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2.
Toxicol Lett ; 338: 114-127, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253781

RESUMO

In animal health risk assessment, hazard characterisation of feed additives has been often using the default uncertainty factor (UF) of 100 to translate a no-observed-adverse-effect level in test species (rat, mouse, dog, rabbit) to a 'safe' level of chronic exposure in farm and companion animal species. Historically, both 10-fold factors have been further divided to include chemical-specific data in both dimensions when available. For cats (Felis Sylvestris catus), an extra default UF of 5 is applied due to the species' deficiency in particularly glucuronidation and glycine conjugation. This paper aims to assess the scientific basis and validity of the UF for inter-species differences in kinetics (4.0) and the extra UF applied for cats through a comparison of kinetic parameters between rats and cats for 30 substrates of phase I and phase II metabolism. When the parent compound undergoes glucuronidation the default factor of 4.0 is exceeded, with exceptions for zidovudine and S-carprofen. Compounds that were mainly renally excreted did not exceed the 4.0-fold default. Mixed results were obtained for chemicals which are metabolised by CYP3A in rats. When chemicals were administered intravenously the 4.0-fold default was not exceeded with the exception of clomipramine, lidocaine and alfentanil. The differences seen after oral administration might be due to differences in first-pass metabolism and bioavailability. Further work is needed to further characterise phase I, phase II enzymes and transporters in cats to support the development of databases and in silico models to support hazard characterisation of chemicals particularly for feed additives.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/toxicidade , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/farmacocinética , Animais , Gatos , Desentoxicação Metabólica Fase I , Desintoxicação Metabólica Fase II , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Ratos , Medição de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie , Especificidade por Substrato , Incerteza , Xenobióticos/administração & dosagem , Xenobióticos/toxicidade
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966310

RESUMO

Mycotoxin management in agriculture is an essential challenge for maintaining the health of both animals and humans. Choosing the right adsorbent is still a question for many breeders and an important criterion for feed manufacturers. New adsorbents are still being sought. Graphene oxide is a promising material in the field of nanotechnology, which excels in its adsorption properties. Presented in vitro study investigates graphene oxide for the binding of mycotoxins from crushed wheat. The results show that graphene oxide has an adsorption capacity for aflatoxin 0.045 mg/g, zearalenone 0.53 mg/g and deoxynivalenol 1.69 mg/g at 37° C. In vitro simulation of crushed wheat digestion showed rapid adsorption during the gastric phase. Of the minerals, Mg, Cu and Zn were the most adsorbed. The applied dose of graphene oxide of 10 mg/g caused only a slight inhibition of the digestive enzymes α-amylase and trypsin compared to pepsin and gastric lipase. In vitro results indicated the suitability of graphene oxide in the adsorption of the aflatoxin, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Aflatoxina B1/isolamento & purificação , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Digestão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Nanoestruturas/química , Tricotecenos/isolamento & purificação , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Triticum/química , Triticum/toxicidade , Zearalenona/isolamento & purificação , Zearalenona/toxicidade
4.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 272-279, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416811

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FUM), and their combination on growth performance, nutrient, and energy digestibility in broilers. A total of 960 Cobb-Cobb male broilers were obtained on the day of hatch and placed 10 birds per cage with 8 cages per treatment. The experiment consisted of 12 treatments: control; DON 1.5 mg/kg; DON 5.0 mg/kg; FUM 20.0 mg/kg; DON 1.5 mg/kg + FUM 20.0 mg/kg; and DON 5.0 mg/kg + FUM 20 mg/kg. The remaining dietary treatments were the correlative nitrogen-free diets (NFD) for determining the endogenous nutrients loss. All birds were fed with a corn-soybean meal diet from days 1 to 15, until birds from latter 6 treatments were switched to their correlative NFD diet from days 15 to 21. Feed and BW were weighed by cage on days 8, 15, and 21. On day 21, ileal digesta was collected for digestibility determination. Both DON 1.5 mg/kg + FUM 20 mg/kg and DON 5.0 mg/kg + FUM 20 mg/kg treatments showed reduced feed intake (P ≤ 0.05) from days 8 to 15 and days 15 to 21. However, no significant effects were noted for BW gain or mortality-adjusted feed conversion ratio after adding single or combined mycotoxin on days 8 and 15. At day 21, cumulative BW gain was less (P ≤ 0.05) in birds fed with the mycotoxin combination diets than the control. No significant changes were shown for ileal endogenous amino acids losses. Control treatment had significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) apparent ileal energy digestibility than the DON 5.0 mg/kg + FUM 20.0 mg/kg treatment (3,126 vs. 2,895 kcal/kg), representing a 5%-unit loss in apparent DM digestibility. No significant difference was found for standardized crude protein and amino acid digestibility. In conclusion, the combination of DON and FUM (DON 1.5 mg/kg + FUM 20 mg/kg or DON 5.0 mg/kg + FUM 20 mg/kg) reduced DM and ileal energy digestibility, which negatively affected BW gain in broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas/metabolismo , Tricotecenos/administração & dosagem
5.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 225: 117494, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505387

