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Dev Comp Immunol ; 150: 105081, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37839671


To investigate the ability of Vibrio sp. V33 supplementation on the growth performance, innate immunity, intestinal microbiota, and disease resistance of the juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, a feeding experiment was conducted. Our results revealed that dietary Vibrio sp. V33 could significantly enhanced sea cucumber growth rate, and the immune parameters including total coelomocytes counts (TCC), phagocytosis, respiratory burst, immune-related enzyme activities (acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and nitric oxide synthetase) were all markedly improved in coelomocytes of sea cucumbers fed with V33 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the composition of the bacterial community in the intestinal contents of the sea cucumber was surveyed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Beta diversity analysis indicated that the bacterial compositions of sea cucumbers were significantly different between V33 and Control groups. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the most prevalent phyla in sea cucumber gut microbiota. The abundance of Firmicutes (20.58%), Bacteroidetes (9.77%), and Verrucomicrobia (3.04%) were significantly higher in V33 group when compared with Control. Moreover, genus Mycobacterium was markedly decreased to 0.5% after V33 feeding, while the abundance of genus Rhodococcus was significantly increased by 6.9-fold (P < 0.01) under the same condition, indicating V33 diet might promotes the colonization of beneficial bacteria in the gut of sea cucumber. After Vibrio splendidus challenge, the survival rate of juvenile sea cucumbers fed with V33 diet was significantly higher than that fed with Control diet. All our current results suggested that the Vibrio sp. V33 could used as a probiotic for healthier production of sea cucumbers in aquaculture.

Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pepinos-do-Mar , Stichopus , Vibrio , Animais , Resistência à Doença , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta , Imunidade Inata , Superóxido Dismutase
Meat Sci ; 207: 109364, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37839294


This study aimed to assess the effect of dietary tara (Tara spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina) Britton & Rose) hydrolysable tannins on performance and meat quality of finishing pigs. Twenty barrows (crossbred PIC × Piétrain; age: 125 ± 5 d; bodyweight: 60.8 ± 3.89 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups and fed ad libitum for 7 weeks a control diet (CON) or a diet supplemented with 10 g/kg of tara tannins (TAT), respectively. No differences (P > 0.10) on growth performance and carcass traits were observed between the two groups. Meat fatty acid profile was not affected (P > 0.10) by the diet, but the content of C22:5 n-3 tended to be lower (P = 0.079) in TAT pork. Dietary tannins tended to reduce (P = 0.095) meat cholesterol. The diet had no effect (P > 0.10) on fat-soluble antioxidant vitamins, hydrophilic antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and glutathione peroxidase activity. Superoxide dismutase activity tended to be lower (P = 0.087) in TAT meat than in CON meat. Dietary tannins did not affect (P > 0.10) backfat and meat color development during 6 days of refrigerated storage, but TAT meat tended to be darker (P = 0.082). Meat from pigs fed tara tannins showed lower (P = 0.028) hydroperoxides content and a tendency toward lower conjugated dienes (P = 0.079) and malondialdehyde (P = 0.084) contents. Also, dietary tannins delayed lipid oxidation in meat subjected to oxidative challenges such as catalysis and cooking (P < 0.05). The positive effect of dietary tara hydrolysable tannins on lipid oxidation was likely due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity, but it may have been mitigated by the high α-tocopherol content in meat.

Antioxidantes , Taninos Hidrolisáveis , Suínos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Composição Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Taninos , Ração Animal/análise
Meat Sci ; 207: 109363, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37866236


The current study examined the growth rates, carcase characteristics, meat quality, and consumer sensory evaluation of the longissimus lumborum muscle (striploin) from steers that were supplemented with either canola meal or grain-based pellets. Forty Angus and Hereford × Angus steers received one of these two supplements with ad libitum lucerne hay for 60 d prior to slaughter. Average daily weight gain was not affected by dietary treatment; however, hot standard carcase weight was significantly lower for steers offered canola meal compared with steers on the grain-based pellets. Dietary treatment did not affect the carcase characteristics, meat quality traits, and consumer sensory evaluation, irrespective of ageing periods. Therefore, canola meal can be used as an approved Pasturefed Cattle Assurance System (PCAS) supplement on moderate dry quality forages without negatively affecting carcase and meat quality traits.

