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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495169

RESUMO

Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cyprinidae , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468527

RESUMO

A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.


Assuntos
Cromo , Cyprinidae , Carboidratos da Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 361, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Realimentation can compensate for weight loss from poor-quality feedstuffs or drought. Mature cows fluctuate in body weight throughout the year due to nutrient availability. The objective of this study was to determine whether cows that differ in weight gain during realimentation also differ in the abundance of transcripts for enzymes associated with energy utilization in skeletal muscle. Mature cows were subjected to feed restriction followed by ad libitum feed. Skeletal muscle transcriptome expression differences during the two feeding periods were determined from cows with greater (n = 6) and less (n = 6) weight gain during the ad libitum feeding period. RESULTS: A total of 567 differentially expressed genes (408 up- and 159 down-regulated) were identified for the comparison of restriction and ad libitum periods (PBonferroni < 0.05). These genes were over-represented in lysosome, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and glutathione metabolism pathways. Validation of the expression of five of the genes was performed and four were confirmed. These data suggest that realimentation weight gain for all cows is partially controlled by protein turnover, but oxidative stress and cellular signaling pathways are also involved in the muscle tissue. This dataset provides insight into molecular mechanisms utilized by mature cows during realimentation after a period of low abundance feed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Transcriptoma , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Feminino , Músculo Esquelético , Ganho de Peso
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468517

RESUMO

Fish protein is serving as a source of nutrition for protein starving world. However, sustainable aquaculture products require inexpensive plant by-products due to finite sources of fish meal. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine nutrient utilization, growth performance and hematological indices of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) based diets. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having MOLM as a substitute of fish meal (FM) at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% for the period of 90 days. Fingerlings having initial weight 6.35±0.04g were reared in triplicate tanks at the stocking density of 15 and hand fed at the rate of 5% of total biomass twice regularly. Chromic oxide inclusion level was 1% in diets. After analysis, maximum growth performance and improved digestibility of nutrients were found in fish fed with diet at 10% replacement level as compared to fish fed on control diet and other test diets. Additionally, it was found that the red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration of fish showed a significantly (p<0.05) inverse correlation with the increase in MOLM. In present research, it was concluded that MOLM has good potential to be used as a FM substitute in C. mrigala diet with maximum effect at 10% showing positive hematological indices.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Moringa oleifera , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Dieta
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468521

RESUMO

Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings' body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Linho , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248878, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468535

RESUMO

Biofloc technology is much highlighted these days because of its tremendous effects on aquaculture. Microbes were enriched on cheapest organic carbon source i. e., powdered banana peels and were incorporated in different aquaria rearing grass carp fingerlings under different C/N treatments (10:1, 15:1 and 20:1) and 10% water daily water exchange. The initial growth of fingerlings was recorded. The experiment was settled in triplicates for 60 days and run parallel to control group provided with commercial feed and daily water exchange. Its effect was evaluated by measuring the growth of fingerlings and water parameters of each aquarium. The average % gain in weight and length of fingerlings was obtained significantly highest (28.12 ± 0.30g and 17.29 ± 0.46cm respectively) in aquaria containing pure powdered banana peels with 10% water exchange and C/N ratio was adjusted at 20: 1 (T3) than other treatments and control. Ammonia and other water parameters were also under control in T3 than other experimental and control groups. By all counts, it was concluded that the highest C/N ratio in biofloc system had the potential to increment C. idella growth rate by reducing toxicity and could be used as fish meal substitute.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Carpas , Amônia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carbono
7.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 179, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aquaculture sector now accounts for almost 50% of all fish for human consumption and is anticipated to provide 62% by 2030. Innovative strategies are being sought to improve fish feeds and feed additives to enhance fish performance, welfare, and the environmental sustainability of the aquaculture industry. There is still a lack of knowledge surrounding the importance and functionality of the teleost gut microbiome in fish nutrition. In vitro gut model systems might prove a valuable tool to study the effect of feed, and additives, on the host's microbial communities. Several in vitro gut models targeted at monogastric vertebrates are now in operation. Here, we report the development of an Atlantic salmon gut model, SalmoSim, to simulate three gut compartments (stomach, pyloric caecum, and midgut) and associated microbial communities. RESULTS: The gut model was established in a series of linked bioreactors seeded with biological material derived from farmed adult marine-phase salmon. We first aimed to achieve a stable microbiome composition representative of founding microbial communities derived from Atlantic salmon. Then, in biological triplicate, the response of the in vitro system to two distinct dietary formulations (fishmeal and fishmeal free) was compared to a parallel in vivo trial over 40 days. Metabarcoding based on 16S rDNA sequencing qPCR, ammoniacal nitrogen, and volatile fatty acid measurements were undertaken to survey the microbial community dynamics and function. SalmoSim microbiomes were indistinguishable (p = 0.230) from their founding inocula at 20 days and the most abundant genera (e.g., Psycrobacter, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas) proliferated within SalmoSim (OTUs accounting for 98% of all reads shared with founding communities). Real salmon and SalmoSim responded similarly to the introduction of novel feed, with majority of the taxa (96% Salmon, 97% SalmoSim) unaffected, while a subset of taxa (e.g., a small fraction of Psychrobacter) was differentially affected across both systems. Consistent with a low impact of the novel feed on microbial fermentative activity, volatile fatty acid profiles were not significantly different in SalmoSim pre- and post-feed switch. CONCLUSION: By establishing stable and representative salmon gut communities, this study represents an important step in the development of an in vitro gut system as a tool for the improvement of fish nutrition and welfare. The steps of the system development described in this paper can be used as guidelines to develop various other systems representing other fish species. These systems, including SalmoSim, aim to be utilised as a prescreening tool for new feed ingredients and additives, as well as being used to study antimicrobial resistance and transfer and fundamental ecological processes that underpin microbiome dynamics and assembly. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Salmo salar , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10688-10699, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472353

