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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10756-10763, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483626

RESUMO

AFEX treatment of crop residues can greatly increase their nutrient availability for ruminants. This study investigated the concentration of acetamide, an ammoniation byproduct, in AFEX-treated crop residues and in milk and meat from ruminants fed these residues. Acetamide concentrations in four AFEX-treated cereal crop residues were comparable and reproducible (4-7 mg/g dry matter). A transient acetamide peak in milk was detected following introduction of AFEX-treated residues to the diet, but an alternative regimen showed the peak can be effectively mitigated. Milk acetamide concentration following this transition was 6 and 10 ppm for cattle and buffalo, respectively, but also decreased over time for cattle while tending to decrease (p = 0.08) for buffalo. There was no difference in acetamide concentration in the meat of cattle consuming AFEX-treated residues for 160 days compared to controls. Further investigation is necessary to determine the metabolism of acetamide in ruminants and a maximum acceptable daily intake for humans.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Leite/química , Acetamidas/metabolismo , Amônia/química , Animais , Búfalos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Leite/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11396-11402, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537068

RESUMO

Phytase is commonly used as a feed enzyme in monogastric animals to increase the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus and other nutrients. The accumulation of myo-inositol phosphate intermediates during phytate degradation in various segments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of Buttiauxella spp. phytase in degrading the phytate in corn, soybean meal, and complete corn-soybean meal diet to myo-inositol phosphate esters (IP1-IP5) and completely dephosphorylated myo-inositol rings using an in vitro model of the poultry upper GIT. Our results show that the phytase hydrolyzes phytate efficiently to small IP esters, whereas the myo-inositol level remains constant between control and phytase treatments. Although the in vitro digestion model does not incorporate all factors that govern phytate hydrolysis, it is a valuable tool for evaluating phytase efficacy at various enzyme doses and with different feed ingredients.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/química , Ração Animal/análise , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Ésteres/química , Fosfatos de Inositol/química , Ácido Fítico/química , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Galinhas , Digestão , Ésteres/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9705-9718, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393722

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is among the most urgent global challenges facing sustainable animal production systems. The use of antibiotics as growth promoters and for infectious disease prevention in intensive animal-farming practices has translated into the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes in an unprecedented fashion. Several multi-resistant bacterial strains have been isolated from food-producing animals, thus constituting an alarming food-safety issue. Many industrial byproducts with potential antimicrobial properties are currently being investigated to identify empirical and affordable solutions/alternatives that can potentially be used in feed for animals. Grape pomace is among such byproducts that gained the attention as a result of its low cost, abundance, and, most importantly, its bioactive and antibacterial properties. This review discusses the recently reported studies with regard to exploring the use of grape pomace (and its extracts) in animal production to control pathogens, along with the promotion of beneficial bacterial species in the gut to ultimately alleviate antibacterial resistance. The review further summarizes realistic expectations connected with grape pomace usage and lists the still-to-be-addressed concerns about its application in animal agriculture.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vitis/química , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9203-9209, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369261