Ração Animal , Brassica napus , Bovinos , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Aumento de Peso , Carne/análise
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 27(1): 47-69, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37625941


Insectivores are represented in virtually all taxa, although more is known about mammalian and avian insectivore nutrition than for reptiles, amphibia and fish. Establishing nutrient requirements is challenging but recommendations should be based on data from similar taxa, similar GI tract physiology, and known nutritional concerns. In order to provide an appropriate diet for insectivores, consideration must be given to anatomy and method for procuring insects in free-ranging habitats, availability of feeder insects and the resulting dietary nutrient profiles, and complementing those profiles with appropriate diet items from various other categories including formulated feed, produce, animal matter, seeds or grains etc. Consideration of known nutritional concerns for a given species, and the variation in energy requirements in a captively managed situation are essential.

Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Anfíbios , Mamíferos
J Sci Food Agric ; 104(1): 174-183, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37612258


BACKGROUND: Dietary supplementation with trace elements zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) could promote intestinal development and improve intestinal health. There are, however, few studies examining the possibility that maternal original Zn, Fe and Mn could regulate intestinal development and barrier function in the offspring. This study aimed to investigate how the intestinal growth and barrier function of breeder offspring were affected by collagen peptide-chelated trace elements (PTE; Zn, Fe, Mn). RESULTS: PTE supplementation in the diet of breeder hens increased the concentrations of Zn, Fe and Mn in egg yolk. Maternal PTE supplementation improved morphological parameters of the intestine (villi height, crypt depth and villi height/crypt depth) and upregulated the mRNA expression level of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) in the ileum of chick embryos. Furthermore, maternal PTE effect improved villi height/crypt depth of offspring at 1 and 14 days of age, and upregulated Lgr5, Claudin-3 and E-cadherin mRNA expression in the broiler ileum. Additionally, PTE treatment could enhance the intestinal microbial diversity of offspring. Maternal PTE supplementation increased the relative abundance of Clostridiales at the genus level and decreased the relative abundance of Enterococcus in newborn offspring. Moreover, maternal PTE supplementation ameliorated the elevated nuclear factor kappa B, toll-like receptor 4 and interleukin 1ß mRNA expression in the ileum of offspring caused by LPS challenge. CONCLUSION: Maternal PTE supplementation could promote intestinal development and enhance the intestinal barrier function of chicken offspring. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.

Galinhas , Oligoelementos , Embrião de Galinha , Animais , Feminino , Galinhas/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Dieta , Intestinos , Manganês , Zinco/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Colágeno/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37343763


Candida albicans is a pathogenic yeast recently associated with diverse diseases in aquaculture. The present study investigated the efficacy of chitosan nanogel (CNG) in ameliorating effects of C. albicans on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish were randomly distributed into four groups (control, waterborne CNG at 75 µg/L, intraperitoneally challenged with C. albicans (1.8 × 107 CFU/mL), and waterborne CNG at 75 µg/L + C. albicans at 1.8 × 107 CFU/mL). Results showed that C. albicans infection reduced survival rate (57.5%) and caused marked clinical symptoms in fish among all infected groups. Substantial declines in immunological (complement 3, lysozyme, and immunoglobulin M), protein (total protein and non-albumin protein), and antioxidant (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) biochemical endpoints were exhibited, The C. albicans infected group also showed marked down-regulation in the expression of immune-related genes, including toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), transforming growth factor beta2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukins (IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-10), and antiapoptotic gene (B-cell lymphoma, BCL-2). The expression of the apoptotic gene (Bcl-2 associated X protein, BAX) was up-regulated in fish challenged by C. albicans. The application of waterborne CNG to fish challenged with C. albicans infection improved fish survival (79.5%) and all other measured parameters. The main finding of this work was that CNG is a nanotechnology with potential for preventing degraded health status by C. albicans infection in tilapia, and thus has promise as an intervention in aquaculture settings.