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient; however, potential health impacts of high dietary levels of added soluble, highly bioavailable P salts especially are a concern. P sources with lower bioavailability are considered safer. Yet, speciation of different P sources to assess diets' risk to health is challenging. This investigation tested the value of in vitro water extraction and digestion assays to predict in vivo P apparent bioavailability/digestibility in feline diets. Thirty wet (n = 18) and dry (n = 12) format experimental and commercial cat foods were analyzed for nutrient content. Triplicate samples were subjected to in vitro water extraction, single-phase acidic (gastric; G) digestion, and dual-phase gastric and small intestinal (G-SI) digestion assays. Soluble and insoluble P were determined in the supernatant and pellet, respectively. A subset of the diets (seven wet, nine dry diets) was fed to healthy, adult cats (n = 7-24) to determine in vivo apparent P digestibility. Information on the soluble P salt sources and their contribution to total dietary P was available for some diets. Associations between data from the different in vitro assays and in vivo digestibility trials and the influence of different diet parameters were obtained using Pearson correlation and linear regression modeling. The % soluble P obtained from G-SI digestion assay correlated well with in vivo apparent P digestibility for wet (Pearson coefficient 0.926, p = 0.003), but not for dry diets (Pearson coefficient -0.074, p = 0.849). In contrast, the % soluble P determined by water extraction correlated well with the % soluble P salt contribution to total P for dry (Pearson coefficient 0.901, p < 0.001), but not for wet diets (Pearson coefficient -0.407, p = 0.365). Thus, 20 min water extraction can be used to predict soluble P salt content in dry diets; however, differing Ca:P ratios and water solubility of the P sources may affect the outcome and false-positive results can occur. The G-SI digestion assay employed can also be used to predict in vivo P digestibility. However, again, diet format, Ca:P ratios in diets, and possibly other factors can impact the results. Thus, data from in vitro assays to assess P sources and bioavailability need to be interpreted with care.


Assuntos
Digestão , Fósforo na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gatos , Dieta/veterinária , Nutrientes , Fósforo
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 448, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533661

