, and corn syrup (solubles). Wet mill ethanol production produces 2 main feed stuffs: corn gluten (wet and dry) and heavy steep water.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/envenenamento , Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Encefalomalacia/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Encefalomalacia/induzido quimicamente , Encefalomalacia/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Ruminantes , Zea mays/química
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870925

RESUMO

In the dairy industry, feeding management has considerable influence on calf behavioral development, yet there is limited understanding of how aspects of diet or accommodating more varied feeding behavior may affect cognitive development in young calves. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of provision and presentation of hay on the cognitive ability of pre-weaned dairy calves. Individually-housed Holstein heifer calves were assigned at birth to 1 of 3 treatments: pelleted starter only (n = 10), hay (chopped to 5 cm) and starter provided in separate buckets (n = 12), or hay and starter offered as a mixture (n = 11). During week 5 of age, calves were tested daily in a learning task consisting of a T-maze with a milk reward (0.2 L milk) placed in one arm. Calves were subjected to an initial learning and reversal learning stage, where the reward location was changed to the opposite arm of the maze. Calves received 5 sessions/d until they met learning criterion (moving directly to correct side in 3 consecutive sessions) for initial and reversal learning. Dietary treatment did not affect pass rate or the number of sessions required to pass the initial learning stage. During the reversal learning stage, calves provided only starter had a lower pass rate (0.038, during first 8 testing session) early during testing than calves provided hay separately (0.20; P = 0.020) and tended to have a lower pass rate than calves provided hay as a mixture (0.14; P = 0.057). Calves provided only starter also tended to require more sessions to meet the learning criterion (15.8) than both calves provided hay separately (10.8; P = 0.089) and as a mixture (11.8; P = 0.10). Calves provided hay also kicked less and spent more time sniffing or licking the testing area. The results of this experiment indicate that provision of hay may affect behavioral flexibility in dairy calves.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Comportamento Animal , Cognição/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Desmame
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915803

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were: i) to classify animals into groups of high and low feed efficiency (FE) using three FE indexes (Residual feed intake (RFI), Residual weight gain (RG) and Feed conversion efficiency (FCE)), and ii) to evaluate whether crossbreed Holstein x Gyr heifers divergent for FE indexes exhibit differences in nutrient intake and digestibility, energy partitioning, heat production, methane emissions, nitrogen partitioning and blood parameters. Thirty-five heifers were housed in a tie-stall, received ad libitum TMR (75:25, corn silage: concentrate) and were ranked and classified into high (HE) or low efficiency (LE) for RFI, RG and FCE. The number of animals for each HE group were 13 (< 0.5 standard deviation (SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 11 for FCE (> 0.5 SD) and for the LE were 10 (> 0.5 SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 12 for FCE (< 0.5 SD). Gas exchanges (O2 consumption, CO2 and CH4 production) in open-circuit respiratory chambers and whole tract digestibility trial was performed. A completely randomized experimental design was used and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and correlation study. High efficiency animals for RFI produced less CO2, consumed less O2 and had lower heat production (HP). Methane production was positively correlated with RFI. High efficiency RG had higher O2 consumption and CO2 production in relation to LE-RG. High efficiency FCE had greater NFC digestibility, higher positive energy balance (EB) and excreted (11.4 g/d) less nitrogen in urine. High efficiency RG and FCE groups emitted less CH4 per kg of weight gain than LE animals. Animals HE for RFI and FCE had lower ß-hydroxybutyrate and higher glucose concentrations, respectively. The differences in intake, digestibility, energy and nitrogen partition, CH4 emission, blood metabolic variables and heat production between the HE and LE groups varied according to the efficiency indexes adopted. The HP (kcal/d/BW0.75) was lower for HE animals for RFI and FCE indexes.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/classificação , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Hibridização Genética , Metano/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946456

RESUMO

The livestock industry is one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions and there is an increasing demand for the industry to reduce its carbon footprint. Several studies have shown that feed additives 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate to be effective in reducing enteric methane emissions. The objective of this study was to estimate the net mitigating effect of using 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate on total greenhouse gas emissions in California dairy industry. A life cycle assessment approach was used to conduct a cradle-to-farm gate environmental impact analysis based on dairy production system in California. Emissions associated with crop production, feed additive production, enteric methane, farm management, and manure storage were calculated and expressed as kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kg of energy corrected milk. The total greenhouse gas emissions from baseline, 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate offered during lactation were 1.12, 0.993, and 1.08 kg CO2e/kg energy corrected milk, respectively. The average net reduction rates for 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate were 11.7% and 3.95%, respectively. In both cases, using the feed additives on the whole herd slightly improved overall carbon footprint reduction compared to limiting its use during lactation phase. Although both 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate had effects on decreasing the total greenhouse gas emission, the former was much more effective with no known safety issues in reducing the carbon footprint of dairy production in California.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Aditivos Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Animais , California , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Pegada de Carbono/estatística & dados numéricos , Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Efeito Estufa/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Lactação/metabolismo , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Propanóis/administração & dosagem , Propanóis/efeitos adversos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111337, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979804