Infecções Bacterianas , Quitosana , Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Quitosana/farmacologia , Dieta , Ciclídeos/genética , Nanogéis , Resistência à Doença/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais
Sci Total Environ ; 907: 167943, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37863219


The consistent population growth is directly tied to the annual rise in livestock production, placing a substantial burden on the crop sector that supplies animal feed. The Danish government has been relying on importing soybeans and soybean meal to be used as animal feed. However, this sparked environmental concerns that require more environmentally friendly solutions, such as self-sufficiency in animal feed production. The rise of green biorefineries allows new avenues of animal proteinaceous feed production using green biomass to produce leaf protein concentrate (LPC) and utilize side-stream products, such as brown juice and press cake, for feed-quality products. This study evaluated the combination of grass-clover biorefinery and the power-to-X concept, including power-to-protein technology, for its environmental sustainability through a consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA). The production of protein concentrate from organic grass clover exhibits optimal environmental performance when press cake and brown juice are used for bioenergy recovery. The findings indicate that combining a green biorefinery with power-to-protein to fully valorize the carbon and nitrogen content of brown juice and press cake into feed-grade protein can increase the environmental benefits. Such an integration resulted in an avoided impact of -995.9 kg CO2-eq/tonne of protein concentrate. The avoided impacts of climate change could be higher within the first 20 years due to a higher carbon sequestration rate. However, even after 20 years when a new carbon balance in the soil is reached, the environmental gain could be big enough to encourage the production and use of organic grass-clover protein concentrate.

Meio Ambiente , Soja , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Poaceae , Tecnologia , Carbono
Sci Total Environ ; 907: 167949, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37865254


Brackish water is being progressively utilized in livestock farming across the globe where freshwater is scarce, potentially leading to detrimental consequences for animal health and performance. This study was conducted to determine effects of different brackish groundwater types on water and feed intake, nutrient utilization, ruminal fluid characteristics, and blood constituent concentrations in different breeds of goats and sheep in a 6 (animal types; AT) × 6 (water treatments; WT) Latin square design. Six AT (Boer, Spanish, and Tennessee Stiff-Leg does and Dorper, Katahdin, and St. Croix ewes) consumed drinking water differing in total dissolved solids (TDS) and mineral composition. Six WT were fresh water (FRW; 287 mg TDS/kg), a natural brackish water (BR) alone (100-BR; 5734 mg TDS/kg), BR with concentrations of all minerals increased by about 100 % (200-BR; 10,603 mg TDS/kg), FRW added with NaCl having similar TDS level (6654 mg/kg) as 100-BR (100-SL), FRW added with NaCl having similar TDS (12,197 mg/kg) as 200-BR (200-SL), and water with similar TDS (10,643 mg/kg) level as 200-BR by adding NaCl to 100-BR (200-BR/SL). Water treatment only affected (P < 0.05) water intake, total volatile fatty acids in ruminal fluid, blood phosphorus, blood aldosterone, and plasma osmolality. Water intake was greater (P < 0.05), but total ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations were lower (P < 0.05) for 200-SL than other WT. Plasma osmolality and aldosterone concentrations were lower (P < 0.05) for 200-SL and 200-BR/SL than FRW. There were no significant interactions between WT and AT for any variable. Water and feed intake, digestibilities, ruminal ammonia concentration, and methane emission were similar among AT (P > 0.05). There were differences (P < 0.05) among AT for many ruminal fermentation and blood characteristics. Although there were some differences among WT, no AT seemed adversely affected by water with a TDS level near or slightly above 10,000 mg/kg regardless of mineral sources.

