Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.463
Filtrar
1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 745-774, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032704

RESUMO

This review focuses on factors associated with mold production in feedstuffs and major mycotoxins affecting ruminants in North America. Ruminants are often considered less sensitive to mycotoxins owing to rumen microflora metabolism to less toxic compounds. However, ruminants occupy wide agricultural niches that expose animals to diverse toxins under widely different environmental and nutritional conditions. Often the moldy and potentially highly contaminated feeds end up at feedlots. Less than optimal feedstuffs creating suboptimal rumen microbial flora could result in decreased ruminal capacity to detoxify certain mycotoxins and adverse effects. Numerous mycotoxins and clinical effects in ruminants are discussed.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Micotoxinas/envenenamento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ruminantes , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Micotoxicose/metabolismo , América do Norte
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238931, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946471

RESUMO

Some bacteria species found in the mosquito midgut have demonstrated their role in interrupting the development of Plasmodium within the midgut of the Anopheles mosquito and have been identified as potential candidates for novel bacteria-mediated disease control. However, to use these bacteria successfully in biocontrol mechanisms their effect on the fitness of the vector into which they have been introduced has to be evaluated. This study investigated the effect of two such bacteria candidates, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens, on Anopheles gambiae s.l. fitness. Pupae and larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected by dipping method and reared to adults. The effect of these bacteria on mosquito fitness was assessed by reintroducing isolates of each bacteria separately into antibiotic-treated female adult mosquitoes through sugar meal. Wild type (non-antibiotic-treated) mosquitoes and those antibiotic-treated with no bacteria reintroduction were used as controls. The mosquitoes were monitored on longevity/survival, fecundity, hatch rate, and larval survival. The antibiotic-treated adult mosquitoes had reduced life span with median survival of 14 days while the bacteria-reintroduced groups and the wild type survived to day 22 (p< 0.0001). Treatment with Enterobacter and Serratia did not affect the average egg deposition (p>0.05) but they affected hatch rates positively (p = 0.008). There was, however, some evidence that suggests Enterobacter could have a positive effect on larval development (p < 0.0001). With no observed negative effect on survival/longevity of Anopheles gambiae, introducing E. cloacae and S. marcescens in future bacteria-associated control strategies is unlikely to result in mosquitoes that will be outlived by the wild population. This, however, requires evaluations under field conditions.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Enterobacter cloacae/fisiologia , Serratia marcescens/fisiologia , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Anopheles/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sistema Digestório/microbiologia , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Longevidade , Oviposição , Pupa
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108813, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841809

RESUMO

Low-moisture foods (LMF with water activity, aw < 0.85) including pet foods and black pepper powder have consistently been associated with foodborne disease caused by Salmonella enterica. Increased heat resistance and prolonged survival at low-moisture conditions, however, remain major challenges to achieve effective inactivation of Salmonella in low-moisture foods. At low water activity (aw) conditions, heat resistance of Salmonella is greatly enhanced when compared to high aw conditions. This study aimed to quantify the effect of aw on the heat resistance of Salmonella enterica in pet food pellets and black pepper powder. Pet food pellets were inoculated with two strains of heat resistant S. enterica and black pepper powder was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of Salmonella. Both inoculated food samples were equilibrated at 0.33, 0.54, and 0.75 aw in controlled humidity chambers. Inoculated pet food pellets and black pepper powder in closed aluminum cells were heat treated at specific temperatures for selected times. The results showed that the Weibull model fitted well the inactivation data. At a specific temperature, the rate of inactivation increased with the increase in the aw from 0.33 to 0.75, and the 3-log reduction times decreased for Salmonella in both food samples with the increase in aw. Water adsorption isotherms of pet food pellets and black pepper powder at initial and treatment temperatures were developed to understand the change in aw during heat treatments. The change in aw during heat treatment was dependent on the type of food matrix, which possibly influenced the thermal inactivation of Salmonella in pet food pellets and black pepper powder. The quantitative analysis of heat reduction of Salmonella with respect to aw aids in selection of the appropriate initial aw to develop effective heat treatment protocols for adequate reduction of Salmonella in pet foods and black pepper powder.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Pasteurização/métodos , Salmonella enterica/fisiologia , Água , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Especiarias/análise , Especiarias/microbiologia , Água/análise
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 159-169, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783910

