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1.
Microbes Environ ; 34(4): 347-355, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527341

RESUMO

To develop biofertilizers for rice in Afghanistan, 98 plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria were isolated from rice plants and their morphological and physiological characteristics, such as indole-3-acetic acid production, acetylene reduction, phosphate and potassium solubilization, and siderophore production, were evaluated. The genetic diversity of these bacteria was also analyzed based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Of 98 bacteria, 89.7% produced IAA, 54.0% exhibited nitrogenase activity, and 40% showed phosphate solubilization and siderophore production. Some isolates assigned to Pseudomonas (brassicacearum, chengduensis, plecoglossicida, resinovorans, and straminea) formed a relationship with rice, and P. resinovorans and P. straminea showed nitrogen fixation. Rhizobium borbori and R. rosettiformans showed a relationship with rice plants and nitrogen fixation. Among the isolates examined, AF134 and AF137 belonging to Enterobacter ludwigii and P. putida produced large amounts of IAA (92.3 µg mL-1) and exhibited high nitrogenase activity (647.4 nmol C2H4 h-1), respectively. In the plant growth test, more than 70% of the inoculated isolates showed significantly increased root and shoot dry weights. Highly diverse bacterial isolates showing promising rice growth-promoting traits were obtained from Afghanistan alkaline soils.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Oryza/microbiologia , Afeganistão , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Potássio/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
2.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291304

RESUMO

Habitat heterogeneity is an important driver of aboveground species diversity but few studies have investigated effects on soil communities. Trees shape their surrounding by both leaf litter and roots generating small scale heterogeneity and potentially governing community patterns of soil organisms. To assess the role of vegetation for the soil fauna, we studied whether tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Tilia cordata Mill.), markedly differing in leaf litter quality and root associated mycorrhizal symbionts, affect oribatid mite communities by shaping below- and aboveground resources and habitat complexity and availability. Oribatid mite abundance, species richness, community structure and the proportion of litter living and parthenogenetic individuals were analyzed and related to microbial biomass and the amount of remaining litter mass. Although leaf litter species with higher nutritional values decomposed considerably faster, microbial biomass only slightly differed between leaf litter species. Neither root species nor leaf litter species affected abundance, species richness or community structure of oribatid mites. However, root species had an effect on the proportion of parthenogenetic individuals with increased proportions in the presence of beech roots. Overall, the results suggest that identity and diversity of vegetation via leaf litter or roots are of minor importance for structuring oribatid mite communities of a temperate forest ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Acer/classificação , Acer/microbiologia , Animais , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Fagus/classificação , Fagus/microbiologia , Fraxinus/classificação , Fraxinus/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Especificidade da Espécie , Simbiose , Tilia/classificação , Tilia/microbiologia
3.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(5): 1265-1277, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232514

RESUMO

Most work on plant community ecology has been performed above ground, neglecting the processes that occur in the soil. DNA metabarcoding, in which multiple species are computationally identified in bulk samples, can help to overcome the logistical limitations involved in sampling plant communities belowground. However, a major limitation of this methodology is the quantification of species' abundances based on the percentage of sequences assigned to each taxon. Using root tissues of five dominant species in a semi-arid Mediterranean shrubland (Bupleurum fruticescens, Helianthemum cinereum, Linum suffruticosum, Stipa pennata and Thymus vulgaris), we built pairwise mixtures of relative abundance (20%, 50% and 80% biomass), and implemented two methods (linear model fits and correction indices) to improve estimates of root biomass. We validated both methods with multispecies mixtures that simulate field-collected samples. For all species, we found a positive and highly significant relationship between the percentage of sequences and biomass in the mixtures (R2  = .44-.66), but the equations for each species (slope and intercept) differed among them, and two species were consistently over- and under-estimated. The correction indices greatly improved the estimates of biomass percentage for all five species in the multispecies mixtures, and reduced the overall error from 17% to 6%. Our results show that, through the use of post-sequencing quantification methods on mock communities, DNA metabarcoding can be effectively used to determine not only species' presence but also their relative abundance in field samples of root mixtures. Importantly, knowledge of these aspects will allow us to study key, yet poorly understood, belowground processes.