Digestão , Ingestão de Líquidos , Animais , Ovinos , Feminino , Cabras , Fermentação , Aldosterona/metabolismo , Aldosterona/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Rúmen , Dieta/veterinária
Theriogenology ; 214: 224-232, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37924739


The objective was to determine effects of dietary supplementation of barley sprouts (BS) and/or d-aspartic acid (DA) on the reproductive potential of aged broiler roosters. Birds (n = 32, 50 wk old) were randomly allocated to receive dietary supplements of BS powder (2 % of basal diet), and DA (200 mg/kg BW), both, or neither, for 12 wk. Roosters were housed individually, with 14-h light/10-h dark, ad libitum feed and water, and euthanized after 12 wk. Mean (±SEM) total phenolic compounds and IC50 in methanol extract of sprouted barley were 302.8 ± 10.9 mg GAE/g and 600.8 ± 50.5 mg TE per 100 g, respectively. In weekly semen collections, sperm total and progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, sperm concentration, and sperm production were higher (P < 0.05) in both the DA + BS and BS groups compared to the Control, but sperm abnormalities were unaffected. Feeding DA increased right, left, and combined testicular weights (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively) and, the testicular index (P = 0.01). Feeding BS increased seminiferous tubule diameter (P < 0.01), whereas BS + DA increased seminiferous epithelium thickness (P < 0.01). There were more spermatogonia (P < 0.01) and Leydig cells (P < 0.05) in BS-fed roosters but Sertoli cells were highest in BS + DA (P < 0.01). Serum MDA concentrations were lowest in BS (P < 0.01), whereas serum testosterone and LH were highest in DA (P < 0.05) and BS + DA (P < 0.01), respectively. Feeding BS reduced serum total cholesterol (P < 0.05) and increased serum HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.01), with decreases in serum LDL (P < 0.01) and the LDL/HDL ratio (P < 0.01) for BS + DA compared to Control. Relative expression of glutathione peroxidase mRNA was increased by BS (P < 0.01) or DA (P < 0.05), whereas relative mRNA expression of SOD was highest in BA (P < 0.01). Control roosters were highest for both BAX (P < 0.01) and the relative expression of the BAX/BCL-2 ratio (P < 0.01), whereas BS + DA increased BCL-2 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, feeding BS, and/or DA significantly improved reproductive potential in aged broiler roosters.

Antioxidantes , Hordeum , Animais , Masculino , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido D-Aspártico , Hordeum/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2 , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Sementes/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Testosterona , Apoptose , Colesterol , Ração Animal/análise
Sci Total Environ ; 906: 167747, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37848148


The combination of optimal nitrate and l-cysteine to safely mitigate rumen methane (CH4) emissions in ruminants was studied in an open-circuit respiration head-hood system using four rumen-fistulated Suffolk wethers in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four treatments were set up Control: fed on lucerne hay cubes without nitrate and l-cysteine, Nitrate: fed on lucerne hay cubes with 0.18 % NO3--N in dry matter (DM)), N + Cys-H: fed on lucerne hay cubes supplemented with 0.18 % NO3--N and 0.74 % l-cysteine (equivalent to half the upper limit of effective S requirement in DM), and N + Cys-Q: fed on lucerne hay cubes supplemented with 0.18 % NO3--N and 0.37 % l-cysteine (equivalent to 1/4 of the upper limit of effective S requirement in DM). In this experiment, the ingested nitrate at a subclinical concentration/s (0.18 % in DM) increased by 11.2 % mean methemoglobin value and alleviated rumen methanogenesis by 47 %. Administration of l-cysteine set at 0.74 % and 0.37 % in DM reduced by 68 % and 58 % methemoglobin formed by nitrate alone, respectively (P < 0.05). However, daily mitigation of CH4 emissions decreased by 35 % with the addition of l-cysteine at both addition concentration/s compared with Control. The results of this study suggest that mitigation of enteric methane emissions by the combination of nitrate and l-cysteine can be achieved by feeding diets in which the nitrate content is maintained at around 0.18 % NO3--N in DM and l-cysteine addition is adjusted to 0.37-0.74 % in DM. This method would be recommended as a safe, efficient, and practical way to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions leading to increased productivity while reducing the increased N excretion that causes N2O emissions.