RESUMO

The intestinal epithelium is the first barrier against food contaminants and is highly sensitive to Fusarium toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA). Here, we explored the effects of low doses of DON and/or ZEA in naturally moldy diets on intestinal functions in piglets, including inflammatory responses, epithelial barrier, and microbial composition. Piglets were treated with a control diet (CON), DON diet (1000.6 µg/kg), ZEA diet (269.1 µg/kg), and DON + ZEA diet (1007.5 + 265.4 µg/kg), respectively, for 3 weeks and then switched to the same CON diet for another 2 weeks. In the first period, even the selected low doses of DON or ZEA in the diet resulted in intestinal inflammation, diminish protein expression (claudin-4) and altered gut microbiota populations. Whereas upon switching to the CON diet for another 2 weeks, the deleterious effect of ZEA and DON on IL-1ß and Bifidobacterium population could not be recovered. Additionally, combined DON and ZEA negatively affected body weight gain and feed consumption of piglets, as well as shown synergistic effects on evoking pro-inflammatory cytokines contents (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) and perturbing the cecum microbiota profile (E. coli, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium). Collectively, chronic consumption of DON and ZEA contaminated feed or food, even at low doses, can induce intestinal damage and may have consequences for animal and human health.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/imunologia , Ceco/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/microbiologia , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/imunologia , Jejuno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760156

RESUMO

Spent mushroom substrate is made from the waste remaining after the harvest of mushrooms. Here, we evaluated the potential of five spent edible fungi (Auricularia cornea, Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, P. citrinopileatus and P. ostreatus) substrates as feed sources for Tenebrio molitor larvae. Young larvae did not survive on any substrate except the spent L. edodes substrate (36.7%). The survival rates in young larvae were similar among the different diets in which wheat bran or rice bran was replaced with 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60% spent L. edodes substrate. The weights of the surviving larvae were decreased only when 70% of wheat bran and > 40% of rice bran was replaced with spent L. edodes substrate. In addition, the middle-aged larvae fed wheat bran only were significantly larger than those fed diets with 30~60% spent L. edodes substrate in dry feed, but the larvae of all treatments failed to pupate. Whereas the green feed was added in dry feed, there were no significant differences in pupal weight, pupation rate, pupal duration, adult emergence, or deformed adults among the three treatments in middle-aged larvae that were fed on diets containing 0, 30, or 40% spent L. edodes substrate. Collectively, these results suggest that spent L. edodes substrate has considerable potential to be used as a partial replacement (< 40%) of conventional feed for T. molitor, and spent mushroom substrate waste may be recycled as feed material for resource insects.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Tenebrio/fisiologia , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Tenebrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510493

RESUMO

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has emerged as a powerful nucleic acid amplification test for the rapid detection of numerous bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Salmonella is a bacterial pathogen of worldwide food safety concern, including food for animals. Presented here is a multi-laboratory-validated Salmonella LAMP protocol that can be used to rapidly screen animal food for the presence of Salmonella contamination and can also be used to confirm presumptive Salmonella isolates recovered from all food categories. The LAMP assay specifically targets the Salmonella invasion gene (invA) and is rapid, sensitive, and highly specific. Template DNAs are prepared from enrichment broths of animal food or pure cultures of presumptive Salmonella isolates. The LAMP reagent mixture is prepared by combining an isothermal master mix, primers, DNA template, and water. The LAMP assay runs at a constant temperature of 65 °C for 30 min. Positive results are monitored via real-time fluorescence and can be detected as early as 5 min. The LAMP assay exhibits high tolerance to inhibitors in animal food or culture medium, serving as a rapid, reliable, robust, cost-effective, and user-friendly method for screening and confirming Salmonella. The LAMP method has recently been incorporated into the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 5.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Primers do DNA/genética , Limite de Detecção , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4224-4232, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553048