RESUMO

With the monitoring of hundreds of pesticides in food and feed, the comminution step is equally crucial as any other to achieve valid results. However, sample processing is often underestimated in its importance and practical difficulty to produce consistent test portions for analysis. The scientific literature is rife with descriptions of microextraction methods, but ironically, sample comminution is often ignored or dismissed as being prosaic, despite it being the foundation upon which the viability of such techniques relies. Cryogenic sample processing using dry ice (-78 °C) is generally accepted in practice, but studies have not shown it to yield representative test portions of <1 g. Remarkably, liquid nitrogen has rarely been used as a cryogenic agent in pesticide residue analysis, presumably as a result of access, cost, and safety concerns. However, real-world implementation of blending unfrozen bulk food portions with liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) using common food processing devices has demonstrated this approach to be safe, simple, fast, and cost-effective and yield high-quality results for various commodities, including increased stability of labile or volatile analytes. For example, analysis of dithiocarbamates as carbon disulfide has shown a significant increase of thiram recoveries (up to 95%) using liquid nitrogen during sample comminution. This perspective is intended to allay concerns among working laboratories about the practical use of liquid nitrogen for improved sample processing in the routine monitoring of pesticide residues in foods and feeds, which also gives promise for feasible test sample size reduction in high-throughput miniaturized methods.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Liofilização/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Gelo-Seco , Liofilização/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Nitrogênio/química
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6649-6654, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the degradation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from eastern groundsel (Senecio vernalis) in grass silage prepared with different inoculants. Silages were produced from ryegrass with 230 g kg-1 dry matter (DM) content and mixed with eastern groundsel (9:1; w/w fresh matter basis) containing 5.5 g kg-1 DM PA. Treatments were: CON (untreated control), LP (3.0 × 105 cfu g-1 Lactobacillus plantarum DSMZ 8862/8866) or LBLC (7.3 × 104 cfu g-1 Lactobacillus buchneri LN40177 / Lactobacillus casei LC32909), and each of the treatments in combination with 30 g kg-1 molasses. Silages were prepared in glass jars and opened after 3, 10, and 90 days. Fermentation characteristics were determined and the PAs analyzed. RESULTS: Although the levels of fermentation acids differed between treatments, results indicated good quality of all silages during 90 days. Significant time (P < 0.001) and treatment (P < 0.001) effects were observed for PAs. Concentrations of senecionine and seneciphylline decreased with molasses, declined over time, and were negatively correlated with lactic, propionic, and butyric acid, or with lactic and butyric acid in case of seneciphylline. In all silages, seneciphylline and senecionine N-oxides were undetectable after 3 days, whereas senkirkine, the most abundant PA, remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Silage prepared from grass contaminated with eastern groundsel still contained high PA levels, and was hence a potential health hazard. Molasses supplementation reduced concentrations of senecionine and seneciphylline, while the bacterial inoculants had no effect. Other potentially toxic PA metabolites were not analyzed in the present study and further research is needed. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lolium/química , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/química , Senécio/química , Silagem/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Fermentação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Lolium/microbiologia , Melaço/análise , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/toxicidade , Senécio/toxicidade , Silagem/microbiologia
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7898-7907, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282664

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the effects of silencing HB12 and TT8 genes on protein utilization characteristics of alfalfa. Ground samples of 11 HB12-silenced (HB12i), 5 TT8-silenced (TT8i) and 4 wild type (WT) were incubated in a Daisy II incubator with N15 labeled ammonium sulfate for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. CP degradation and degradational kinetics, microbial nitrogen fractions, and protein metabolic profiles were determined. Moreover, relationships between protein profiles and FTIR spectral parameters were estimated. Results showed that transgenic alfalfa had lower CP degradation, microbial protein, and total available protein compared with WT, especially for HB12i. In addition, CP degradation and protein metabolic profiles were closely correlated with FTIR spectral parameters and thereby could be predicted from spectral parameters. In conclusion, silencing of HB12 and TT8 genes in alfalfa decreased protein degradational and metabolic profiles, which were predictable with FTIR spectral parameters.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Medicago sativa/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Bovinos , Digestão , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Cinética , Medicago sativa/química , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/microbiologia
7.
J Insect Sci ; 19(4)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346626

RESUMO

Striacosta albicosta (Smith) is a key pest of maize and dry beans in North America. It has expanded its distribution from the western Great Plains of the United States to the Great Lakes region in the United States and Canada. There has been limited research on the baseline biological aspects of this insect under controlled conditions. The objective of this study was to detail the biological parameters of S. albicosta feeding on an artificial diet under laboratory conditions. Overall survival from neonate to adult at 26.6 ± 1°C was 36.72% and the total developmental time was approximately 110 d. Survival of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages were 75.71, 98.50, 51.78, and 95.10%, respectively. Average duration of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages was 4.64, 28.20, 41.50, and 25.91 d, respectively. During the larval stage, 92.50% of larvae developed through seven instars and the remaining through six instars. Larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth ratio of 1.60 and 1.47, respectively; however, there was no difference in pupal weight. Eggs laid by field-mated moths showed a fertility of 75.71%, compared with 4.18% from laboratory-reared moths. These data suggest that S. albicosta develop primarily through seven instars and the most vulnerable developmental stage is the prepupa. Laboratory conditions strongly affected fertility success. Information presented here greatly expands our understanding of S. albicosta biology, which can be used to improve the efficiency of laboratory bioassays and management techniques for this critical crop pest.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Mariposas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Reprodução
8.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(1): 44-51, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274343