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two marker dosage frequencies and two spot fecal sampling frequencies on the variability of fecal output estimation and fecal recovery rate in grazing Blanco Orejinegro (BON) steers with chromium (Cr) or titanium (Ti) as external markers. Four steers (230.5 ± 14.4 kg BW) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design in a split-plot arrangement with two markers: Cr or Ti, two marker dosage frequencies: 10.0 g Cr2O3 or TiO2/steer once daily (DF1) or 5.0 g Cr2O3 or TiO2/steer twice daily (DF2), and two fecal sampling frequencies: spot sampling once daily (SF1) or spot sampling twice daily (SF2). Steers were equipped with fecal collection bags to evaluate the actual fecal output (FOR). Fecal marker concentration (FMC) was affected by marker dosage frequency × fecal sampling frequency interaction (P = 0.032): SF1DF1 allowed higher FMC (2.26 g/kg DM) than SF2DF1 (1.95 g/kg DM). Chromium marker allowed higher estimated fecal output (FOe) values when compared to FOR (P < 0.001). Both Ti mean and SD bias (+ 0.074 ± 0.160 kg) were lower than Cr mean and SD bias (+ 0.312 ± 0.272 kg). The Ti fecal output prediction showed lower both RSR (0.586 vs 1.401) and MSPE (0.029 vs 0.167) than Cr prediction. The titanium external marker allowed fecal output estimation with more accuracy in grazing beef cattle trials. A protocol including a once-daily marker dosage associated with a once-daily fecal sampling is plausible, allowing good fecal recovery rates and accurate fecal output estimation.


Assuntos
Digestão , Titânio , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Compostos de Cromo , Dieta
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 452, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535849

RESUMO

Forage allowance impacts dry matter (DM) intake and the use of nutrients by ruminants. The efficient use of protein and energy from pasture is related to better livestock performance and lower environmental impacts. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of forage allowance levels on intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and methane (CH4) emissions by lambs fed fresh pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke]. An indoor trial was performed using lambs in a completely randomized design with four treatments [forage allowance at 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg DM/100 kg of live weight (LW), and ad libitum allowing 20% of refusals] and four replicates (lambs). Forage intake, digestibility, total urine and feces excretion, and CH4 emission were measured to calculate N and energy balances. An increase in forage allowance resulted in a linear increase in lamb forage intake, N retention, and metabolizable energy intake. Moreover, lamb CH4 emission (g/day) also increased with greater forage allowance, while CH4 yield decreased linearly as forage allowance increased. Our results indicate that maximizing forage intake improves N and energy use efficiency and mitigates CH4 yield and decreases CH4 conversion factor (Ym) by lambs fed pearl millet forage. Thus, management strategies that optimize intake of tropical forages by ruminants improve the use of nutrients ingested and mitigates negative impacts to the environment.


Assuntos
Metano , Pennisetum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Lactação , Nitrogênio , Rúmen , Ovinos , Zea mays
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 454, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536113

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of including palm kernel cake (PKC) in high-concentrate diets for feedlot goat kids on nutrient intake, digestibility, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, and performance. Thirty-two castrated crossbred Boer × mixed breed goat kids with an average age of 4 months and an initial body weight of 19.65 ± 3.00 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The diets included one of four levels (0, 12, 24, and 36%) of PKC on a total dry matter basis. The PKC inclusion in the diets promoted quadratic effects in the nutrient intakes (P ≤ 0.05). The digestibility of ether extract increased (P = 0.010), whereas the digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates decreased (P = 0.017) with the inclusion of PKC. Palm kernel cake inclusion promoted a quadratic effect on the time spent per episode feeding and decreased the times spent idling and ruminated bolus per day (P ≤ 0.05). The ingested and retained nitrogen decreased with the inclusion of PKC (P ≤ 0.05). The inclusion of PKC in the diets had quadratic effects in the cholesterol concentrations, albumin (A), globulin (G), A:G ratio, and gamma-glutamyltransferase enzyme activity (P ≤ 0.05). The PKC inclusion promoted a quadratic increase in total weight gain (P = 0.026), with the highest value achieved at the inclusion level of 11.68%. The inclusion of up to 12% PKC in high-concentrate diets increases the intake and growth performance without compromising the digestibility of nutrients and feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Digestão , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Nitrogênio
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 456, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537882

RESUMO

The present study was designed to study the effects of conventional and free range systems on egg quality attributes, fatty acid profile, and cholesterol contents of laying hen. Two hundred and forty R1 cross of Rhode Island Red (RIR) × Fyoumi (F) layers during the peak production were divided into two groups and reared in two different housing systems (free range vs. conventional systems). The statistical analysis of the results revealed that the housing system (modification of diet) significantly (p < 0.05) affected egg quality, fatty acid profile, and cholesterol contents. The highest (p < 0.05) whole egg and albumen weights were recorded for eggs produced in a conventional system and higher yolk weight and shell thickness were recorded in free range hens. Significantly (p < 0.05) lower concentration of saturated and higher concentration of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in eggs produced under a free range system. In addition, higher level of total omega-3 fatty acids and higher ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids were observed in free range eggs as compared to those in the conventional system. From the results of the present study, we concluded that eggs produced from Rhode Island Red × Fyoumi laying hens in a free range system are qualitatively superior compared to those in the conventional system.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Colesterol , Dieta , Gema de Ovo , Ovos , Feminino , Habitação , Óvulo , Rhode Island
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101338, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358951