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, long-rod-shaped and facultative aerobic bacterium, designated HB-1T, was isolated from a round hay bale at the Kansas State University Beef Stocker Unit. The results of phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain HB-1T clustered within the genus Gemmobacter and its closest relatives were Gemmobacter aquaticus A1-9T (98.0 %), Gemmobacter lutimaris YJ-T1-11T (98.0 %), Gemmobacter fontiphilus JS43T (97.8 %), Gemmobacter aquatilis DSM 3857T (97.5 %) and Gemmobacter lanyuensis Orc-4T (96.9 %). Additional phylogenomic analysis also indicated that strain HB-1T belongs to the genus Gemmobacter. The draft genome of strain HB-1T had a total length of 4.23 Mbp and contained 4071 protein-coding genes. The average nucleotide identity values between the genomes of strain HB-1T and the three most-related type strains ranged from 77.5 to 78.1 %. The DNA G+C content of strain HB-1T was 63.7 mol%. The novel strain grew at 10-37 °C, pH 5-10 and with 0-2 % NaCl. Oxidase and catalase activities were positive. Cells were 0.3-0.4 µm wide, 3.0-7.0 µm long and usually found in pairs or chains of cells. The major respiratory quinone of strain HB-1T was Q-10 (90 %), with a minor amount of Q-9 (10 %). The major fatty acids were C18 : 1 ω7c (54.6 %) and C16 : 0 (18.2 %). On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data, strain HB-1T (=DSM 109828T=ATCC TSD-211T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Gemmobacter, for which the name Gemmobacter serpentinus sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rhodobacteraceae/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Kansas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhodobacteraceae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/química
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2379-2390, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588083

RESUMO

In the aquaculture industry, the selection and quality of feed are highly relevant because their integrity and management have an impact on the health and development of organisms. In general, feeds contamination depends on storage conditions and formulation. Furthermore, it has been recognized that filamentous fungi are among the most important contaminating agent in formulated feeds. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to identify saprophytic fungi capable of proliferating in commercial feeds, as well as determining their prevalence, extracellular enzymes profile, ability to assimilate carbon sources, and finally their ability to produce aflatoxins. In order to do that, twenty-two fungi were isolated from commercial fish feeds. After, the species Aspergillus chevalieri, A. cristatus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, A. flavus, A. creber, and Lichtheimia ramosa were identified. These fungi were able to produce extracellular enzymes, such as phosphatases, esterases, proteases, ß-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase. The isolated fungi showed no selective behavior in the assimilation of the different carbon sources, showing a strong metabolic diversity. Prevalence percentages above 85% were recorded. Among all fungi studied, A. flavus M3-C1 had the highest production of aflatoxins when this strain was inoculated directly in the feeds (295 ppb). The aflatoxin production by this strain under the experimental setting is above the permitted levels, and it has been established that high levels of aflatoxins in feeds can cause alterations in fish growth as well as the development of cancerous tumors in the liver, in addition to enhancing mortality.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Proliferação de Células , Peixes , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/patogenicidade
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7235, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350311

RESUMO

The demand for animal protein for human consumption has been risen exponentially. Modern animal production practices are associated with the regular use of antibiotics, potentially increasing the emerging multi-resistant bacteria, which may have a negative impact on public health. In poultry production, substances capable of maximizing the animals' performance and displaying an antimicrobial activity against pathogens are very well desirable features. Probiotic can be an efficient solution for such a task. In the present work, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from chicken cecum and screened for their antagonistic effect towards many pathogens. Their capacity of producing the B-complex vitamins folate and riboflavin were also evaluated. From 314 isolates, three (C43, C175 and C195) produced Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances (BLIS) against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zones of 18.9, 21.5, 19.5 mm, respectively) and also inhibited the growth of Salmonella Heidelberg. The isolate C43 was identified as Enterococcus faecium, while C173 and C195 were both identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Moreover, the isolates L. lactis subsp. lactis strains C173 and C195 demonstrated high potential to be used as probiotic in poultry feed, in addition to their advantage of producing folate (58.0 and 595.5 ng/mL, respectively) and riboflavin (223.3 and 175.0 ng/mL, respectively).