RESUMO

The study evaluated the effects of different doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) on growth performance, immune function and antioxidative capacity in piglets. In a 21-d trial, 35 weaned pigs were divided into five groups and diets were supplemented with 5.5 (control), 43.0, 80.5, 118.0 and 155.5 µg 25(OH)D3/kg, respectively. No treatment effects were observed for average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed to gain ratio. Increasing dietary 25(OH)D3 levels increased serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations linearly (p < 0.01), decreased the frequency of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells (p < 0.01), and the serum level of complement component 3 (p < 0.05). Supplementation of 80.5 and 118.0 µg 25(OH)D3/kg enhanced the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.05) and addition of 43.0 µg 25(OH)D3/kg increased the malondialdehyde concentration (p < 0.05). Overall, feeding high-dose 25(OH)D3 to weaned pigs partly improved immune functions and the antioxidative capacity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/imunologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Desmame
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6515-6521, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fortification of animal products with natural bioactive compounds appears to improve their quality and protects consumers against oxidation effects. An experiment was therefore conducted to examine the effects of hesperidin or naringin on milk oxidative stability, yield, composition, coagulation properties, and the fatty acid profile in dairy sheep. Thirty-six Chios ewes were assigned to four groups. A control group was fed a concentrate diet without supplementation. The other three groups were provided with the same diet further supplemented with hesperidin (6000 mg kg-1 ), naringin (6000 mg kg-1 ), or α-tocopheryl acetate (200 mg kg-1 ). The efficacy of flavonoids after a change in diet composition that lowered milk oxidation values by itself was also tested. The duration of the experiment was 28 days with alfalfa hay being the only forage source for the first 14 days, whereas after the 15th day a mixture of alfalfa hay and wheat straw (65:35) was provided. RESULTS: The oxidative stability of milk was improved after 14 days of addition of the examined flavonoids (P < 0.05). Milk malondialdehyde (MDA) values were also decreased as a result of flavonoid dietary supplementation, 14 days after the modification of the forage source. On the other hand, no significant differences in yield, chemical composition, coagulation properties, and fatty acid profile of ewe milk were observed among the treatments throughout the experiment. CONCLUSION: Enrichment of dairy ewes' diets with hesperidin and naringin might be effective in improving milk's oxidative stability without any effects on the milk's chemical composition, coagulation properties, and fatty acid profile. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Hesperidina/administração & dosagem , Leite/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Leite/química , alfa-Tocoferol/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6582-6588, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary zinc methionine (Zn-Met) supplementation on laying performance, zinc (Zn) status, intestinal morphology, and Zn transporters in laying hens compared with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4 ). A total of 384 Hyline Grey laying hens (38 weeks old) with similar performance (1.42 ± 0.07 kg) were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments and fed with a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with Zn, either as Zn-Met at 40 and 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet or as ZnSO4 at 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet, for 10 weeks. RESULTS: There was no difference in egg weight, egg production, feed intake, and feed conversation ratio among all groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the control, Zn contents were increased (P < 0.05) in the liver, duodenum, and jejunum of laying hens fed diets supplemented with different Zn sources. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in Zn contents in liver, duodenum, and jejunum between diets supplemented with Zn-Met or ZnSO4 at 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet. Compared with the control and the ZnSO4 group (80 mg Zn/kilogram diet), supplementation with Zn-Met of 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet increased (P < 0.05) villus height, villus area, and villus height/crypt depth ratio but reduced (P < 0.05) crypt depth in jejunum. Expression of metallothionein messenger RNA of jejunum in the group fed a diet containing Zn-Met (80 mg Zn/kilogram diet) was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the control. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that Zn-Met has positive effects on the Zn status of liver, duodenum, and jejunum, intestinal morphology, and metallothionein messenger RNA expression in jejunum of laying hens compared with ZnSO4 . © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Metionina/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
11.
Poult Sci ; 98(8): 3181-3193, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220319