RESUMO

Iron overload in water is a problem in many areas of the world, which could exert toxic effects on fish. To achieve maximum growth and overall fitness, iron induced toxicity must be alleviated. Therefore, this research was undertaken to investigate the potential mitigation of iron toxicity by dietary vitamin C supplementation in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Two doses of vitamin C (143 and 573 mg/kg diet) were tested against high environmental iron (HEI, 9.5 mg/L representing 25% of 96 h LC50). Fish were randomly divided into six groups with four replicated tanks. The groups were Control (vitamin C deficient feed), LVc (143 mg vitamin C supplemented per kg diet), HVc (573 mg vitamin C supplemented per kg diet), Con + Fe (control exposed to HEI), LVc + Fe (LVc exposed to HEI) and HVc + Fe (HVc exposed to HEI). Following an 8 week trial, there was a significant reduction in weight gain (WG%) in Con + Fe compared to the control, indicating a toxic effect of HEI on fish growth performance. Interestingly, WG% in both LVc + Fe and HVc + Fe groups were significantly higher than Cont + Fe, signifying that HEI inhibited growth, but this was alleviated by vitamin C. Both hemoglobin content and hematocrit were higher in LVc + Fe compared to the control and Con + Fe. In addition, exposure to HEI (Con + Fe) incited hepatic oxidative stress based on an over-accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) along with a significant inhibition in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities; whereas in LVc + Fe and HVc + Fe, the MDA content restored to basal level. A series of histopathological alterations were observed in the liver and gills, with the most severe lesions in Con + Fe, which was also complemented with a remarkable increase in hepatic iron accumulation. Vitamin C supplementations reduced the augmented concentrations of iron accumulation to that of the control. No effect, regardless of the treatments, was noted for fatty acid composition of muscle. Overall, our findings suggest that the vitamin C supplementation can be an effective therapeutic approach for boosting growth as well as alleviating iron toxicity in catfish.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Ictaluridae/metabolismo , Ferro/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ração Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20190650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876139

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to determine the effect of inclusion levels of dietary fiber in the Japanese quail diets. 480 Japanese quail were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments and 12 replicates composed of 8 birds each. The treatments were constituted by five increasing levels of fiber in the diet: 2.78; 3.08; 3.38; 3.68; 3.98%. The parameters of productive performance, water consumption, egg quality, total lipids in the egg, excreta humidity, weight of digestive organs and intestinal morphology were evaluated. There was no significant effect of the use of different fiber levels on feed intake, egg production, viability, live weight, relative and absolute weight of gizzard, small intestine and cecum, and in excreta moisture of Japanese quais. Higher dietary fiber levels resulted in improvements in feed conversion per mass and per dozen eggs and higher water consumption. There was no significant difference for egg quality, except fot the color of the yolk where it was observed higher pigmentation of this structure with higher levels of fiber inclusion, and the lipid concentration in the buds was influenced in a quadratic manner. The inclusion of fiber promoted improvement in the villi of the duodenum and cecum.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20180989, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876141

RESUMO

An 8-week experiment was carried out to assess the impact of supplemental dietary pyridoxine (PY), protease (PR), zinc (Zn) and their mixture (MIX) with low protein diet (LP; 14.76% CP) or high protein diet (HP; 18.53% CP) on rabbit growth, feed utilization, and nutrients digestibility. Rabbits were divided into ten similar groups in a 2 (protein level) ×5 (treatments) factorial design. Treatments included a control group (without any additives), 5 mg PY/kg of diet, 100 mg Zn/kg of diet, 500 mg PR/kg of diet or a mixture of all tested feed additive with the same doses. Results indicated that growth performance, feed utilization, and nutrients digestibility indicators were retarded significantly with reduction of dietary crude protein. Growth performance and feed conversion were significantly enhanced as a result of PY, PR, Zn, and MIX supplementation. All feed supplements had significantly improved the digestibility of crude protein and digestible crude protein. No change in carcass traits was recorded in response to protein level and tested feed supplements. It is concluded that the growing rabbit responded positively to PY, Zn, PR, and MIX (particularly PY) supplemental of LP or HP diets, in terms of growth performance, feed conversion, and nutrient digestibility.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Piridoxina , Coelhos , Zinco
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760112