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Probióticos/farmacologia , Salmonella enterica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Complexo Vitamínico B/farmacologia , Animais , Bioprospecção
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441755

RESUMO

Fermented liquid feeding has proved beneficial for weaner pigs; however, there is limited research on its effect on the growth and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) of grow-finisher pigs. Microbial decarboxylation of amino acids is associated with whole diet fermentation, while wet/dry and liquid feeding reportedly improve growth compared with dry feeding. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of wet/dry feeding and fresh, fermented whole diet, and fermented cereal liquid feeding on pig growth, feed efficiency, and carcass quality in grow-finisher pigs. Pigs were allocated to one of four dietary treatments in two experiments: 1) Single-space wet/dry feeders (WET/DRY), 2) Fresh liquid feeding (FRESH), 3) Fermented cereal liquid feeding where the cereal fraction (38% barley, 40% wheat) of the diet was fermented prior to feeding (FERM-CER), and 4) Fermented whole diet liquid feeding where the whole diet was fermented prior to feeding (FERM-WH). In exp. 1, pigs were fed the experimental diets for 68 d prior to slaughter (29.8 kg ± 0.92 SE to 102.3 kg ± 0.76 SE). Overall, average daily gain (ADG) was 1,094, 1,088, 1,110, and 955 g/d (SE = 13.0; P < 0.001) and FCE was 2.26, 2.37, 2.40, and 2.88 (SE = 0.031; P < 0.001) for treatments one through four, respectively. Pigs fed FERM-WH were lighter at slaughter than pigs fed the other three treatments (P < 0.001). In exp. 2, pigs were on treatment for 26 d prior to slaughter (85.3 kg ± 1.69 SE to 117.5 kg ± 0.72 SE). Overall, ADG in exp. 2 was 1,103, 1,217, 1,284, and 1,140 g/d (SE = 27.9; P < 0.01) and FCE was 2.78, 2.99, 2.95, and 3.09 g/g (SE = 0.071; P = 0.05), for treatments one through four, respectively. There were no significant differences observed between treatments for apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, nitrogen, gross energy, or ash. Higher lactic acid bacteria counts and lower Enterobacteriaceae counts and pH were observed in FERM-CER and FERM-WH compared with WET/DRY and FRESH. Ethanol concentrations were almost 4-fold higher in FERM-CER troughs than FRESH troughs and 5-fold higher in FERM-WH than FRESH troughs. To conclude, FERM-WH resulted in poorer growth and FCE compared with WET/DRY, FRESH, and FERM-CER, probably due to amino acid degradation and a loss in gross energy found in FERM-WH.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Suínos , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Grão Comestível , Enterobacteriaceae , Feminino , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal , Hordeum/química , Masculino , Triticum/química
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6114-6134, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418699

RESUMO

Our objectives were to evaluate technical lignins for their antifungal properties against 3 molds and 1 yeast causing hay spoilage, and their ability to preserve ground high-moisture alfalfa hay nutritive value in vitro. In experiment 1, 8 technical lignins and propionic acid (PRP; positive control) were tested at a dose of 40 mg/mL. The experiment had a randomized complete block design (RCBD, 4 runs) and a factorial arrangement of 3 molds × 10 additives (ADV). The effects of the ADV on yeast were evaluated separately with a RCBD. Sodium lignosulfonate (NaL) and PRP were the only treatments with 100 ± 2.8% inhibition of fungi. In experiment 2, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for selected lignins and PRP were determined. At pH 4, NaL had the lowest MIC across the molds (20-33.3 mg/mL) and magnesium lignosulfonate (MgL) for the yeast (26.7) among the lignins. However, PRP had MIC values that were several-fold lower across all fungi (1.25-3.33). In experiment 3, a RCBD (5 blocks) with a 3 (ADV; NaL, MgL, and PRP) × 4 (doses: 0, 0.5, 1, and 3% wt/wt fresh basis) factorial arrangement of treatments was used to evaluate the preservative effects of ADV in ground high-moisture alfalfa hay inoculated with a mixture of the fungi previously tested and incubated under aerobic conditions in vitro. After 15 d, relative to untreated hay (14.9), dry matter (DM) losses were lessened by doses as low as 1% for NaL (3.39) and 0.5% for PRP (0.81 ± 0.77%). The mold count was reduced in both NaL at 3% (3.92) and PRP as low as 0.5% (3.94) relative to untreated hay (7.76 ± 0.55 log cfu/fresh g). Consequently, sugars were best preserved by NaL at 3% (10.1) and PRP as low as 0.5% (10.5) versus untreated (7.99 ± 0.283% DM), while keeping neutral detergent fiber values lower in NaL (45.9) and PRP-treated (45.1) hays at the same doses, respectively, relative to untreated (49.7 ± 0.66% DM). Hay DM digestibility was increased by doses as low as 3% for NaL (67.5), 1% MgL (67.0), and 0.5% PRP (68.5) versus untreated hay (61.8 ± 0.77%). The lowest doses increasing neutral detergent fiber digestibility relative to untreated hay (23.3) were 0.5% for MgL and PRP (30.5 and 30.1, respectively) and 1% for NaL (30.7 ± 1.09% DM). Across technical lignins, NaL showed the most promise as a potential hay preservative. However, its effects were limited compared with PRP at equivalent doses. Despite not having an effect on preservation, MgL improved DM digestibility by stimulating neutral detergent fiber digestibility. This study warrants further development of NaL under field conditions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignina/análogos & derivados , Lignina/química , Medicago sativa , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110420, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151861