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of inorganic and proteinate Zn in chickens challenged with coccidia and Clostridium perfringens. A 3 × 2 factorial design was used, with 3 dietary formulations (0 or 90 mg/kg supplemental Zn from ZnSO4 or Zn proteinate, with or without challenge). On day 14, challenged birds were orally gavaged with approx. 5,000 Eimeria maxima sporulated oocysts, and on day 19 to 21 with C. perfringens (108 CFU/D). Productive performance was assessed at day 21 and 28. At 21 D, necrotic enteritis (NE) lesion severity, intestinal permeability, gene expression, and ileal and cecal microbiota were evaluated. An interaction of Zn source by challenge was observed for lesion score and mortality, wherein Zn supplementation decreased the degree of NE lesions (P = 0.02) and mortality due to NE (P = 0.008). In the jejunum, an interaction of Zn source by challenge was observed for the expression of IL-8 (P = 0.001) and INF-γ (P = 0.03), wherein the NE challenge upregulated their expression, but not in the Zn proteinate supplemented birds. Zn proteinate supplementation downregulated iNOS vs. ZnSO4 supplemented birds (P = 0.0003), and supplemental Zn downregulated TLR-2 (P = 0.05) and ZnT5 (P = 0.04), regardless of the source. In the ileal microbiota, Zn proteinate supplementation decreased the frequency of Lactobacillus (P = 0.01), and the challenge increased Enterobacteriaceae (P = 0.01). Dietary Zn decreased NE lesion severity and mortality due to NE; Zn proteinate led to lower expression of IL-8 and INF-γ in challenged birds which may be an indicative of a lessened inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Eimeria/fisiologia , Enterite/veterinária , Intestinos/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Zinco/administração & dosagem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161892

RESUMO

Insects are promising sources of protein and lipid in feeds for farmed animals. In the European Union, the use of insect meal (IM) and insect oil is permitted in fish feed. However, the European Food Safety Authority has highlighted the lack of data regarding the chemical safety of insects and products thereof. In this study, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed diets in which fish meal (FM) was partially or fully substituted with IM, resulting in four diets with an FM replacement of 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% by IM. The IM was produced from Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae fed media containing 60% seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum). After 16 weeks of feeding, fish fillet samples were collected. The concentrations of undesirable substances, e.g., heavy metals, arsenic, dioxins, mycotoxins, pesticides, in the IM, the diets and fillets were determined. The concentrations of the analysed compounds in the IM were all below EU maximum levels for feed ingredients, except for arsenic. However, for complete feeds the concentrations of these compounds in the feeds, including arsenic, were all below EU MLs. Arsenic was transferred from seaweed to IM, resulting in arsenic levels in IM similar to what has been documented for FM. Transfer of arsenic from feed to fillet was observed; however, total arsenic concentrations in the fillet significantly decreased when fish were fed diets with more IM and less FM. Arsenic speciation analysis of the diets showed that although total arsenic levels were similar, the arsenic species were different. Arsenobetaine was the major organoarsenic species in the diets containing FM, while in diets containing IM several unidentified arsenic species were detected. The results suggest that the lower feed-to-fillet transfer of arsenic when FM is replaced by IM may be due to the presence of arsenic species with low bioavailability in the IM.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Arsênico/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Insetos/química , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Animais , Análise de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos
13.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2700-2710, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192352