RESUMO

The melamine scandal indicates that traditional targeted detection methods only detect the specifically listed forms of contamination, which leads to the failure to identify new adulterants in time. In order to deal with continually changing forms of adulterations in food and feed and make up for the inadequacy of targeted detection methods, an untargeted detection method based on local anomaly detection (LAD) using near infrared (NIR) imaging was examined in this study. In the LAD method, with a particular size of window filter and at a 99% level of confidence, a specific value of Global H (GH, modified Mahalanobis distance) can be used as a threshold for anomalous spectra detection and quantitative analysis. The results showed an acceptable performance for the detection of contaminations with the advantage of no need of building a 'clean' library. And, a high coefficient of determination (R2LAD = 0.9984 and R2PLS-DA = 0.9978) for the quantitative analysis of melamine with a limit of detection lower than 0.01% was obtained. This indicates that the new strategy of untargeted detection has the potential to move from passive to active for food and feed safety control.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Soja/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Soja/toxicidade , Triazinas/análise , Triazinas/toxicidade
6.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190045, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098405

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate if the presence of pollutants promotes changes in feeding habits of fish species from different trophic guilds: the detritivorous species, Hypostomus francisci, and the piscivorous, Hoplias intermedius. Both species were sampled at 12 sites (with different degrees of pollution) in the Rio das Velhas basin, which is heavily polluted by domestic and industrial sewage from the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH). Stable isotope analyses of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) of fish tissue and the main food resources were performed. Fishes from both trophic guilds altered their diets in degraded environments, but the detritivorous species showed greater trophic plasticity. The isotopic niche of both trophic guilds was broadest in unpolluted sites and more δ15N enriched in polluted regions. The detritivorous species presented high niche-breadth in unpolluted sites, probably due to the greater variety of resources consumed. In addition, the δ15N of the detritivorous was more enriched than the piscivorous species in polluted sites. In conclusion, fishes from both trophic guilds presented similar isotopic responses to environmental pollution. However, the detritivorous species was more sensitive to these alterations and therefore, is likely a better indicator of environmental condition than the piscivorous.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se a presença de poluentes promove mudanças nos hábitos alimentares de espécies de peixes de diferentes guildas tróficas: a espécie detritívora, Hypostomus francisci, e a piscívora, Hoplias intermedius. Ambas espécies foram amostradas em 12 locais (com diferentes níveis de poluição) na bacia do Rio das Velhas, que é altamente poluída por esgoto doméstico e industrial da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (RMBH). Foram realizadas análises de isótopos estáveis de carbono (δ13C) e nitrogênio (δ15N) dos tecidos dos peixes e dos principais recursos alimentares. Espécies de ambas guildas tróficas alteraram suas dietas em ambientes degradados, mas a espécie detritívora apresentou maior plasticidade trófica. O nicho isotópico de ambas as espécies foi mais amplo em locais menos perturbados e mais enriquecido em δ15N em regiões poluídas. A espécie detritívora apresentou grande amplitude em seu nicho isotópico em locais menos perturbados, provavelmente devido à maior variedade de recursos consumidos. Além disso, o δ15N da espécie detritívora foi mais enriquecido que a espécie piscívora em locais poluídos. Em conclusão, ambas as espécies apresentaram respostas isotópicas semelhantes à poluição ambiental. No entanto, a espécie detritívora foi mais sensível a essas alterações e, portanto, é provavelmente uma melhor indicadora de condição ambiental do que a espécie piscívora.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/classificação , Marcação por Isótopo/veterinária , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Esgotos Domésticos
7.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 50-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622650