RESUMO

A meta-analysis was developed to model performance depression in heat stress (HS), to analyze the influence of HS type (cyclic or constant), and to assess the correlation between dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and HS in broilers. Two databases (Dat) with performance and temperature were constructed (initial phase - up to 21 d of age - 14 articles, 7,667 animals, average replicate number treatment-ARN/T, 5 and growing phase - over 21 d of age - 74 articles and 25,145 broilers, ARN/T, 7). The criteria for article selection were (1) experiments using at least 2 temperatures (thermoneutral and high temperature); (2) results of ADFI and ADG; (3) feed and water ad libitum during the experiment. Each treatment was classified as cyclic or constant HS and the HS group response was calculated relative to the thermoneutral group. Performance was evaluated as raw data or as relativized information (indicated as "HS effect or ≠"), expressed as a percentage of the difference between results. The models to predict "HS effect" showed that for the initial phase, only ADG was influenced by HS, while for the grower phase, prediction equations were created for ADFI and ADG. Considering the simplest models, there was a reduction of 1.4% in ADFI and 2.1% in ADG for each unit (°C) above the upper critical temperature for broilers older than 21 d. Feed conversion (FC) was not affected by HS in any of the studied phases. Constant HS proved to be more negative than cyclic HS to broiler performance after 21 d of age. The relation between DEB and performance of broilers under HS was analyzed considering broilers over 21 d of age, and very weak correlations were observed. It was concluded that HS affects broilers over 21 d more, although FC is not affected. ADFI is the most important variable affected by HS and the relation between the DEB of the diet and HS is very weak. The empirical models generated in this study accurately predicted ADG and ADFI of broilers exposed to HS and can be used to minimize those effects on poultry production.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101375, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358953

RESUMO

The amount and timing of growth are important factors that affect age at first egg, body conformation, reproductive performance, and hunger in broiler breeders. To investigate the effect of growth pattern on feeding motivation and reproductive performance, 10 unique growth trajectories were designed with 2 levels of the amount of early growth and 5 levels of timing of growth around puberty. A 3-phase Gompertz model that described growth in phase 1 (prepubertal), phase 2 (pubertal), and phase 3 (postpubertal) was used to design the growth trajectories. Second growth phase inflection point (I2) was advanced by 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% of the coefficient estimated from the breeder-recommended target BW. The growth trajectories were designed with 2 discrete levels of total gain in the prepubertal phase (g1); g1 was either the prepubertal phase gain coefficient, estimated from the breeder-recommended BW (Standard g1) target, or 10% higher (High g1). Forty females were randomly assigned to the growth trajectories using a precision feeding (PF) system. Analysis of covariance was conducted on dependent variables in ten 4-wk periods with g1 and periods as discrete fixed effects, I2 as a continuous fixed effect, and age as a random effect. Differences were reported at P ≤ 0.05. For every week of earlier I2, body weight at photostimulation (BWPS) increased by 126 g; BW at first egg (BWFE) increased by 94 g; 24 wk shank length increased by 0.038 and 1.495 mm in the Standard g1 and High g1 treatments; 24 wk body fat increased by 0.38%; pullets came to lay earlier by 0.49 d; egg weight (EW) increased by 0.27 g; egg production and egg mass (EM) increased by 0.33 egg/hen/d and 0.916 g/d in the High g1 treatment but decreased by 0.27 egg/hen/d and 0.29 g/d in the Standard g1 treatment, respectively. Increasing g1 reduced feeding motivation index by 1.6 and 0.8 visits/meal during rearing and laying phase, respectively. Earlier pubertal growth showed prominent effects on the reproductive performance.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Motivação , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Maturidade Sexual
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101386, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358954