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to determine the effect of Acacia nilotica, a tropical plant rich in hydrolyzable tannins (HT), on rumen fermentation and methane (CH4) production in vitro. We used leaves and pods from A. nilotica alone and combined. The combination of HT from A. nilotica leaves and pods and condensed tannins (CT) from Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena leucocephala were also evaluated to assess potential differences in biological activity between HT and CT. Four series of 24-h incubations were performed using rumen contents of 4 sheep fed a tropical grass (natural grassland based on Dichanthium spp.). A first experiment tested different levels of replacement of this tropical forage (control [CTL] without tannins) by A. nilotica leaves or pods: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0. A second experiment tested the mixture of A. nilotica leaves and pods in different proportions: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. A third experiment tested the 50:50 combination of A. nilotica leaves or pods with C. calothyrsus and L. leucocephala. Acacia nilotica pods and leaves had a high content of HT (350 and 178 g/kg DM, respectively), whereas C. calothyrsus and L. leucocephala had a high content of CT (361 and 180 g/kg DM, respectively). The inclusion of HT from A. nilotica leaves and pods decreased CH4 production dose-dependently (P < 0.01). Total replacement of the CTL by A. nilotica decreased CH4 production by 64 and 55% with leaves and pods, respectively. Pods were richer in HT than leaves, but their antimethanogenic effect did not differ (P > 0.05). Although A. nilotica leaves and pods inhibited fermentation, as indicated by the lower gas production and VFA production (P < 0.01), this effect was less pronounced than for CH4. Volatile fatty acid production decreased by 12% in leaves and by 30% in pods when compared with the CTL alone. Positive associative effect was reported for VFA, when HT-rich sources and CT-rich sources were mixed. Combining the 2 sources of HT did not show associative effects on fermentation or CH4 production (P > 0.05). Hydrolyzable tannin-rich sources were more effective in suppressing methanogenesis than CT-rich sources. Our results show that HT-rich A. nilotica leaves and pods have the potential to reduce ruminal CH4 production.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Fabaceae/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Poaceae/química , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Hidrólise , Folhas de Planta/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23777-23787, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209753

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are environmental contaminants that are of increasing global concern. This study investigated the presence of MPs in four varieties of marine-derived commercial fish meal, followed by identification of their polymer composition using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Exposure experiments were conducted on cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by feeding four varieties of commercially available fish meal to determine relationships between abundance and properties of MPs found both in meal and in those transferred to cultured common carp. Mean particle sizes were 452 ± 161 µm (± SD). Fragments were the predominant shape of MP found in fish meal (67%) and C. carpio gastrointestinal tract and gills (65%), and polypropylene and polystyrene were the most present plastic polymers found in fish meal (45% and 24%, respectively) and C. carpio (37% and 33%, respectively). Positive relationships were found between MP levels in fish meal and C. carpio. This study highlights that marine-derived fish meal may be a source of MPs which can be transferred to cultured fish, thus posing a concern for aquaculture.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Aquicultura , Carpas/metabolismo , Plásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Poluição Ambiental , Brânquias , Plásticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23798-23806, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209754

RESUMO

Contamination of feed by mycotoxins is a global epidemic that has a sizeable impact on animal health and causes economic losses. Mycotoxins, including aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FUMs), deoxynivalenol (DON), and ochratoxin A (OTA), lead to acute and chronic adverse effects in pigs. Animal feed and feed ingredients are commonly contaminated by one or more mycotoxins worldwide; however, the prevalence of mycotoxin contamination in feed and feed ingredients in Taiwan remains unclear. A total of 820 cornmeal and corn-based swine feed (pregnancy and nursery diets) samples provided by feed and animal producers were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method between January 2015 and December 2017 to determine the presence of mycotoxins. The results revealed that the most prevalent mycotoxin in Taiwan was DON, with 91.4% of positive samples between 2015 and 2017, followed by ZEN, AFs, and FUMs, with 70.2%, 58.0%, and 50.4% of positive samples, respectively. A similar prevalence of mycotoxins was observed in cornmeal and corn-based swine feed. Furthermore, 7.7% of the analyzed feed samples contained one mycotoxin, and 91.3% contained multiple mycotoxins. DON was the most prevalent mycotoxin in cornmeal and corn-based swine feed in Taiwan. Moreover, a high incidence of contamination by multiple mycotoxins was observed in swine feed. Awareness of mycotoxin presence in feed and development of mycotoxin detoxification strategies are unmet needs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Aflatoxinas , Ração Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Dieta , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumonisinas , Ocratoxinas , Suínos , Taiwan , Tricotecenos , Zea mays , Zearalenona
16.
Chemosphere ; 233: 355-362, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176898