Cisteína , Nitratos , Animais , Masculino , Ovinos , Nitratos/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Medicago sativa , Metemoglobina/metabolismo , Metemoglobina/farmacologia , Metano/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Rúmen , Fermentação , Ração Animal/análise
Sci Total Environ ; 909: 168512, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977393


Micro/nanoplastics (MP) are emerging environmental contaminants of great concern because of their ubiquitous distribution in air, soil, water, and food. Reports have described MP in the excreta of food animals, but their absorption, distribution, and elimination in terrestrial animals used for human consumption is essentially unexplored. To determine the absorption and distribution of [14C]-polystyrene (PS) MP, laying hens (n = 15) were bolus dosed with 10 µCi/hen (11.1 ± 0.8 mg/kg) and the extent of radioactivity in blood and tissues was determined in birds harvested on withdrawal days (WD) 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 (3 hens per WD). Radiocarbon was also determined in egg fractions and excreta collected throughout the study. Blood, eggs, and tissues contained a total of <1 % of the administered dose, demonstrating that polystyrene microparticles were poorly absorbed. Recovery of radioactivity in excreta within the first withdrawal day was nearly quantitative (96.8 ± 14.5 %, n = 15), suggesting exposure of poultry to dietary PS-MP would not likely represent subsequent food safety risks and that most PS-MP present in poultry diets would return to the environment.

Galinhas , Microplásticos , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Plásticos , Poliestirenos , Ovos/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Administração Oral , Ração Animal/análise
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250821, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345541


Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.

Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.

Animais , Peixes , Ração Animal/análise , Paquistão , Composição Corporal , Lagoas , Dieta
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548


Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.

Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.

Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552


Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.

Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.

Animais , Ciclídeos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folhas de Planta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250517, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355859


Abstract Lactobacilli are probiotics with Aflatoxin (AF) detoxification ability, found in fermented products, GIT of animals and environment. Purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of broiler isolates of Lactobacillus against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). For this purpose, 5 isolates of Lactobacillus from broiler gut were incubated with 100 ppb AFB1 in aqueous environment and effect of different parameters (cell fractions, time, temperature, pH) on detoxification was determined by HPLC. The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) against AFB1 was studied in broiler. The results revealed that LS (CR. 4) showed the best results (in vitro) as compared to other isolates (L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR, 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) and L. crispatus (CE. 28). Cell debris of CR. 4 showed significantly higher detoxification (P<0.05). Maximum amount of AFB1 was detoxified at 30°C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) and 6 h (99.97%). In vivo study showed that AFB1 decreased weight gain (1,269 ± 0.04 gm/ bird), feed consumed (2,161 ± 0.08 gm/ bird), serum total protein (2.42 ± 0.34 gm/ dl), serum albumin (0.5 ± 0.2 2 gm/dl) and antibody titer (4.2 ± 0.83). Liver function enzymes were found (alanine transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U/L) elevated in AFB1 fed broilers. Treatment with 1% LS not only decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 (group D) but also improved the overall health of broilers due to its probiotic effects (p<0.05) as compared to control negative (group A). The detoxification ability of LS was better than commercial binder (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). It was concluded that detoxification of AFB1 by Lactobacillus was strain, temperature, pH and time dependent. LS has detoxification ability against AFB1 in vivo.

Resumo Os lactobacilos são probióticos com capacidade de desintoxicação da Aflatoxina (AF), encontrados em produtos fermentados, TGI de animais e meio ambiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a capacidade de isolados de frango de corte de Lactobacillus contra a Aflatoxina B1 (AFB1). Para tanto, 5 isolados de Lactobacillus de intestino de frango foram incubados com 100 ppb AFB1 em meio aquoso, e o efeito de diferentes parâmetros (frações celulares, tempo, temperatura, pH) na desintoxicação foi determinado por CLAE. O efeito melhorador de Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) contra AFB1 foi estudado em frangos de corte. Os resultados revelaram que LS (CR. 4) apresentou os melhores resultados (in vitro) em comparação com outros isolados [L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR. 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) e L. crispatus (CE. 28)]. Detritos celulares de CR. 4 mostraram desintoxicação significativamente maior (P < 0.05). A quantidade máxima de AFB1 foi desintoxicada a 30 °C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) e 6 h (99,97%). O estudo in vivo mostrou que AFB1 diminuiu o ganho de peso (1,269 ± 0.04 g / ave), alimento consumido (2,161 ± 0.08 g / ave), proteína total sérica (2.42 ± 0.34 g / dl), albumina sérica (0.5 ± 0.22 gm / dl) e título de anticorpo (4.2 ± 0.83). As enzimas da função hepática foram encontradas (alanina transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U / L) e aspartato transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U / L) elevadas em AFB1 alimentados com frangos. O tratamento com 1% LS não só diminuiu os efeitos tóxicos de AFB1 (grupo D), mas também melhorou a saúde geral dos frangos devido aos seus efeitos probióticos (p < 0.05) em comparação com o controle negativo (grupo A). A capacidade de desintoxicação do LS foi melhor do que o aglutinante comercial (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). Concluiu-se que a desintoxicação de AFB1 por Lactobacillus foi dependente da cepa, temperatura, pH e tempo. LS tem capacidade de desintoxicação contra AFB1 in vivo.