RESUMO

In order to alleviate toxic effects of aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEA) on broiler production performance and gut microbiota, three kinds of compound probiotics (CP) were selected. The optimal ratios of Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei and Candida utilis in broiler diets were 7, 5 and 6 log CFU/g for ZEA biodegradation (CP1); 6, 7 and 7 log CFU/g for AFB1 biodegradation (CP2); 7, 6 and 7 log CFU/g for ZEA + AFB1 biodegradation (CP3). A total of 350 1-day-old Ross broilers were randomly divided into 7 groups. Group A was the basal diet, group B-G contained ZEA, AFB1, ZEA + AFB1, ZEA + CP1, AFB1+CP2, ZEA + AFB1+CP3, respectively. The experiment showed that AFB1 or AFB1+ZEA significantly decreased broiler production performance, damaged liver and jejunum, increased mycotoxin residues in broiler body; however, three kinds of compound probiotics additions could alleviate mycotoxin negative effects on the above parameters (p < 0.05). The gut microbiota analysis indicated that AFB1+ZEA increased jejunal microbial richness, but which were decreased to almost the same level as the control group by CP3 addition. CP3 addition significantly increased jejunal Firmicutes and Lactobacillus aviarius abundances. The correlative analysis showed that gut Lactobacillus aviarius abundance was positively correlated with average daily gain (ADG) of broilers (p < 0.05), while AFB1+ZEA addition decreased its relative abundance, indicating that CP3 addition increased broiler growth by increasing Lactobacillus aviarius abundance. AFB1 and ZEA residues in broiler body were negatively correlated with the gut beneficial bacterial abundances (p < 0.01), but positively correlated with the potentially harmful bacterial abundances (p < 0.05), which inferred that CP3 addition could decrease mycotoxin residues through positively regulating gut relative bacterial abundances. In conclusion, compound probiotics could keep gut microbiota stable, degrade mycotoxins, alleviate histological lesions, increase production performance and reduce mycotoxin toxicity for broilers.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 70(6): 431-439, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031273

RESUMO

This study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary probiotics on growth, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. During 8 weeks, the fish were fed the five experimental diets such as a basal commercial diet (CON), oxytetracycline (OTC) and three basal diets containing Bacillus subtilis (BS), a commercial microbial product (CES) and a mixture of yeast and bacterium (PI), respectively. Fish fed all the probiotics diets and OTC showed a significantly higher growth than fish-fed CON (P < 0·05). Fish-fed PI had a significantly higher nitroblue tetrazolium activity, whereas fish-fed CES showed a higher lysozyme level (P < 0·05). A 7-day challenge test also showed that fish-fed PI had a cumulative survival rate equivalent to that of fish-fed OTC (P < 0·05). Moreover, the diet (PI) appeared to increase the diversity of microbial community in the fish. All these results suggest that the probiotics diet could function as a potential antibiotic replacer in the olive flounder. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study is unique in revealing that a diet mixture of yeast, Groenewaldozyma salmanticensis and bacterium Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens can enhance growth, innate immunity and diversity of microbial community including dominant species in the olive flounder. All these indicate that the diet mixture could function as a potential antibiotic replacer in one of the most commercially important fisheries in South Korea.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Linguado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linguado/imunologia , Gluconacetobacter/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Saccharomycetales/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Dieta , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Linguado/microbiologia , República da Coreia
14.
Mycotoxin Res ; 36(3): 277-286, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048206