RESUMO

The development of three generic multi-compartment physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models is described for farm animal species, i.e. cattle, sheep, and swine. The PBK models allow one to quantitatively link external dose and internal dose for risk assessment of chemicals relevant to food and feed safety. Model performance is illustrated by predicting tissue concentrations of melamine and oxytetracycline and validated through comparison with measured data. Overall, model predictions were reliable with 71% of predictions within a 3-fold of the measured data for all three species and only 6% of predictions were outside a 10-fold of the measured data. Predictions within a 3-fold change were best for cattle, followed by sheep, and swine (82%, 76%, and 63%). Global sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most sensitive parameters in the PBK model. The sensitivity analysis showed that body weight and cardiac output were the most sensitive parameters. Since interspecies differences in metabolism impact on the fate of a wide range of chemicals, a key step forward is the introduction of species-specific information on transporters and metabolism including expression and activities.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Gado/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxitetraciclina/farmacocinética , Triazinas/farmacocinética , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Oxitetraciclina/administração & dosagem , Oxitetraciclina/efeitos adversos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carneiro Doméstico , Especificidade da Espécie , Sus scrofa , Distribuição Tecidual , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Triazinas/toxicidade
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17463, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767938

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that a common dietary protein component, wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATI), stimulate intestinal macrophages and dendritic cells via toll like receptor 4. Activation of these intestinal myeloid cells elicits an inflammatory signal that is propagated to mesenteric lymph nodes, and that can facilitate extraintestinal inflammation. Mice were fed a well-defined high fat diet, with (HFD/ATI) or without (HFD) nutritionally irrelevant amounts of ATI. Mice on HFD/ATI developed only mild signs of intestinal inflammation and myeloid cell activation but displayed significantly higher serum triglycerides and transaminases compared to mice on HFD alone. Moreover, they showed increased visceral and liver fat, and a higher insulin resistance. ATI feeding promoted liver and adipose tissue inflammation, with M1-type macrophage polarization and infiltration, and enhanced liver fibrogenesis. Gluten, the major protein component of wheat, did not induce these pathologies. Therefore, wheat ATI ingestion in minute quantities comparable to human daily wheat consumption exacerbated features of the metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, despite its irrelevant caloric value.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Triticum/química , Inibidores da Tripsina/efeitos adversos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Colágeno/análise , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glutens/administração & dosagem , Glutens/toxicidade , Hipertrigliceridemia/etiologia , Inflamação , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Zeína/administração & dosagem
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731462

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are known worldwide as fungus-produced toxins that adulterate a wide heterogeneity of raw feed ingredients and final products. Consumption of mycotoxins-contaminated feed causes a plethora of harmful responses from acute toxicity to many persistent health disorders with lethal outcomes; such as mycotoxicosis when ingested by animals. Therefore, the main task for feed producers is to minimize the concentration of mycotoxin by applying different strategies aimed at minimizing the risk of mycotoxin effects on animals and human health. Once mycotoxins enter the production chain it is hard to eliminate or inactivate them. This paper examines the most recent findings on different processes and strategies for the reduction of toxicity of mycotoxins in animals. The review gives detailed information about the decontamination approaches to mitigate mycotoxin contamination of feedstuffs and compound feed, which could be implemented in practice.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Descontaminação/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Micotoxinas/química , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Animais
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683617