Assuntos
Biota , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/genética
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(12): 5576-5581, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833396

RESUMO

Trait-based approaches are increasingly used to predict ecological consequences of climate change, yet seldom have solid links been established between plant traits and observed climate-driven community changes. Most analyses have focused on aboveground adult plant traits, but in warming and drying climates, root traits may be critical, and seedlings may be the vulnerable stage. Relationships of seedling and root traits to more commonly measured traits and ecological outcomes are poorly known. In an annual grassland where winter drought-induced seedling mortality is driving a long-term decline in native diversity, using a field experiment during the exceptionally dry winter of 2017-2018, we found that seedling mortality was higher and growth of seedlings and adults were lower in unwatered than watered sites. Mortality of unwatered seedlings was higher in species with shorter seedling roots, and also in species with the correlated traits of small seeds, high seedling specific leaf area (SLA), and tall seedlings. Adult traits varied along an axis from short-stature, high SLA and foliar N, and early flowering to the opposite values, and were only weakly correlated with seedling traits and seedling mortality. No evidence was found for adaptive plasticity, such as longer roots or lower SLA in unwatered plants. Among these species, constitutive variation in seedling root length explained most of the variation in survival of a highly vulnerable life stage under winter drought. Selective loss of species with high adult SLA, observed in this community and others under drought stress, may be the byproduct of other correlated traits.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Secas , Pradaria , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Plântula/genética , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes , Água
5.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(4): 405-414, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In addition to the development of analytical equipment, another movement has also appeared in the field of computer assisted techniques for metabolite assessment. Although, some studies can be found in the literature there is still not available reliable and user-friendly software which is coupled with a simple chromatography method for developing a database to identify medicinal plants. OBJECTIVES: Developing a novel similarity search approach for high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting. METHODS: Combined HPTLC with image analysis approach was used for similarity assessment of 70 standard medicinal plants. Ethyl acetate-ethyl methyl ketone-formic acid 98%-water (50:30:10:10) were chosen among different examined mobile phases. Liebermann-Burchard and anisaldehyde reagents were chosen for HPTLC derivatisation for visualisation. Image analysis based on Cannys' method was used to determine the spot size of each HPTLC image. A similarity search algorithm based on colour (RGB, HSV and Lab) information alone or together with retardation factor (Rf ) and spot size information calculated with the software was built to assess the fingerprinting of medicinal plants. RESULTS: The software was capable of calculating spots size and Rf values. It authenticated unknown samples based on comparing images information, spots size and/or Rf in the built database. Similarity values were 75-96% for the selected plants chromatograms with those of the same plant in the database. It presents better results than principal components analysis (PCA), classification and regression trees (CART) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). CONCLUSION: The procedure paves the way for constructing a database of HPTLC images of medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Irã (Geográfico) , Medicina Tradicional , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Sementes/química , Sementes/classificação , Software
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(39): 10317-10326, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205680

RESUMO

The metabolite profile responsible for the quality of mandarin fruit is influenced by preharvest factors including genotype, rootstock, grove location, etc. In this paper, mandarin varieties were discriminated using metabolomics. Additionally, effects on metabolic profiles due to grove location and rootstock differences were also investigated. Results revealed that mandarin varieties could be differentiated using the metabolite profile, while the compositions of flavonoids have the potential for variety differentiation. With regard to fruits of the same variety, grove location might determine the overall profile of metabolites, whereas rootstock possibly affected composition of secondary metabolites. Pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that biosynthesis pathways of terpenoids and steroids involving limonene and linalool were highly influenced by variety diversity. Moreover, the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, involving hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, and taxifolin, was indicated to have a close relationship with rootstock differentiation. This study provides useful and important information with depth for breeding and optimizing preharvest practices.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Citrus/classificação , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Genótipo , Metabolômica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
7.
Nature ; 561(7722): 235-238, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135586