RESUMO

Mycotoxins produced by certain fungal species of the Fusarium genus are frequently found as contaminants in cereals and feedstuffs. Fumonisins (FBs), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are of special concern relative to animal health and productivity. The aim of this work was to analyse the levels of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination in samples of total mixed rations (TMRs) for dairy cows. To accomplish this analysis, an HPLC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin method was developed and validated. The relation between the formulation of TMR samples and the presence of mycotoxins was also studied. From February 2016 to January 2018, a total of 193 TMR samples for dairy cows collected from farms located in different areas of Spain were analysed for the presence of FBs, ZEN, DON and their metabolites. In total, 112 samples (58%) were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin, and 38 samples (20%) presented more than one mycotoxin. FBs were the mycotoxins most frequently found (34% positive samples). DON was detected in 17% of samples, and ZEN was detected in 16% of samples. Among the metabolites analysed, only deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) were detected. The levels of all the Fusarium mycotoxins studied were always below the values recommended by the European Commission for feedstuffs. The wide variety of ingredients used in the formulation of the analysed samples made it difficult to reach definite conclusions, although it seemed that some cereal silages and concentrates such as cereals or compound feed used as ingredients of the TMR may be related to the presence of mycotoxins.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fusarium/química , Fusarium/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Espanha
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957788

RESUMO

There is no generally accepted optimal feed form and delivery method for feeding finisher pigs. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of feed form (meal and pellet) and delivery method (liquid, dry, and wet/dry) on feed microbiology and growth, gain-to-feed ratio (G:F), and carcass quality of finisher pigs. Two batches of pigs were used, each with six pen replicates per treatment. In each batch 216 pigs (32.7 kg; ± 0.48 SE) housed in same-sex (entire male or female) pens of six pigs per pen were on treatment for ~62 d prior to slaughter. The experiment was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two factors for diet form (meal and pellets) and three factors for feed delivery (dry, wet/dry, liquid). The treatments were 1) meal from dry feeder, 2) meal from wet/dry feeder, 3) meal from liquid system, 4) pellet from dry feeder, 5) pellet from wet/dry feeder, and 6) pellet from liquid system. Pig growth performance was determined, blood samples collected at slaughter for hematological analysis and microbiological and proximate analysis of feed performed. A significant feed form × delivery interaction was found for G:F. During the overall period G:F was 0.446, 0.433, 0.423, 0.474, 0.459, and 0.418 g/g (SE = 0.0080; P < 0.01) for treatments 1 through 6, respectively. When feed was pelleted, G:F was improved when feed delivery was dry or wet/dry compared to meal but when the delivery was liquid, pelleting did not affect G:F. There were no interactive effects for overall average daily gain (ADG). Overall ADG was 1,114 and 1,156 g/d (SE = 16.9; P < 0.01) for pigs fed diets in meal and pellet form, respectively and 1,080, 1,114, and 1,210 g/d (SE = 18.4; P < 0.001) for dry-, wet/dry-, and liquid-fed pigs, respectively. Carcass weight was 76.6 and 79.0 kg (SE = 0.55; P < 0.001) for pigs fed in meal and pellet form, respectively, while it was 74.7, 77.3, and 81.5 kg (SE = 0.60; P < 0.001) for pigs delivered dry, wet/dry, and liquid diets, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria (P < 0.05) and yeast (P < 0.01) counts in troughs were greater for the liquid than the dry diet in both meal and pelleted form. There was also evidence of lysine degradation in the liquid diet but this did not impact pig growth. Feeding the diet in pelleted vs. meal form led to lower hemoglobin and greater white blood cell and neutrophil counts (P < 0.05). To conclude, wet/dry feeding of a pelleted diet is recommended to maximize growth rate while optimizing G:F in grow-finisher pigs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne de Porco/normas , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Enterobacteriaceae , Feminino , Fungos , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Leveduras
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986161