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are produced by fungi and are potentially toxic to pigs. Yeast cell wall extract (YCWE) is known to adsorb mycotoxins and improve gut health in pigs. One hundred and twenty growing (56 kg; experiment 1) and 48 nursery piglets (6 kg; experiment 2) were assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design for 35 and 48 days, respectively. Factors were mycotoxins (no addition versus experiment 1: 180 µg/kg aflatoxins and 14 mg/kg fumonisins; or experiment 2: 180 µg/kg aflatoxins and 9 mg/kg fumonisins, and 1 mg/kg deoxynivalenol) and YCWE (0% versus 0.2%). Growth performance, blood, gut health and microbiome, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) data were evaluated. In experiment 1, mycotoxins reduced ADG and G:F, and duodenal IgG, whereas in jejunum, YCWE increased IgG and reduced villus width. In experiment 2, mycotoxins reduced BW, ADG, and ADFI. Mycotoxins reduced ADG, which was recovered by YCWE. Mycotoxins reduced the AID of nutrients evaluated and increased protein carbonyl, whereas mycotoxins and YCWE increased the AID of the nutrients and reduced protein carbonyl. Mycotoxins reduced villus height, proportion of Ki-67-positive cells, and increased IgA and the proportion of bacteria with mycotoxin-degrading ability, whereas YCWE tended to increase villus height and reduced IgA and the proportion of pathogenic bacteria in jejunum. The YCWE effects were more evident in promoting gut health and growth in nursery pigs, which showed higher susceptibility to mycotoxin effects.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/toxicidade , Descontaminação/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Parede Celular/química , Estados Unidos
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1659-1668, set.-out. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038665

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar as variáveis micotoxicológicas e nutricionais de híbridos de milho com diferentes características que influenciam no custo da ração para frangos de corte. Foram avaliados 26 híbridos de milho geneticamente modificados nas safrinhas de 2016 e 2017, com diferentes germoplasmas, textura de endosperma e duração do ciclo. Nos híbridos, foram avaliados grãos avariados, fumonisinas (B1+B2) (FUM), aflatoxinas (B1+B2+G1+G2) (AFLA), zearalenona (ZEA), deoxinivalenol (DON), umidade, proteína bruta (PB), energia metabolizável aparente corrigida para balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn), aminoácidos digestíveis para aves (lisina, metionina, cistina e treonina) e o respectivo custo da ração inicial para frangos de corte, que foi calculada pelo custo mínimo. A prevalência de FUM, AFLA, ZEA e DON foi de 90, 17, 33 e 0%, com médias de 3067, 1, 38 e 0µg/kg nos dois anos, respectivamente. A média de EMAn e PB foi de 3264kcal/kg e 8,02%, respectivamente, e diferiu (P<0,05) nos dois anos. O custo da ração foi influenciado significativamente (P<0,05) por FUM, PB, EMAn nos dois anos. Híbridos com tecnologia Viptera apresentam menor concentração por FUM e menor custo da ração. Híbridos de ciclo precoce têm menor concentração de FUM, maiores percentuais de PB e de aminoácidos digestíveis e menor custo da ração.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the mycotoxicological and nutritional variables of maize hybrids with different characteristics that influence the broiler chicken's feed costs. In 2016 and 2017 winter crops, 26 genetically modified hybrids of maize with different germplasm, endosperm texture and cycle duration were evaluated. The analyzed variables were damaged grains, fumonisins (B 1 +B 2 ) (FUM), aflatoxins (B 1 +B 2 +G 1 +G 2 ) (AFLA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), moisture, crude protein (CP), apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn), digestible amino acids for poultry (lysine, methionine, cystine and threonine) and the respective cost of the initial feed for broiler chickens calculated at the minimum cost. The prevalence of FUM, AFLA, ZEA and DON was 90, 17, 33 and 0%, with means of 3067, 1, 38 and 0µg/kg in the two years, respectively. The mean of AMEn and CP was 3264kcal/kg and 8.02%, respectively, and differed (P< 0.05) in the two years. The feed cost was significantly influenced (P<0.05) by FUM, PB, AMEn in two years. Hybrids with Viptera technology show lower concentration per FUM and lower feed cost. Early cycle hybrids have lower concentrations of FUM, higher percentages of CP and digestible amino acids, and lower feed costs.(AU)


Assuntos
Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/toxicidade , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Micotoxinas/análise , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Aflatoxinas/toxicidade , Fumonisinas/toxicidade
12.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124434, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374394