RESUMO

Roots are one of the three fundamental organ systems of vascular plants1, and have roles in anchorage, symbiosis, and nutrient and water uptake2-4. However, the fragmentary nature of the fossil record obscures the origins of roots and makes it difficult to identify when the sole defining characteristic of extant roots-the presence of self-renewing structures called root meristems that are covered by a root cap at their apex1-9-evolved. Here we report the discovery of what are-to our knowledge-the oldest meristems of rooting axes, found in the earliest-preserved terrestrial ecosystem10 (the 407-million-year-old Rhynie chert). These meristems, which belonged to the lycopsid Asteroxylon mackiei11-14, lacked root caps and instead developed a continuous epidermis over the surface of the meristem. The rooting axes and meristems of A. mackiei are unique among vascular plants. These data support the hypothesis that roots, as defined in extant vascular plants by the presence of a root cap7, were a late innovation in the vascular lineage. Roots therefore acquired traits in a stepwise fashion. The relatively late origin in lycophytes of roots with caps is consistent with the hypothesis that roots evolved multiple times2 rather than having a single origin1, and the extensive similarities between lycophyte and euphyllophyte roots15-18 therefore represent examples of convergent evolution. The key phylogenetic position of A. mackiei-with its transitional rooting organ-between early diverging land plants that lacked roots and derived plants that developed roots demonstrates how roots were 'assembled' during the course of plant evolution.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Divisão Celular , Meristema/citologia , Epiderme Vegetal/citologia
8.
Nature ; 555(7694): 94-97, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466331

RESUMO

Plant roots have greatly diversified in form and function since the emergence of the first land plants, but the global organization of functional traits in roots remains poorly understood. Here we analyse a global dataset of 10 functionally important root traits in metabolically active first-order roots, collected from 369 species distributed across the natural plant communities of 7 biomes. Our results identify a high degree of organization of root traits across species and biomes, and reveal a pattern that differs from expectations based on previous studies of leaf traits. Root diameter exerts the strongest influence on root trait variation across plant species, growth forms and biomes. Our analysis suggests that plants have evolved thinner roots since they first emerged in land ecosystems, which has enabled them to markedly improve their efficiency of soil exploration per unit of carbon invested and to reduce their dependence on symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. We also found that diversity in root morphological traits is greatest in the tropics, where plant diversity is highest and many ancestral phylogenetic groups are preserved. Diversity in root morphology declines sharply across the sequence of tropical, temperate and desert biomes, presumably owing to changes in resource supply caused by seasonally inhospitable abiotic conditions. Our results suggest that root traits have evolved along a spectrum bounded by two contrasting strategies of root life: an ancestral 'conservative' strategy in which plants with thick roots depend on symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi for soil resources and a more-derived 'opportunistic' strategy in which thin roots enable plants to more efficiently leverage photosynthetic carbon for soil exploration. These findings imply that innovations of belowground traits have had an important role in preparing plants to colonize new habitats, and in generating biodiversity within and across biomes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Carbono/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Clima Desértico , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Simbiose , Clima Tropical
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2960, 2018 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440663

RESUMO

Plant roots are a highly heterogeneous and hierarchical system. Although the root-order method is superior to the root diameter method for revealing differences in the morphology and physiology of fine roots, its complex partitioning limits its application. Whether root order can be determined by partitioning the main root based on its diameter remains uncertain. Four methods were employed for studying the morphological characteristics of seedling roots of two Pinus species in a natural and nitrogen-enriched environment. The intrinsic relationships among categories of roots by root order and diameter were systematically compared to explore the possibility of using the latter to describe root morphology. The normal transformation method proved superior to the other three in that the diameter intervals corresponded most closely (at least 68.3%) to the morphological characteristics. The applied methods clearly distinguished the results from the natural and nitrogen-rich environments. Considering both root diameter and order simplified the classification of fine roots, and improved the estimation of root lifespan and the data integrity of field collection, but failed to partition all roots into uniform diameter intervals.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Pinus/anatomia & histologia , Pinus/classificação
10.
Mol Ecol ; 27(5): 1324-1337, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419910