RESUMO

The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feed materials has caused great public concern because PCBs can accumulate in farmed animals, be transferred farm-to-fork and, ultimately, have a detrimental impact on human health. Recently, the occurrence of PCBs in marine environments has garnered scientific attention due to their high levels and potential reproductive threats to marine apex predators. Fishmeal is marine-origin feed material and is susceptible to PCB contamination from the aquatic trophic chain. The present study collected 102 fishmeal samples during 2012-2017 from major global fishmeal production areas (United States, Europe, China, South America and Southeast Asia). The levels of PCBs (26 congeners) were between 0.4 and 19.9 ng g-1 dw (mean: 1.94 ng g-1 dw), with a 75.3% contribution from indicator PCBs on a weight basis. Together with PCDD/Fs, 4.9% of fishmeal exceeded the maximum levels set by the European Commission for dioxin-like compounds (4.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g). The highest PCB levels were found in fishmeal from the U.S. (6.85 ng g-1 dw), which was nearly five times higher than the other four sampling areas. No clear time trends were found for PCBs in fishmeal during the sampling period. Predicted PCB concentrations in farmed fish via fishmeal consumption were between 1.24 and 2.76 ng g-1 dw, which was comparable to PCBs in market fish. When compared to other emerging POPs in the same batches of fishmeal, PCBs were still found to be an alarming class of POPs. Some PCB and PBDE congeners might have similar sources and environmental behaviors.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Aquicultura , Organismos Aquáticos/química , China , Europa (Continente) , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , América do Sul
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6084-6088, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microalgae can serve as an alternative to animal feed additives or supplements in the diet of weaning pigs, to increase their potential and performance. Two experiments were conducted with three dietary treatments: CON (basal diet), MA1 (basal diet + 0.5% microalgae), and MA2 (basal diet + 1.0% microalgae). In Experiment 1, 150 crossbred weaning pigs were used in a 5-week experiment. In Experiment 2, 15 cannulated barrows were used. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of Schizochytrium microalgae on growth performance, blood profiles, apparent total tract digestibility, and ileal nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs. RESULTS: In Experiment 1, pigs fed with MA2 had higher growth (P < 0.05) than pigs fed with MA1 from day 8 to day 21 but the experimental result showed no significant effects (P > 0.05) on growth performance, white blood cell, total cholesterol, and triglyceride among the treatments. However, lymphocytes (%) of pigs fed with MA1 and MA2 diets were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of pigs fed with a CON diet at day 35. In Experiment 2, the apparent total tract digestibility and ileal nutrient digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed with MA1 and MA2 than in those fed with a CON diet. CONCLUSION: Dietary microalgae supplementation had more dramatic and beneficial effects on nutrient digestibility than a CON diet. It also increased lymphocyte concentration but had no significant effect on growth performance in weaning pigs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão , Feminino , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Microalgas , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/sangue , Suínos/metabolismo , Desmame
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6076-6083, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the health benefits to weaning pigs, raised under low sanitary conditions, of dietary supplementation with a multi-strain yeast fraction product (Cyberlindnera jadinii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In total, 160 weaning pigs (7.21 ± 1.05 kg) were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments in a 6-week feeding trial. The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet (CON) and CON + 2 g kg-1 multi-strain yeast fraction product (MsYF) during weeks 1-2 and 0.4 g kg-1 MsYF during weeks 3-6. RESULTS: The MsYF supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) at day 42 and average daily gain (ADG) during days 1-14 and days 1-42 (P < 0.05) compared to CON. The total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), fecal Lactobacillus counts, and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration at day 42 were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed a MsYF supplemented diet. The concentration of serum haptoglobin in pigs receiving a MsYF-supplemented diet was higher (P < 0.05) at days 7, 14, and 42 than those receiving CON. The mRNA expression for INF-γ and TNF-α genes were lower (P < 0.05) at days 14 and 7 respectively and the expression of IL-6 and TLR-2 genes was lower (P < 0.01) at days 7 and 14 in pigs fed an MsFY supplemented diet than those fed CON. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with a multi-strain yeast fraction product had a positive effect on ADG during the early post-weaning period and led to better health in weaning pigs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Higiene , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Suínos/genética , Suínos/imunologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Desmame
19.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(7): 1083-1095, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216841