RESUMO

Drugs are potentially dangerous environmental contaminants, as they are designed to have biological effects at low concentrations. Monepantel (MOP), an amino-acetonitrile derivative, is frequently used veterinary anthelmintics, but information about MOP environmental circulation and impact is almost non-existent. We studied the phytotoxicity, uptake and biotransformation of MOP in two fodder plants, Plantago lanceolata and Medicago sativa. The seeds and whole plant regenerants were cultivated with MOP. The plant roots and the leaves were collected after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks of cultivation. The lengths of roots and proline concentrations in the roots and leaves were measured to evaluate MOP phytotoxicity. The UHPLC-MS/MS technique with a Q-TOF mass analyser was used for the identification and semi-quantification of MOP and its metabolites. Our results showed no phytotoxicity of MOP. However, both plants were able to uptake, transport and metabolize MOP. Comparing both plants, the uptake of MOP was much more extensive in Medicago sativa (almost 10-times) than in Plantago lanceolate. Moreover, 9 various metabolites of MOP were detected in Medicago sativa, while only 7 MOP metabolites were found in Plantago lanceolata. Based on metabolites structures, scheme of the metabolic pathways of MOP in both plants was proposed. MOP and its main metabolite (MOP sulfone), both anthelmintically active, were present not only in roots but also in leaves that can be consumed by animals. This indicates the potential for undesirable circulation of MOP in the environment, which could lead to many pharmacological and toxicological consequences.


Assuntos
Aminoacetonitrila/análogos & derivados , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental , Pradaria , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Plantago/metabolismo , Aminoacetonitrila/farmacocinética , Aminoacetonitrila/toxicidade , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Biotransformação , Gado , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Sulfonas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4972-4981, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111938

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to investigate the toxicity and tissue distribution of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) following oral gavage in broilers. A total of four hundred and thirty-two 15-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were allotted to 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds per replicate and administered a single oral dose of MSM at 0, 50, 100, 300, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg BW (Study 1). Another one hundred and sixty-eight 3-day-old chicks were allotted to either control or test group (Study 2) and administered a daily oral gavage of either 0 or 1, 500 mg/kg BW of MSM for 21 D consecutively. Blood and tissue samples were collected over a 48 h (Study 1) or 21 D (Study 2) period and analyzed for MSM concentrations. Toxicity was assessed through changes in hematology and clinical blood chemistry. In Study 1, plasma MSM concentrations were below 167 µg/mL at all time-points in birds receiving up to 300 mg/kg BW, and were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in birds receiving 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg BW. Similarly, only the highest 2 MSM dosages elicited increased lymphocyte and decreased heterophil counts at 8 h (P < 0.003) and decreased hematocrit at 48 h (P = 0.015). Growth performance variables were unaffected by MSM in Study 2, and plasma and tissue MSM concentrations were highest on study day 21, with MSM-dosed birds always exhibiting higher (P < 0.03) concentrations compared with the control. Birds in Study 2 that were dosed with MSM had decreased liver enzyme concentrations at day 7 and 21 and decreased glucose and phosphorus at day 7. Importantly, MSM was detected in plasma and all tissues of control groups, confirming that MSM is synthesized de novo in chickens. In conclusion, oral MSM at either acute (single dose at 1,000 to 2,000 mg/kg BW) or sub-chronic (1,500 mg/kg BW daily for 21 D) concentrations did not cause any adverse effects on growth or clinical outcomes and appeared to be absorbed and distributed throughout the body.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/toxicidade , Galinhas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Dimetil Sulfóxido/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Distribuição Tecidual
14.
Mycotoxin Res ; 35(3): 293-307, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949955