RESUMO

The climbing orchid Erythrorchis altissima is the largest mycoheterotroph in the world. Although previous in vitro work suggests that E. altissima has a unique symbiosis with wood-decaying fungi, little is known about how this giant orchid meets its carbon and nutrient demands exclusively via mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, the mycorrhizal fungi of E. altissima were molecularly identified using root samples from 26 individuals. Furthermore, in vitro symbiotic germination with five fungi and stable isotope compositions in five E. altissima at one site were examined. In total, 37 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to nine orders in Basidiomycota were identified from the orchid roots. Most of the fungal OTUs were wood-decaying fungi, but underground roots had ectomycorrhizal Russula. Two fungal isolates from mycorrhizal roots induced seed germination and subsequent seedling development in vitro. Measurement of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope abundances revealed that E. altissima is a full mycoheterotroph whose carbon originates mainly from wood-decaying fungi. All of the results show that E. altissima is associated with a wide range of wood- and soil-inhabiting fungi, the majority of which are wood-decaying taxa. This generalist association enables E. altissima to access a large carbon pool in woody debris and has been key to the evolution of such a large mycoheterotroph.


Assuntos
Micorrizas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/genética
11.
J Exp Bot ; 69(5): 1199-1206, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304205

RESUMO

The ability of plants to take up water from the soil depends on both the root architecture and the distribution and evolution of the hydraulic conductivities among root types and along the root length. The mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system is composed of primary, seminal, and crown roots together with their respective laterals. Our understanding of root water uptake of maize is largely based on measurements of primary and seminal roots. Crown roots might have a different ability to extract water from the soil, but their hydraulic function remains unknown. The aim of this study was to measure the location of water uptake in mature maize and investigate differences between seminal, crown, and lateral roots. Neutron radiography and injections of deuterated water were used to visualize the root architecture and water transport in 5-week-old maize root systems. Water was mainly taken up by crown roots. Seminal roots and their laterals, which were the main location of water uptake in younger plants, made a minor contribution to water uptake. In contrast to younger seminal roots, crown roots were also able to take up water from their most distal segments. The greater uptake of crown roots compared with seminal roots is explained by their higher axial conductivity in the proximal parts and by the fact that they are connected to the shoot above the seminal roots, which favors the propagation of xylem tension along the crown roots. The deeper water uptake of crown roots is explained by their shorter and fewer laterals, which decreases the dissipation of water potential along the roots.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Óxido de Deutério/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Radiografia
12.
Ann Bot ; 121(2): 267-280, 2018 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351588

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Roots facilitate acquisition of macro- and micronutrients, which are crucial for plant productivity and anchorage in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is rapidly immobilized in the soil and hardly available for plants. Adaptation to P scarcity relies on changes in root morphology towards rooting systems well suited for topsoil foraging. Root-system architecture (RSA) defines the spatial organization of the network comprising primary, lateral and stem-derived roots and is important for adaptation to stress conditions. RSA phenotyping is a challenging task and essential for understanding root development. Methods: In this study, 19 traits describing RSA were analysed in a diversity panel comprising 194 sorghum genotypes, fingerprinted with a 90-k single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and grown under low and high P availability. Key Results: Multivariate analysis was conducted and revealed three different RSA types: (1) a small root system; (2) a compact and bushy rooting type; and (3) an exploratory root system, which might benefit plant growth and development if water, nitrogen (N) or P availability is limited. While several genotypes displayed similar rooting types in different environments, others responded to P scarcity positively by developing more exploratory root systems, or negatively with root growth suppression. Genome-wide association studies revealed significant quantitative trait loci (P < 2.9 × 10-6) on chromosomes SBI-02, SBI-03, SBI-05 and SBI-09. Co-localization of significant and suggestive (P < 5.7 × 10-5) associations for several traits indicated hotspots controlling root-system development on chromosomes SBI-02 and SBI-03. Conclusions: Sorghum genotypes with a compact, bushy and shallow root system provide potential adaptation to P scarcity in the field by allowing thorough topsoil foraging, while genotypes with an exploratory root system may be advantageous if N or water is the limiting factor, although such genotypes showed highest P uptake levels under the artificial conditions of the present study.