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of glycerol monolaurate (GML) supplementation on egg production, biochemical indices, and gut microbiota of broiler breeders at the late stage of production. Total of 180 healthy Qingyuan Partridge broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1) corn-soybean meal based diet, and 2) basal diet supplemented with 300 mg glycerol monolaurate/kg. Each treatment group had 6 replicates with 15 birds within each replicate. The experiment started at wk 33 and lasted for 8 weeks. Feed conversion rate, egg weight, egg shape index, shell breaking strength, and shell thickness were not different between control and treatment groups. Supplementation of GML significantly decreased the egg breaking rate. All blood chemical indices and antioxidant parameters were not affected by GML except total antioxidant capacity which increased significantly with GML supplementation. Alpha diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson, Chao1, Ace, goods_coverage, and PD_whole tree) were not different between the 2 groups. Composition of cecal microbiota was not affected by GML supplementation except Euryarchaeota and Proteobacteria at phylum level. Overall, supplementation of glycerol monolaurate at 300 mg/kg level improved eggshell quality but its effect on cecal microbiota composition was limited on broiler breeders at the late stage of production.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Lauratos , Monoglicerídeos , Óvulo
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101362, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358957

RESUMO

Growth performance, organ weight, ceca digesta short chain fatty acids (SCFA), jejunal histomorphometry, tibia ash, apparent retention (AR) of components and caloric efficiency were investigated in broiler chicken strains differing in growth rate fed diets with multienzyme supplement (MES). The strains differed in estimated time to reach 2.1 kg BW: 37, 43, 47, and 50 d and were designated C, F, J, and N, respectively. A corn-soybean meal diet was formulated for 2-phase program (starter and grower) and fed without or with MES containing phytase, protease and fiber-degrading enzymes. A total of 640-day-old chicks (42.3 + 0.01 g/bird) were housed in cages (5 cockerels and 5 pullets/cage) and allocated to give 8 replicates/ strain and diet combination. Equal amount of feed was fed based on observed ad-libitum intake of C strain in the starter (d 0-14) and grower (d 15-28). Body weight was monitored, grab excreta samples taken and at completion of allocated feed one bird per cage necropsied for samples. With exception of P, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) and ceca digesta acetic acid, there was no (P > 0.05) interaction between strain and MES on examined responses. Strains differed (P < 0.01) on growth, FCR, gizzard weight, tibia ash, breast weight, ceca digesta concentration of lactic, propionic, and isobutyric acid and caloric efficiency. The final body weight (BW) was 1,344, 1,134, 959, and 916 g/bird for C, F, J, and N, respectively. Corresponding caloric efficiency was 4,930, 5,807, 6,680 and 7,199 kcal/kg BW gain, respectively. Birds fed MES had higher BW gain (P < 0.05) in grower phase, larger gizzard, higher AR of CP, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, and Ca than non-MES birds. In conclusion, growth rate influenced organ attributes, nutrient, and caloric utilization. Enzyme supplementation improved growth in grower phase and nutrient utilization independent of strain, suggesting that effects of feed enzymes are not influenced by inherent growth rate.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Nutrientes , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Soja , Zea mays
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101372, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364120

RESUMO

The global poultry trend toward the more responsible use of antibiotics is becoming recurrent and has demanded the need to generate new natural alternatives. Probiotics have gained importance as an option to use as growth promoters. This study aimed to evaluate Bacillus subtillis QST713 as a substitute for an antibiotic growth promoter (BMD). A total of 150 male broilers were assigned to three dietary treatments: 1) control diet (CO), 2) control diet + 500 g/t of BMD (AGP), and 3) control diet + 100 g/t of B. subtilis QST713 (PB), respectively. Each treatment was monitored for 5 wk for the productive variables: body weight, accumulated feed consumption, food conversion, and European efficiency factor. At the end of each week, fresh fecal samples were cultured and quantified for E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and Lactobacillus spp. At the end of the trial, blood samples were analyzed for hemogram and intestinal samples (anterior portion) for histomorphometry. The data were statistically analyzed with an analysis of variance and subjected to a least significant difference test (Tukey). The zootechnical yields were similar in the AGP and PB groups (P ˃ 0.05); both superior to the control group. In the hematological profiles, no difference was observed between the experimental groups. E. coli and Enterococcus counts were significantly lower (P ˂ 0.05), and Lactobacillus counts were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) higher in the PB group, relative to CO and AGP groups. No differences (P ˃ 0.05) were found in bacterial counts between the CO and AGP groups. The intestinal mucosa and villi in the PB group were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) longer and with less deeper crypts than CO and AGP groups. We conclude that B. subtillis QST713, used at the suggested commercial dose (100 g/ton), is an effective growth-promoting alternative to BMD that modulates the microbiota and intestinal architecture, thus producing zootechnical yields consistent with BMD.