RESUMO

This study attempts to evaluate the potential aflatoxin binder activity of a molecularly imprinted polymer (TMU95) synthesized to target the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) analog molecule in comparison to a commercial toxin binder (CTB). Adsorption experiments were carried out to assess the ability to bind to AFB1 at various pH values. The strength of binding was investigated by the chemisorption index. The isothermal analysis was used to determine the maximum adsorption capacity values. The ability of TMU95 and CTB to adsorb essential minerals was evaluated and the obtained data suggested that CTB would significantly reduce availability of them compared to TMU95. The in vivo efficacy of TMU95 as an aflatoxin (AF) binder in duckling exposed to aflatoxin-contaminated feed from 4 to 18 days of age in comparison to the CTB was also assessed. TMU95 and CTB were effective in reducing the adverse effects caused by AFs on feed conversion ratio of duckling (p ≤ 0.01), and also showed a minor reduction of injuries caused by AFs on visceral organs enlargement (p ≤ 0.01). It was concluded that TMU95 could absorb AFB1 in vitro efficiently and had beneficial health effects that could alleviate some of the toxic effects of AFs on growing duckling performance similar to CTB.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Metacrilatos/metabolismo , Polímeros/química , Adsorção , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Patos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Trato Gastrointestinal Inferior/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal Inferior/patologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia
15.
Innate Immun ; 25(3): 168-175, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760085

RESUMO

Low concentration of LPS can be detected in healthy mammals without triggering systemic inflammation. Here we analysed the influence of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on very low LPS concentrations and the role of DON in the physiology of pigs challenged with high artificial LPS dosage mimicking septic shock. Pigs were fed for 29 d with DON-contaminated (4.59 mg/kg feed) or control feed. Samples of control animals showed 6.6 ± 13.5 pg/ml LPS in portal and 3.1 ± 7.6 pg/ml LPS in jugular serum samples. In the DON fed group, 3.4 ± 7.2 pg/ml and 0.6 ± 0.8 pg/ml were detected. The differences were statistically not significant, indicating that DON is not a trigger for enhanced LPS transfer into the blood circulation. Next, pigs were challenged with 7.5 µg LPS/kg body mass via portal or jugular route. The application route did not significantly influence the LPS concentration. We expected higher circulating LPS concentrations in the presence of DON due to the additional stress of liver metabolism and reduced liver capacity to remove LPS from circulation. This scenario is supported by tendency. In summary, we found that DON is unlikely to influence LPS transfer in the gut; DON likely reduces the capacity for LPS removal in septic shock conditions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/toxicidade , Intestinos/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Circulação Sanguínea , Contaminação de Alimentos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Tricotecenos/toxicidade
16.
Toxicol Sci ; 168(2): 315-338, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535037

RESUMO

The GMO90+ project was designed to identify biomarkers of exposure or health effects in Wistar Han RCC rats exposed in their diet to 2 genetically modified plants (GMP) and assess additional information with the use of metabolomic and transcriptomic techniques. Rats were fed for 6-months with 8 maize-based diets at 33% that comprised either MON810 (11% and 33%) or NK603 grains (11% and 33% with or without glyphosate treatment) or their corresponding near-isogenic controls. Extensive chemical and targeted analyses undertaken to assess each diet demonstrated that they could be used for the feeding trial. Rats were necropsied after 3 and 6 months. Based on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 408, the parameters tested showed a limited number of significant differences in pairwise comparisons, very few concerning GMP versus non-GMP. In such cases, no biological relevance could be established owing to the absence of difference in biologically linked variables, dose-response effects, or clinical disorders. No alteration of the reproduction function and kidney physiology was found. Metabolomics analyses on fluids (blood, urine) were performed after 3, 4.5, and 6 months. Transcriptomics analyses on organs (liver, kidney) were performed after 3 and 6 months. Again, among the significant differences in pairwise comparisons, no GMP effect was observed in contrast to that of maize variety and culture site. Indeed, based on transcriptomic and metabolomic data, we could differentiate MON- to NK-based diets. In conclusion, using this experimental design, no biomarkers of adverse health effect could be attributed to the consumption of GMP diets in comparison with the consumption of their near-isogenic non-GMP controls.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/toxicidade , Grão Comestível/química , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados/toxicidade , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Zea mays/genética , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Grão Comestível/genética , Feminino , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados/normas , Masculino , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Zea mays/química
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(1): 43-49, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525551