Assuntos
Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Sorghum/anatomia & histologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Solo , Sorghum/classificação , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo
13.
Gigascience ; 6(10): 1-10, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020747

RESUMO

In plant phenotyping, it has become important to be able to measure many features on large image sets in order to aid genetic discovery. The size of the datasets, now often captured robotically, often precludes manual inspection, hence the motivation for finding a fully automated approach. Deep learning is an emerging field that promises unparalleled results on many data analysis problems. Building on artificial neural networks, deep approaches have many more hidden layers in the network, and hence have greater discriminative and predictive power. We demonstrate the use of such approaches as part of a plant phenotyping pipeline. We show the success offered by such techniques when applied to the challenging problem of image-based plant phenotyping and demonstrate state-of-the-art results (>97% accuracy) for root and shoot feature identification and localization. We use fully automated trait identification using deep learning to identify quantitative trait loci in root architecture datasets. The majority (12 out of 14) of manually identified quantitative trait loci were also discovered using our automated approach based on deep learning detection to locate plant features. We have shown deep learning-based phenotyping to have very good detection and localization accuracy in validation and testing image sets. We have shown that such features can be used to derive meaningful biological traits, which in turn can be used in quantitative trait loci discovery pipelines. This process can be completely automated. We predict a paradigm shift in image-based phenotyping bought about by such deep learning approaches, given sufficient training sets.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Brotos de Planta/classificação , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/classificação , Triticum/genética
14.
Chin J Nat Med ; 15(5): 363-374, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558872

RESUMO

Astragali Radix (AR) is one of the most popular herbal medicines in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Wild AR is believed to be of high quality, and substitution with cultivated AR is frequently encountered in the market. In the present study, two types of ARs (wild and cultivated) from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, growing in different regions of China, were analyzed by NMR profiling coupled with multivariate analysis. Results showed that both could be differentiated successfully and cultivation patterns or growing years might have greater impact on the metabolite compositions than the variety; the metabolites responsible for the separation were identified. In addition, three extraction methods were compared and the method (M1) was used for further analysis. In M1, the extraction solvent composed of water, methanol, and chloroform in the ratio of 1 : 1 : 2 was used to obtain the aqueous methanol (upper layer) and chloroform (lower layer) fractions, respectively, showing the best separation. The differential metabolites among different methods were also revealed. Moreover, the sucrose/glucose ratio could be used as a simple index to differentiate wild and cultivated AR. Meanwhile, the changes of correlation pattern among the differential metabolites of the two varieties were found. The work demonstrated that NMR-based non-targeted profiling approach, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, can be used as a powerful tool for differentiating AR of different cultivation types or growing years.


Assuntos
Astragalus propinquus/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Astragalus propinquus/classificação , Astragalus propinquus/metabolismo , China , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(30): 6298-6306, 2017 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530408