Assuntos
Bacitracina , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacillus subtilis , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Escherichia coli , Masculino
19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448471

RESUMO

To assess the efficacy of bis-glycinate bound Zn, 36 crossbred wethers (34 ± 2 kg) were sorted by body weight into three groups and stagger started on a Zn-deficient diet (18 mg Zn/kg dry matter [DM]; 22.5% neutral detergent fiber [NDF]) for 45 d prior to a 15-d metabolism period (10 d adaptation and 5 d collection). On day 46, lambs were randomly assigned to dietary treatments (four lambs treatment-1group-1): no supplemental Zn (CON) or 15 mg supplemental Zn/kg DM (ZINC) as Zn sulfate (ZS) or bis-glycinate (GLY; Plexomin Zn, Phytobiotics). Blood was collected from all lambs on days 1, 44, 56, and 61. Liver, jejunum, and longissimus dorsi samples were collected after euthanasia on day 61. Gene expression was determined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed using ProcMixed of SAS (experimental unit = lamb; fixed effects = treatment, group, and breed) and contrast statements assessed the effects of supplemental Zn concentration (ZINC vs. CON) and source (GLY vs. ZS). After 15 d of Zn supplementation, plasma Zn concentrations were greater for ZINC vs. CON and GLY vs. ZS (P ≤ 0.01); tissue Zn concentrations were unaffected (P ≥ 0.27). Liver Cu concentrations were lesser for ZINC vs. CON (P = 0.03). Longissimus dorsi Mn concentrations were greater for ZINC vs. CON (P = 0.05) and tended to be lesser for GLY vs. ZS (P = 0.09). Digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), and NDF was lesser for ZINC vs. CON (P ≤ 0.05); acid detergent fiber digestibility tended to be greater for GLY vs. ZS (P = 0.06). Nitrogen retention (g/d) tended to be greater for GLY vs. ZS (P = 0.10), and N apparent absorption was lesser for ZINC vs. CON (P = 0.02). Zinc intake, fecal output, retention, and apparent absorption were greater for ZINC vs. CON (P ≤ 0.01). Apparent absorption of Zn was -5.1%, 12.8%, and 15.0% for CON, ZS, and GLY, respectively. Nitrogen and Zn retention and apparent absorption were not correlated for CON (P ≥ 0.14) but were positively correlated for ZINC (retention: P = 0.02, r = 0.52; apparent absorption: P < 0.01, r = 0.73). Intestinal expression of Zn transporter ZIP4 was lesser for ZINC vs. CON (P = 0.02). Liver expression of metallothionein-1 (MT1) tended to be greater for GLY vs. ZS (P = 0.07). Although Zn apparent absorption did not differ between sources (P = 0.71), differences in post-absorptive metabolism may be responsible for greater plasma Zn concentrations and liver MT1 expression for GLY-supplemented lambs, suggesting improved bioavailability of GLY relative to ZS.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Zinco , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Ovinos , Sulfato de Zinco
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 430, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363100

RESUMO

This research trial is aimed to study the nutritional qualities and significance of feeding spent marigold flower meal (SMFM) in goats. SMFM and diet containing iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixture with different levels of spent marigold flower meal (0-30%) were studied for in vitro degradation. Depending upon the in vitro results, concentrate mixture containing 15% level of SMFM was selected for in vivo trial. In vivo studies were conducted for a period of 60 days, and 12 local, non-descript, adult male goats (10-14 months age; 31.09 ± 2.91 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to two groups and were fed on ad libitum wheat straw with either conventional (control) or SMFM containing concentrate mixture (treatment). Results of the study showed that there was no variation in body weight of the goats between periods and between groups. DM and OM intake along with their digestibility were similar among the two groups. The digestibility of all other nutrients was comparable between the two groups. Nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance were positive in both the groups without any significant disparity. Moreover, experimental goats did not differ in biochemical parameters, without any significant difference between periods and dietary treatments except AST level which was significantly higher (P > 0.05) in treatment group. So, this study successfully demonstrates that SMFM could be incorporated in the concentrate mixture, up to 15% without any discernable difference in the performance of goats.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Flores , Masculino
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