RESUMO

Soaking hay fodder to reduce dust and soluble carbohydrate (WSC) contents prior to feeding is common practice among horse owners. Soaking can increase bacteria load in hay but no information exists on how this process alters the bacteria profile, which could pose a health risk or digestive challenge, to horses by introducing foreign bacteria into the gastrointestinal tract and so altering the normal profile. The current objectives were to map the bacterial profile of 3 different hays and determine how soaking alters this with the aim of improving best practice when feeding stabled horses. A Perennial Rye grass hay and two meadow s hays were soaked for 0, 1.5, 9 or 16 hours. Pre and post treatment, hays were analysed for WSC and total aerobic bacteria (CFU/g), and differences in bacteria family profiles were determined using ANOVA with significance set at P<0.05. Bacteria were identified via genomic DNA extraction and 16S library preparation (V3 and V4 variable region of 16S rRNA) according to the Illumina protocol. Differences in family operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between individual dry hays and different soaking times were identified via paired t-tests on the DESeq2 normalised data and false discovery rates accounted for using Padj (P<0.05). Mean % WSC losses and actual g/kg lost on DM basis (+/- SE) increased with soaking time being 18% = 30 (10.7), 38% = 72 (43.7), and 42% = 80 (38.8) for 1.5, 9 and 16 hours soak respectively. No relationship existed between WSC leaching and bacteria growth or profile. Grass type influenced bacterial profiles and their responses to soaking, but no differences were seen in richness or Shannon diversity indices. PCA analyses showed clustering of bacteria between meadow hays which differed from the perennial rye grass hay and this difference increased post soaking. Soaking hay pre-feeding causes inconsistent WSC leaching, bacteria growth and alterations in bacterial profiles which are unpredictable but may decrease the hygienic quality of the fodder.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Bactérias Aeróbias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Aeróbias/genética , Lolium/microbiologia , Molhabilidade , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Sequência de Bases , Carboidratos/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Cavalos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Água
17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(4): 1633-1646, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912200

RESUMO

Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), an important fishborne zoonotic parasite threatening public health, is of major socioeconomic importance in epidemic areas. Effective strategies are still urgently expected to prevent against C. sinensis infection. In the present study, paramyosin of C. sinensis (CsPmy) was stably and abundantly expressed on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores. The recombinant spores (B.s-CotC-CsPmy) were incorporated in the basal pellets diet in three different dosages (1 × 105, 1 × 108, 1 × 1011 CFU/g pellets) and orally administrated to grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The immune responses and intestinal microbiota in the treated grass carp were investigated. Results showed that specific anti-CsPmy IgM levels in sera, skin mucus, bile, and intestinal mucus, as well as mRNA levels of IgM and IgZ in the spleen and head kidney, were significantly increased in B.s-CotC-CsPmy-1011 group. Besides, transcripts levels of IL-8 and TNF-αin the spleen and head kidney were also significantly elevated than the control groups. Moreover, mRNA levels of tight junction proteins in the intestines of B.s-CotC-CsPmy-1011 group increased. Potential pathogenetic bacteria with lower abundance and higher abundances of candidate probiotics and bacteria associated with digestion in 1 × 1011 CFU/g B.s-CotC-CsPmy spores administrated fishes could be detected compared with control group. The amount of metacercaria in per gram fish flesh was statistically decreased in 1 × 1011 CFU/g B.s-CotC-CsPmy spores orally immunized group. Our work demonstrated that B. subtilis spores presenting CsPmy on the surface could be a promising effective, safe, and needle-free candidate vaccine against C. sinensis infection for grass carp.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Carpas/parasitologia , Clonorquíase/veterinária , Esporos Bacterianos , Tropomiosina/imunologia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Carpas/imunologia , Cercárias/imunologia , Clonorquíase/imunologia , Clonorquíase/prevenção & controle , Clonorchis sinensis , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Tropomiosina/genética , Vacinas/imunologia
18.
Br J Nutr ; 123(4): 372-382, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690358