RESUMO

Ginseng represents a set of high-value medicinal plants of different species: Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng), Panax notoginseng (Chinese ginseng), Panax japonicus (Bamboo ginseng), and Panax vietnamensis (Vietnamese ginseng). Each species is pharmacologically and economically important, with differences in efficacy and price. Accordingly, an authentication system is needed to combat economically motivated adulteration of Panax products. We conducted comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome sequences of these five species, identifying 34-124 InDels and 141-560 SNPs. Fourteen InDel markers were developed to authenticate the Panax species. Among these, eight were species-unique markers that successfully differentiated one species from the others. We generated at least one species-unique marker for each of the five species, and any of the species can be authenticated by selection among these markers. The markers are reliable, easily detectable, and valuable for applications in the ginseng industry as well as in related research.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Panax/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Panax/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
BMC Ecol ; 17(1): 3, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous multi-locus lineage (MLL) analysis of SSR-microsatellite data of old olive trees in the southeast Mediterranean area had shown the predominance of the Souri cultivar (MLL1) among grafted trees. The MLL analysis had also identified an MLL (MLL7) that was more common among rootstocks than other MLLs. We here present a comparison of the MLL combinations MLL1 (scion)/MLL7 (rootstock) and MLL1/MLL1 in order to investigate the possible influence of rootstock on scion phenotype. RESULTS: A linear regression analysis demonstrated that the abundance of MLL1/MLL7 trees decreases and of MLL1/MLL1 trees increases along a gradient of increasing aridity. Hypothesizing that grafting on MLL7 provides an advantage under certain conditions, Akaike information criterion (AIC) model selection procedure was used to assess the influence of different environmental conditions on phenotypic characteristics of the fruits and oil of the two MLL combinations. The most parsimonious models indicated differential influences of environmental conditions on parameters of olive oil quality in trees belonging to the MLL1/MLL7 and MLL1/MLL1 combinations, but a similar influence on fruit characteristics and oil content. These results suggest that in certain environments grafting of the local Souri cultivar on MLL7 rootstocks and the MLL1/MLL1 combination result in improved oil quality. The decreasing number of MLL1/MLL7 trees along an aridity gradient suggests that use of this genotype combination in arid sites was not favoured because of sensitivity of MLL7 to drought. CONCLUSIONS: Our results thus suggest that MLL1/MLL7 and MLL1/MLL1 combinations were selected by growers in traditional rain-fed cultivation under Mediterranean climate conditions in the southeast Mediterranean area.


Assuntos
Olea/genética , Árvores/genética , Secas , Ecologia , Genótipo , Região do Mediterrâneo , Olea/classificação , Olea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/classificação , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0169968, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28103264

RESUMO

Quantitative study of root morphological characteristics of plants is helpful for understanding the relationships between their morphology and function. However, few studies and little detailed and accurate information of root characteristics were reported in fine-rooted plants like rice (Oryza sativa L.). The aims of this study were to quantitatively classify fine lateral roots (FLRs), thick lateral roots (TLRs), and nodal roots (NRs) and analyze their dynamics of mean diameter (MD), lengths and surface area percentage with growth stages in rice plant. Pot experiments were carried out during three years with three rice cultivars, three nitrogen (N) rates and three water regimes. In cultivar experiment, among the three cultivars, root length of 'Yangdao 6' was longest, while the MD of its FLR was the smallest, and the mean diameters for TLR and NR were the largest, the surface area percentage (SAP) of TLRs (SAPT) was the highest, indicating that Yangdao 6 has better nitrogen and water uptake ability. High N rate increased the length of different types of roots and increased the MD of lateral roots, decreased the SAP of FLRs (SAPF) and TLRs, but increased the SAP of NRs (SAPN). Moderate decrease of water supply increased root length and diameter, water stress increased the SAPF and SAPT, but decreased SAPN. The quantitative results indicate that rice plant tends to increase lateral roots to get more surface area for nitrogen and water uptake when available assimilates are limiting under nitrogen and water stress environments.