RESUMO

Butyrate is known to play a significant role in energy metabolism and regulating genomic activities that influence rumen nutrition utilization and function. Thus, this study investigated the effects of an isolated butyrate-producing bacteria, Clostridium saccharobutylicum, in rumen butyrate production, fermentation parameters and microbial population in Holstein-Friesian cow. An isolated butyrate-producing bacterium from the ruminal fluid of a Holstein-Friesian cow was identified and characterized as Clostridium saccharobutylicum RNAL841125 using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. The bacterium was evaluated on its effects as supplement on in vitro rumen fermentation and microbial population. Supplementation with 106 CFU/ml Clostridium saccharobutylicum increased (p < 0.05) microbial crude protein, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids concentration but had no significant effect on NH3-N at 24 h incubation. Butyrate and total VFA concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in supplementation with 106 CFU/ml Clostridium saccharobutylicum compared with control, with no differences observed for total gas production, NH3-N and propionate concentration. However, as the inclusion rate (CFU/ml) of C. saccharobutylicum was increased, reduction of rumen fermentation values was observed. Furthermore, butyrate-producing bacteria and Fibrobacter succinogenes population in the rumen increased in response with supplementation of C. saccharobutylicum, while no differences in the population in total bacteria, protozoa and fungi were observed among treatments. Overall, our study suggests that supplementation with 106 CFU/ml C. saccharobutylicum has the potential to improve ruminal fermentation through increased concentrations of butyrate and total volatile fatty acid, and enhanced population of butyrate-producing bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria F. succinogenes.


Assuntos
Butiratos/metabolismo , Clostridium/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/microbiologia , Clostridium/classificação , Clostridium/genética , Clostridium/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2927-2939, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150088

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding an acidogenic diet with a low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on acid-base balance, blood, milk, and urine Ca concentrations of sows during lactation. A total of 30 multiparous sows (parity: 4.5 ± 2.9, Smithfield Premium Genetic, Rose Hill, NC) were allotted to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: CON (control diets were corn-soybean meal based with a calculated DCAD of 170 and 226 mEq/kg during late gestation and lactation, respectively) or ACI (acidogenic diets had a DCAD 100 mEq/kg lower than the control diets). The lower DCAD was achieved by the addition of an acidogenic mineral. The DCAD was calculated as mEq (Na + K - Cl)/kg diet. Sows had a daily access to 2-kg feed from day 94 of gestation to parturition and ad libitum access to feed during lactation. Blood and urine pH and Ca, serum macrominerals, serum biochemistry, Ca-regulating hormones, and milk composition were measured. Sows in ACI had a lower (P < 0.05) blood pH than sows in CON at day 1 of lactation. Sows in ACI had a lower (P < 0.05) urine pH at day 108 of gestation, days 1, 9, and 18 of lactation compared with sows in CON. Sows in ACI had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of serum total Ca at days 1 and 18 of lactation than sows in CON. There was a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of colostrum Ca in ACI than in CON. There was no difference in urine Ca concentration between treatments during lactation. Concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol were not different between treatments at either day 1 or 18 of lactation. Sows in ACI tended to have a smaller (P = 0.086) concentration of total alkaline phosphatase in serum at day 18 of lactation compared with sows in CON. At day 1 of lactation, the concentration of serum Cl in ACI was greater (P < 0.05) than that in CON. Feed intake, BW loss, and litter performance were not different between treatments. Collectively, feeding an acidogenic diet with a low DCAD to sows can induce a mild metabolic acidosis at farrowing, reduce the urine pH consistently, and increase serum total Ca and colostrum Ca concentrations during lactation but without altering the parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol levels during lactation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cálcio/análise , Colostro/química , Leite/química , Minerais/análise , Suínos/sangue , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Animais , Ânions/análise , Cátions/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Paridade , Parto , Gravidez
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