RESUMO

The livestock industry in the western United States loses an estimated $500 million annually from livestock production losses due to poisonous plants. Poisoning of livestock by plants often goes undiagnosed because there is a lack of appropriate or available specimens for analysis. The Lupinus species represent an important toxic plant in western North America that can be toxic and/or teratogenic to livestock species due to the quinolizidine alkaloids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using earwax, hair, oral fluid, and nasal mucus as noninvasive specimens to determine livestock exposure to the teratogenic Lupinus species. Quinolizidine alkaloids were detected in these four matrices in cattle that were administered a single dose of Lupinus leucophyllus. In addition, quinolizidine alkaloids from lupine were detected in the earwax of cattle that grazed on lupine-infested rangelands. This study demonstrates the potential of earwax, hair, oral fluid, and nasal mucus as noninvasive specimens for chemical analyses to aid in the diagnosis of livestock that may have been exposed to and poisoned by plants.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Cabelo/química , Lupinus/metabolismo , Lupinus/toxicidade , Muco/química , Mucosa Nasal/química , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Orelha , Feminino , Cabelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Teratogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Teratogênios/metabolismo , Estados Unidos
18.
Arch Toxicol ; 93(2): 293-310, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535711

RESUMO

A clinical case in Belgium demonstrated that feeding a feed concentrate containing considerable levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, 1.13 mg/kg feed) induced severe liver failure in 2- to 3-month-old beef calves. Symptoms disappeared by replacing the highly contaminated corn and by stimulating ruminal development via roughage administration. A multi-mycotoxin contamination was demonstrated in feed samples collected at 15 different veal farms in Belgium. DON was most prevalent, contaminating 80% of the roughage samples (mixed straw and maize silage; average concentration in positives: 637 ± 621 µg/kg, max. 1818 µg/kg), and all feed concentrate samples (411 ± 156 µg/kg, max. 693 µg/kg). In order to evaluate the impact of roughage provision and its associated ruminal development on the gastro-intestinal absorption and biodegradation of DON and its acetylated derivatives (3- and 15-ADON) in calves, a toxicokinetic study was performed with two ruminating and two non-ruminating male calves. Animals received in succession a bolus of DON (120 µg/kg bodyweight (BW)), 15-ADON (50 µg/kg BW), and 3-ADON (25 µg/kg) by intravenous (IV) injection or per os (PO) in a cross-over design. The absolute oral bioavailability of DON was much higher in non-ruminating calves (50.7 ± 33.0%) compared to ruminating calves (4.1 ± 4.5%). Immediately following exposure, 3- and 15-ADON were hydrolysed to DON in ruminating calves. DON and its acetylated metabolites were mainly metabolized to DON-3-glucuronide, however, also small amounts of DON-15-glucuronide were detected in urine. DON degradation to deepoxy-DON (DOM-1) was only observed to a relevant extent in ruminating calves. Consequently, toxicity of DON in calves is closely related to roughage provision and the associated stage of ruminal development.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Falência Hepática/veterinária , Tricotecenos/farmacocinética , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Acetilação , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Bovinos , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Icterícia/induzido quimicamente , Icterícia/veterinária , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Falência Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Ruminação Digestiva , Tricotecenos/análise , Tricotecenos/envenenamento
19.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 909-915, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166216

RESUMO

Although most commercial pet foods are safe, there have been a few instances in which chemical or bacterial contamination have caused outbreaks of illness in animals. Because of concerns regarding cases of contaminated commercial pet food that have been reported over the past several years, some pet owners may be choosing to feed noncommercial, home-prepared diets. When pet food contamination is suspected, pet owners often seek advice from their veterinarian regarding its health impact and subsequent diagnosis. This article addresses the role of the veterinarians in pet food contamination and highlights recommended approaches to handling pet food outbreaks or recalls.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos , Papel Profissional , Médicos Veterinários , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/etiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais de Estimação
20.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 917-931, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173926

RESUMO

Commercial pet foods are usually safe, but incidents of contamination can have a devastating impact on companion animals and their owners. There are numerous possible contaminants ranging from natural contaminants to nutrient imbalances to chemical adulteration, making it impossible to predict what will cause the next pet food recall. Veterinarians involvement with pet food recalls includes examining and treating affected animals, documentation and sample collection, and communicating with pet food manufacturers and regulatory agencies.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/toxicidade , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Contaminação de Alimentos , Recall e Retirada de Produto , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais de Estimação , Papel Profissional , Controle Social Formal , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Médicos Veterinários
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