RESUMO

We evaluated the between-cow (b-cow) variation and repeatability in omasal and milk fatty acids (FA) related to methane (CH4) emission. The dataset was originated from 9 studies with rumen-cannulated dairy cows conducted using either a switch-back or a Latin square design. Production of CH4 per mole of VFA (Y_CH4VFA) was calculated based on VFA stoichiometry. Experiment, diet within experiment, period within experiment, and cow within experiment were considered as random factors. Empirical models were developed between the variables of interest by univariate and bivariate mixed model regression analysis. The variation associated with diet was higher than the b-cow variation with low repeatability (< 0.25) for milk odd- and branch-chain FA (OBCFA). Similarly, for de novo synthesized milk FA, diet variation was ~ 3-fold greater than the b-cow variation; repeatability for these FA was moderate to high (0.34-0.58). Also, for both cis-9 C18:1 and cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3 diet variation was more than double the b-cow variation, but repeatability was moderate. Among the de novo milk FA, C4:0 was positively related with stoichiometric Y_CH4VFA, while for OBCFA, anteiso C15:0 and C15:0 were negatively related with it. Notably, when analyzing the relationship between omasal FA and milk FA we observed positive intercept estimates for all the OBCFA, which may indicate endogenous post-ruminal synthesis of these FA, most likely in the mammary gland. For milk iso C13:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0, and C15:0 were positively influenced by omasal proportion of their respective FA and by energy balance. In contrast, the concentration of milk C17:0, iso C18:0, C18:0, cis-11 C18:1, and cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3 were positively influenced by omasal proportion of their respective FA but negatively related to calculated energy balance. Our findings demonstrate that for most milk FA examined, a larger variation is attributed to diet than b-cow differences with low to moderate repeatability. While some milk FA were positively or negatively related with Y_CH4VFA, there was a pronounced effect of calculated energy balance on these estimates. Additionally, even though OBCFA have been indicated as markers of rumen function, our results suggest that endogenous synthesis of these FA may occur, which therefore, may limit the utilization of milk FA as a proxy for CH4 predictions for cows fed the same diet.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População , Efeito Estufa , Lactação/fisiologia , Metano/metabolismo , Leite/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Rúmen/metabolismo
19.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761765

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the influence of crude protein (CP) content in a fattening diet on feed intake, body weight gain, nitrogen excretion, and carcass traits in Holstein steers. Steers (initial body weight 241 ± 26 kg) consumed feed with the following CP content: (a) 17.7% during the early period (from 7 to 10 months of age) and 13.9% during the late period (from 11 to 18 months of age) (HIGH, n = 3), and (b) 16.2% during the early period and 12.2% during the late period (LOW, n = 4). The CP intake was lower in the LOW than the HIGH group. Urinary and total nitrogen excretion in the late period tended to be lower (p < .10) in the LOW than the HIGH group. However, growth performance and carcass traits were not affected by dietary CP content. Free histidine and total amino acid contents in the longissimus thoracis muscle tended to be higher (p < .10) in the HIGH than the LOW group, however, the CP contents were not affected by dietary CP content. The results of this experiment suggest that decreasing dietary CP to 16% (early period) or 12% (late period) of dry matter would reduce nitrogen excretion from Holstein fattening farms without affecting productivity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Masculino
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237505, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790727

RESUMO

Increased intestinal permeability (IP) and inflammation are both linked with functionality of the intestinal barrier and in particular enterocytes. Currently, almost all assessment methods of the intestinal barrier function are invasive. The present study aimed to quantify selected proteins as novel biomarkers in excreta of broiler chickens to facilitate non-invasive assessment of gut barrier function using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). It was further hypothesised that probiotics as feed additives may counteract gut barrier dysfunction. A 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with the main factors being gut barrier dysfunction models (control, rye-based diet, and dexamethasone-DEX) with and without probiotic supplementation (a three-strain Bacillus) using 72 male Ross 308 day-old chickens. Each of the 6 experimental treatments was replicated 12 times. On d 21 of age, fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) uptake into serum was examined to test IP. Fresh excreta samples were collected on d 20. The biomarkers included alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), lipocalin-2 (LCN2), fibronectin (FN), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), ovotransferrin (OVT) and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SOD1). Only DEX increased (P<0.001) FITC-d passage to the blood on d 21 of age, indicating a greater IP. The excreta concentrations of A1AT, I-FABP and SOD1 were unaltered by the experimental treatments. DEX increased (P<0.05) FN concentration in excreta compared with control birds. Conversely, inclusion of rye in the diet reduced (P<0.05) FN but increased (P<0.001) OVT in excreta. Independently, DEX decreased IAP (P<0.05) in excreta compared with control and rye-fed birds. The excreta concentration of LCN2 tended (P = 0.086) to increase in birds injected by DEX. There was no demonstrable effect of probiotic addition on any of the studied parameters. Among the tested biomarkers, FN, IAP, and LCN2 revealed promise as biomarkers of intestinal barrier function quantified by ELISA kits.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/patologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino
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