Animais , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Probióticos , Galinhas , Lactobacillus , Ração Animal/análise
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900


Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.

Animais , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902


Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.

Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Helmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 27(1): 101-113, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37625943


Mini pigs are engaging, intelligent animals that require different management than other pet species. Published nutrient requirements for production pigs are a good reference, but they must be critically evaluated in the context of pet mini pigs' needs to prioritize longevity and healthy weight. A balanced diet includes a pelleted feed, vegetables, and roughage, with minimal fruit or other treats. Mini pigs easily gain weight, and a balanced, high-fiber diet helps maintain healthy body condition to reduce the risk of metabolic and joint diseases.

Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta , Suínos , Animais , Porco Miniatura , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
Sci Total Environ ; 907: 168018, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37879474


Seafood has an important role to play to achieve a sustainable food system that provides healthy food to a growing world population. Future seafood production will be increasingly reliant on aquaculture where feed innovation is essential to reduce environmental impacts and minimize feed and food competition. This study aimed to investigate whether a novel single cell protein feed ingredient based on Paecilomyces variotii grown on a side stream from the forest industry could improve environmental sustainability of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by replacing the soy protein concentrate used today. A Life Cycle Assessment including commonly addressed impacts but also the rarely assessed biodiversity impacts was performed. Furthermore, feeding trials were included for potential effects on fish growth, i.e., an assessment of the environmental impacts for the functional unit 'kg feed required to produce 1 kg live-weight rainbow trout'. Results showed that the best experimental diet containing P. variotii performed 16-73 % better than the control diet containing soy protein concentrate in all impact categories except for energy demand (21 % higher impact). The largest environmental benefits from replacing soy protein with P. variotii in rainbow trout diets was a 73 % reduction of impact on biodiversity and halved greenhouse gas emissions. The findings have high relevance for the aquaculture industry as the production scale and feed composition was comparable to commercial operations and because the effect on fish growth from inclusion of the novel ingredient in a complete diet was evaluated. The results on biodiversity loss from land use change and exploitation through fishing suggest that fishery can dominate impacts and exclusion thereof can greatly underestimate biodiversity impact. Finally, a novel feed ingredient grown on side streams from the forest industry has potential to add to food security through decreasing the dependence on increasingly scarce agricultural land resources.

Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Aquicultura/métodos , Dieta , Biodiversidade
Food Chem ; 430: 137008, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37586289


Microbial fermented feed (MFF) has been demonstrated to improve nutritional status as well as promote animal health. However, only a few studies have focused on its effect on the flavor of animal products, and the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, egg amino acids and yolk trimethylamine (TMA), small intestine histomorphology, cecal microbiota and yolk metabolites were analyzed in MFF-treated ducks. The results showed that MFF significantly increased the flavor amino acids in duck eggs, along with reducing the yolk TMA. MFF caused an increase in beneficial cecal microflora, and regulated the bacteria involved in the metabolism of glucolipid, TMA and its N-oxide. Moreover, MFF regulated 34 annotated metabolites markedly enriched in four metabolic pathways. Correlation analysis showed that cecal microbiota and yolk metabolites were closely related to flavor-related indicators of duck eggs. Our study therefore provides a theoretical basis for improving avian egg flavor starting from the feed.

Patos , Microbiota , Animais , Aminoácidos/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta , Gema de Ovo/química , Ovos/análise