Assuntos
Oryza/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
J Nat Prod ; 79(12): 3134-3142, 2016 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27966950

RESUMO

Eighteen compounds, including eight new cassane-type furanoditerpenoids, 3ß-hydroxyphanginin H (1), 3ß-acetoxyphanginin H (2), 7ß-acetoxyphanginin H (3), 7ß-hydroxyphanginin H (4), 4-epi-3ß-hydroxycaesalpinilinn (5), 4-epi-3ß-acetoxycaesalpinilinn (6), 20-acetoxytaepeenin D (7), and tomocin E (8), along with 10 known compounds (9-18) were isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia decapetala. Compounds 1-13 were isolated from C. decapetala for the first time. The new compounds with their absolute configurations were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compounds 1, 4, 5, 7, and 11 exhibited inhibitory activities against the SW1990 human pancreatic cancer cell line with IC50 values ranging from 2.9 to 8.9 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Caesalpinia/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Sementes/química
19.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 415-422, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-787949

RESUMO

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antibacteriano e tripanocida in vitro do extrato hidroalcóolico das raízes de Tradescantia sillamontana Matuda (Commelinaceae), conhecida popularmente como veludo branco. Foi avaliada a atividade antibacteriana in vitro frente às bactérias Streptococcus mitis (CIM = 100 µg/mL; CMB = 150 µg/mL), Streptococcus mutans (CIM = 200 µg/mL; CMB = 220 µg/mL), Streptococcus sanguinis (CIM = 400 µg/mL; CMB = 425 µg/mL), Streptococcus sobrinus (CIM = 400 µg/mL; CMB = 420 µg/mL) e Bacteroides fragilis (CIM = 400 µg/mL; CMB = 430 µg/mL) pelo método de diluição em caldo. Os protozoários da família tripanossomatídeo causam doenças tropicais que costumam ser negligenciadas que costumam ser como a tripanossomíase, para a qual estão disponíveis poucos medicamentos. Neste contexto, o extrato hidroalcóolico das raízes de T. sillamontana também foi avaliado frente às formas tripomastigotas da cepa Y de Trypanosoma cruzi, com promissora atividade frente a este protozoário (IC50 = 2,4 µg/mL). Quando avaliada a atividade citotóxica frente a fibroblastos da linhagem LLCMK2, o extrato apresentou moderada citotoxicidade (CC50 = 480,37 µg/mL). Os resultados ora apresentados para o extrato hidroalcóolico das raízes de Tradescantia sillamontana Matuda demonstraram promissoras atividades antibacteriana e tripanocida, sendo uma fonte alternativa de produtos naturais com atividades contra T. cruzi e algumas bactérias do gênero Streptococcus e Bacteroides.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro, antibacterial and trypanocidal effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from the roots of Tradescantia sillamontana Matuda (Commelinaceae), commonly known as Veludo branco. The in vitro antibacterial activity against the standard bacteria Streptococcus mitis (MIC = 100µg/mL; MBC = 150 µg/mL), Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200µg/mL; MBC = 220 µg/mL), Streptococcus sanguinis (MIC = 400µg/mL; MBC = 425 µg/mL), Streptococcus sobrinus (MIC = 400µg/mL; MBC = 420 µg/mL) andBacteroides fragilis (MIC = 400µg/mL; MBC = 430 µg/mL), using microdilution broth methods. Protozoans from the trypanosomatid family cause neglected tropical diseases such as trypanosomiasis, for which few drugs are available. In this context, the hydroalcoholic extract of the Tradescantia sillamontana roots was also investigated with regards to the in vitro effects against the trypomastigote forms of theY strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, showing strong activity against this parasite (IC50 = 2.4 µg/mL). When performing cytotoxic activity against fibroblasts LLCMK2 line, the extract showed moderate cytotoxicity (CC50 = 480.37 mg/mL). The results presented for the hydroalcoholic extract of the roots of Tradescantia sillamontana Matuda demonstrated effective antibacterial and trypanocidal activities and were shown to be an alternative source of natural products with activity against T. cruzi and some bacteria of the genus Streptococcus and Bacteroides.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto/análise , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Tradescantia/classificação , Tripanossomicidas/análise , Commelinaceae/classificação
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 27(1): 59-63, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27228593

RESUMO

Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Raízes de Plantas/classificação , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antocianinas/química , China , Clima , Fenóis/química , Taninos/química
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