RESUMO

Starchy diets can induce hindgut dysbiosis in horses. The present study evaluated the impact of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and microalgae (Aurantiochytrium limacinum) supplementation on caecal, colonic and faecal microbial ecosystem and on blood inflammatory parameters of horses fed high-fibre or high-starch diets. Six fistulated geldings in a 2 × 2 Latin-square design were alternatively supplemented and received during each period 100 % hay (4 weeks) followed by a 56/44 hay/barley diet (3 weeks). Caecal, colonic and faecal samples were collected 4 h after the morning meal three times per diet, at 5-d intervals, to measure bacterial composition and microbial end products. Blood was simultaneously collected for measuring inflammatory markers. The starchy diet clearly modified the microbial ecosystem in the three digestive segments, with an increase of the amylolytic function and a decrease of the fibrolytic one. However, no effect of the diet was observed on the blood parameters. When horses were supplemented, no significant change was found in lipopolysaccharides, PG-E2, serum amyloid A concentrations and complete blood count neither in cellulose-utilising, starch-utilising and lactate-utilising bacteria concentrations nor in the volatile fatty acids and lactate concentrations and pH. Under supplementation, relative abundance of Family XIII Clostridiales increased in caecum and faeces irrespective of diet and relative abundance of Veillonellaceae was higher during the hay/barley diet in colon and faeces. Most variations of faecal bacterial taxa under supplementation were not observed in the hindgut. However, all variations suggested that supplementation could increase fibrolytic function whatever the diet and limit dysbiosis when the horses' diet changed from high fibre to high starch.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microalgas , Fermento Seco/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Colo/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ecossistema , Fezes/microbiologia , Cavalos , Amido/análise
19.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(1): 117-123, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648373

RESUMO

Hog production takes place mostly in large concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) where waste is managed by storing in lagoons prior to land application of lagoon liquid. Salmonella, including antibiotic-resistant Salmonella, have been found in the farm environment and lagoons. The objective of this research was to determine whether Salmonella resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics were present in wastewaters and surface waters from hog CAFOs. Samples of hog waste and on farm environmental waters were analysed for Salmonella, which were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The highest percentage of resistant isolates were found in raw waste flushed from hog houses and in lagoon wastewater; few resistant isolates were found in on-farm surface water. Resistance to sulphamethoxazole was most common, mostly in waste samples and less commonly in surface water, followed by chloramphenicol and ampicillin. No resistance to cephalosporin or fluoroquinolones was found. Resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics was commonly found in Salmonella from hog waste but was less extensive in farm surface waters. Management of wastes from hog CAFOs should be designed to further reduce the risk of human exposures resulting from environmental contamination with Salmonella. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study suggests antibiotic-resistant Salmonella were common in hog wastes and present in environmental waters associated with hog CAFOs. Low levels of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella in on-farm stream waters suggest surface waters could have been contaminated, potentially serving as a mechanism of off-farm transport. Since the study, there have been multiple economic, regulatory and practice changes at the federal, state and industry level. These include regulation of antibiotic use and animal waste treatment, vertical integration in the industry and changes in antibiotic use practice. This study is a useful historical baseline against which current antibiotic resistance trends can be measured.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Salmonella/genética , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Cloranfenicol/farmacologia , Fazendas , Humanos , Rios , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1174-1184, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains should be selected to optimize the ensiling process, and the additives should be adjusted to the ensiled forage crops. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of inoculation with three Lactobacillus species on the chemical parameters and microbiological quality (beneficial and harmful microbiota) of grass silage. RESULTS: Three species: L. paracasei (LPa), L. brevis (LB) and L. plantarum (LPl), isolated from sugar beet silage and characterized based on 16S rDNA sequences and biochemical parameters, were analyzed in the study. Single strains and their combinations were used as silage inoculants. The basic chemical and microbiological (qPCR) parameters of silages were determined. Based on the results of agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal component analysis (PCA) it was determined that silages inoculated with single LAB strains and LPa + LB and commercial additive (0+) were the best quality ones, particularly with regard to microbiological parameters and they effectively lowered the pH value. A consortium of three Lactobacillus species had no influence on silage quality, whereas LPa + LB and LPl + LB combinations as well as a commercial additive exerted positive effects. Inoculation inhibited the growth of toxin-producing fungi. CONCLUSION: Only the appropriate LAB composition can improve the quality of the ensiled material (antagonistic relationship). Only the LPa + LB combination was able to improve the value of low dry silage; nevertheless, almost all combinations were able to reduced concentrations of toxin-producing fungi. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Poaceae/microbiologia , Silagem/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Beta vulgaris/microbiologia , Fermentação , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Poaceae/química , Silagem/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA