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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 414, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adventitious root formation is considered a major developmental step during the propagation of difficult to root plants, especially in horticultural crops. Recently, adventitious roots induced through plant tissue culture methods have also been used for production of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, anthocyanins and anthraquinones. It is rather well understood which horticultural species will easily form adventitious roots, but the factors affecting this process at molecular level or regulating the induction process in in vitro conditions are far less known. The present study was conducted to identify transcripts involved in in vitro induction and formation of adventitious roots using Arnebia euchroma leaves at different time points (intact leaf (control), 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, 10 d and 15 d). A. euchroma is an endangered medicinal Himalayan herb whose root contains red naphthoquinone pigments. These phytoconstituents are widely used as an herbal ingredient in Asian traditional medicine as well as natural colouring agent in food and cosmetics. RESULTS: A total of 137.93 to 293.76 million raw reads were generated and assembled to 54,587 transcripts with average length of 1512.27 bps and N50 of 2193 bps, respectively. In addition, 50,107 differentially expressed genes were identified and found to be involved in plant hormone signal transduction, cell wall modification and wound induced mitogen activated protein kinase signalling. The data exhibited dominance of auxin responsive (AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8, IAA13, GRETCHEN HAGEN3.1) and sucrose translocation (BETA-31 FRUCTOFURANOSIDASE and MONOSACCHARIDE-SENSING protein1) genes during induction phase. In the initiation phase, the expression of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN16, EXPANSIN-B15, ENDOGLUCANASE25 and LEUCINE-rich repeat EXTENSION-like proteins was increased. During the expression phase, the same transcripts, with exception of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN16 were identified. Overall, the transcriptomic analysis revealed a similar patterns of genes, however, their expression level varied in subsequent phases of in vitro adventitious root formation in A. euchroma. CONCLUSION: The results presented here will be helpful in understanding key regulators of in vitro adventitious root development in Arnebia species, which may be deployed in the future for phytochemical production at a commercial scale.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae/genética , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Boraginaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Indóis/farmacologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445398

RESUMO

Gibberellins (GAs) are an important group of phytohormones associated with diverse growth and developmental processes, including cell elongation, seed germination, and secondary growth. Recent genomic and genetic analyses have advanced our knowledge of GA signaling pathways and related genes in model plant species. However, functional genomics analyses of GA signaling pathways in Panax ginseng, a perennial herb, have rarely been carried out, despite its well-known economical and medicinal importance. Here, we conducted functional characterization of GA receptors and investigated their physiological roles in the secondary growth of P. ginseng storage roots. We found that the physiological and genetic functions of P. ginseng gibberellin-insensitive dwarf1s (PgGID1s) have been evolutionarily conserved. Additionally, the essential domains and residues in the primary protein structure for interaction with active GAs and DELLA proteins are well-conserved. Overexpression of PgGID1s in Arabidopsis completely restored the GA deficient phenotype of the Arabidopsis gid1a gid1c (atgid1a/c) double mutant. Exogenous GA treatment greatly enhanced the secondary growth of tap roots; however, paclobutrazol (PCZ), a GA biosynthetic inhibitor, reduced root growth in P. ginseng. Transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng roots revealed that GA-induced root secondary growth is closely associated with cell wall biogenesis, the cell cycle, the jasmonic acid (JA) response, and nitrate assimilation, suggesting that a transcriptional network regulate root secondary growth in P. ginseng. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism controlling secondary root growth in P. ginseng.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Panax/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 398, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The root distribution in the soil is one of the elements that comprise the root system architecture (RSA). In monocots, RSA comprises radicle and crown roots, each of which can be basically represented by a single curve with lateral root branches or approximated using a polyline. Moreover, RSA vectorization (polyline conversion) is useful for RSA phenotyping. However, a robust software that can enable RSA vectorization while using noisy three-dimensional (3D) volumes is unavailable. RESULTS: We developed RSAtrace3D, which is a robust 3D RSA vectorization software for monocot RSA phenotyping. It manages the single root (radicle or crown root) as a polyline (a vector), and the set of the polylines represents the entire RSA. RSAtrace3D vectorizes root segments between the two ends of a single root. By utilizing several base points on the root, RSAtrace3D suits noisy images if it is difficult to vectorize it using only two end nodes of the root. Additionally, by employing a simple tracking algorithm that uses the center of gravity (COG) of the root voxels to determine the tracking direction, RSAtrace3D efficiently vectorizes the roots. Thus, RSAtrace3D represents the single root shape more precisely than straight lines or spline curves. As a case study, rice (Oryza sativa) RSA was vectorized from X-ray computed tomography (CT) images, and RSA traits were calculated. In addition, varietal differences in RSA traits were observed. The vector data were 32,000 times more compact than raw X-ray CT images. Therefore, this makes it easier to share data and perform re-analyses. For example, using data from previously conducted studies. For monocot plants, the vectorization and phenotyping algorithm are extendable and suitable for numerous applications. CONCLUSIONS: RSAtrace3D is an RSA vectorization software for 3D RSA phenotyping for monocots. Owing to the high expandability of the RSA vectorization and phenotyping algorithm, RSAtrace3D can be applied not only to rice in X-ray CT images but also to other monocots in various 3D images. Since this software is written in Python language, it can be easily modified and will be extensively applied by researchers in this field.


Assuntos
Oryza/anatomia & histologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Software , Algoritmos , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360759

RESUMO

Salt and osmotic stress are the main abiotic stress factors affecting plant root growth and architecture. We investigated the effect of salt (100 mM NaCl) and osmotic (200 mM mannitol) stress on the auxin metabolome by UHPLC-MS/MS, auxin distribution by confocal microscopy, and transcript levels of selected genes by qRT-PCR in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0 (Col-0) and DR5rev::GFP (DR5) line. During long-term stress (13 days), a stability of the auxin metabolome and a tendency to increase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were observed, especially during salt stress. Short-term stress (3 h) caused significant changes in the auxin metabolome, especially NaCl treatment resulted in a significant reduction of IAA. The data derived from auxin profiling were consistent with gene expressions showing the most striking changes in the transcripts of YUC, GH3, and UGT transcripts, suggesting disruption of auxin biosynthesis, but especially in the processes of amide and ester conjugation. These data were consistent with the auxin distribution observed in the DR5 line. Moreover, NaCl treatment caused a redistribution of auxin signals from the quiescent center and the inner layers of the root cap to the epidermal and cortical cells of the root elongation zone. The distribution of PIN proteins was also disrupted by salt stress; in particular, PIN2 was suppressed, even after 5 min of treatment. Based on our results, the DR5 line was more sensitive to the applied stresses than Col-0, although both lines showed similar trends in root morphology, as well as transcriptome and metabolome parameters under stress conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/biossíntese , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443479

RESUMO

Cannabis sativa L. has been used for a long time to obtain food, fiber, and as a medicinal and psychoactive plant. Today, the nutraceutical potential of C.sativa is being increasingly reappraised; however, C. sativa roots remain poorly studied, despite citations in the scientific literature. In this direction, we identified and quantified the presence of valuable bioactives (namely, ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, friedelin, and epi-friedelanol) in the root extracts of C. sativa, a finding which might pave the way to the exploitation of the therapeutic potential of all parts of the C. sativa plant. To facilitate root harvesting and processing, aeroponic (AP) and aeroponic-elicited cultures (AEP) were established and compared to soil-cultivated plants (SP). Interestingly, considerably increased plant growth-particularly of the roots-and a significant increase (up to 20-fold in the case of ß-sitosterol) in the total content of the aforementioned roots' bioactive molecules were observed in AP and AEP. In conclusion, aeroponics, an easy, standardized, contaminant-free cultivation technique, facilitates the harvesting/processing of roots along with a greater production of their secondary bioactive metabolites, which could be utilized in the formulation of health-promoting and health-care products.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia , Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/análise , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sitosteroides/análise , Estigmasterol/análise , Triterpenos/análise
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360850

RESUMO

Autophagy is a conserved degradation pathway for recycling damaged organelles and aberrant proteins, and its important roles in plant adaptation to nutrient starvation have been generally reported. Previous studies found that overexpression of autophagy-related (ATG) gene MdATG10 enhanced the autophagic activity in apple roots and promoted their salt tolerance. The MdATG10 expression was induced by nitrogen depletion condition in both leaves and roots of apple plants. This study aimed to investigate the differences in the growth and physiological status between wild type and MdATG10-overexpressing apple plants in response to nitrogen starvation. A hydroponic system containing different nitrogen levels was used. The study found that the reduction in growth and nitrogen concentrations in different tissues caused by nitrogen starvation was relieved by MdATG10 overexpression. Further studies demonstrated the increased root growth and the higher nitrogen absorption and assimilation ability of transgenic plants. These characteristics contributed to the increased uptake of limited nitrogen nutrients by transgenic plants, which also reduced the starvation damage to the chloroplasts. Therefore, the MdATG10-overexpressing apple plants could maintain higher photosynthetic ability and possess better growth under nitrogen starvation stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Autofagia , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361755

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, and Zn deficiency is a global issue, especially in tropical soils. This study aimed to investigate the effects of humic acid (HA) and the Zn addition (Zn sulfate + HA) on the growth of maize and brachiaria in two contrasting Oxisols. The potential complexation of Zn sulfate by HA was evaluated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. Zinc content and its availability in solution and the shoot and root biomass of maize and brachiaria were determined. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the complexation of Zn sulfate by HA through its S and C functional groups. In both Oxisols, solution Zn increased due to the combined use of Zn and HA. In a soil type-dependent manner, maize biomass and Zn in its shoots were affected only by the exclusive use of Zn fertilization. In the Yellow Oxisol, brachiaria growth and Zn accumulated in its shoot were positively affected by the combined use of Zn fertilization with HA. In the Oxisol with lower organic matter content, HA can assure adequate supplying of residual Zn, while increasing growth of brachiaria cultivated in sequence to maize.


Assuntos
Brachiaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo/química , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia , Brachiaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Fertilizantes/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sulfato de Zinco/análise , Sulfato de Zinco/química
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445508

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of root-restriction cultivation on the root architecture, endogenous strigolactone (SL) content, and SL-related genes expression in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In addition, we clarified the effects of synthetic SL analog GR24 application on grapevine roots to explore the role of SLs in their development. The results showed that the root architecture changed significantly under root-restriction cultivation. At 40 days after transplantation (DAT), the contents of two types of SLs in roots under root restriction were both significantly lower than that in roots of the control. SL content was significantly positively correlated with the expression levels of VvCCD8 and VvD27, indicating that they play vital roles in SLs synthesis. After GR24 treatment for 20 days, the root length was significantly shorter than in the control. A low concentration (0.1 µM) of GR24 significantly reduced the root diameter and increased the fine-root density, while a high concentration (10 µM) of GR24 significantly reduced the lateral root (LR) length and increased the LR density. Concomitantly, GR24 (0.1 µM) reduced endogenous SL content. After GR24 treatment for 5 days, the total content of two tested SLs was highly positively correlated with the expression levels of VvDAD2, whereas it was highly negatively correlated with VvSMAXL4 at 20 days after GR24 treatment. This study helps to clarify the internal mechanism of root-restriction cultivation affecting the changes in grapevine root architecture, as well as further explore the important role of SLs in the growth of grapevine roots in response to root-restriction treatment.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dioxigenases/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445541

RESUMO

Mallotus japonicus is a valuable traditional medicinal plant in East Asia for applications as a gastrointestinal drug. However, the molecular components involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites have not yet been explored, primarily due to a lack of omics resources. In this study, we established metabolome and transcriptome resources for M. japonicus to capture the diverse metabolite constituents and active transcripts involved in its biosynthesis and regulation. A combination of untargeted metabolite profiling with data-dependent metabolite fragmentation and metabolite annotation through manual curation and feature-based molecular networking established an overall metabospace of M. japonicus represented by 2129 metabolite features. M. japonicus de novo transcriptome assembly showed 96.9% transcriptome completeness, representing 226,250 active transcripts across seven tissues. We identified specialized metabolites biosynthesis in a tissue-specific manner, with a strong correlation between transcripts expression and metabolite accumulations in M. japonicus. The correlation- and network-based integration of metabolome and transcriptome datasets identified candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of key specialized metabolites of M. japonicus. We further used phylogenetic analysis to identify 13 C-glycosyltransferases and 11 methyltransferases coding candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of medicinally important bergenin. This study provides comprehensive, high-quality multi-omics resources to further investigate biological properties of specialized metabolites biosynthesis in M. japonicus.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mallotus (Planta)/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mallotus (Planta)/genética , Mallotus (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445112

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid phytohormones that are known to regulate plant growth and nutrient uptake and distribution. However, how BRs regulate nutrient uptake and balance in legume species is not fully understood. Here, we show that optimal BR levels are required for soybean (Glycine max L.) seedling growth, as treatments with both 24-epicastasterone (24-epiCS) and the BR biosynthesis inhibitor propiconazole (PPZ) inhibit root growth, including primary root elongation and lateral root formation and elongation. Specifically, 24-epiCS and PPZ reduced the total phosphorus and potassium levels in the shoot and affected several minor nutrients, such as magnesium, iron, manganese, and molybdenum. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis identified 3774 and 4273 differentially expressed genes in the root tip after brassinolide and PPZ treatments, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that genes related to "DNA-replication", "microtubule-based movement", and "plant-type cell wall organization" were highly responsive to the brassinolide and PPZ treatments. Furthermore, consistent with the effects on the nutrient concentrations, corresponding mineral transporters were found to be regulated by BR levels, including the GmPHT1s, GmKTs, GmVIT2, GmZIPs, and GmMOT1 genes. Our study demonstrates that optimal BR levels are important for growth and mineral nutrient homeostasis in soybean seedlings.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Colestanóis/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360660

RESUMO

Salvia miltiorrhiza is a renowned model medicinal plant species for which 15 SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) family genes have been identified; however, the specific functions of SmSPLs have not been well characterized as of yet. For this study, the expression patterns of SmSPL6 were determined through its responses to treatments of exogenous hormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA), and abscisic acid (ABA). To characterize its functionality, we obtained SmSPL6-ovexpressed transgenic S. miltiorrhiza plants and found that overexpressed SmSPL6 promoted the accumulation of phenolic acids and repressed the biosynthesis of anthocyanin. Meanwhile, the root lengths of the SmSPL6-overexpressed lines were significantly longer than the control; however, both the fresh weights and lateral root numbers decreased. Further investigations indicated that SmSPL6 regulated the biosynthesis of phenolic acid by directly binding to the promoter regions of the enzyme genes Sm4CL9 and SmCYP98A14 and activated their expression. We concluded that SmSPL6 regulates not only the biosynthesis of phenolic acids, but also the development of roots in S. miltiorrhiza.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Organogênese Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia miltiorrhiza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 73-88, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270005

RESUMO

In the context of plant regeneration, in vitro systems to produce embryos are frequently used. In many of these protocols, nonzygotic embryos are initiated that will produce shoot-like structures but may lack a primary root. By increasing the auxin-to-cytokinin ratio in the growth medium, roots are then regenerated in a second step. Therefore, in vitro systems might not or only partially execute a similar developmental program as employed during zygotic embryogenesis. There are, however, in vitro systems that can remarkably mimic zygotic embryogenesis such as Brassica microspore-derived embryos. In this case, the patterning process of these haploid embryos closely follows zygotic embryogenesis and all fundamental tissue types are generated in a rather similar manner. In this review, we discuss the most fundamental molecular events during early zygotic embryogenesis and hope that this brief summary can serve as a reference for studying and developing in vitro embryogenesis systems in the context of doubled haploid production.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/embriologia , Padronização Corporal/genética , Padronização Corporal/fisiologia , Brassicaceae/embriologia , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Regeneração/genética , Regeneração/fisiologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco/genética , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Zigoto
13.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205855

RESUMO

Nitrate (NO3-) plays a pivotal role in stimulating lateral root (LR) formation and growth in plants. However, the role of NO3- in modulating rice LR formation and the signalling pathways involved in this process remain unclear. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of rice were used to explore the role of strigolactones (SLs) and auxin in NO3--modulated LR formation in rice. Compared with ammonium (NH4+), NO3- stimulated LR initiation due to higher short-term root IAA levels. However, this stimulation vanished after 7 d, and the LR density was reduced, in parallel with the auxin levels. Application of the exogenous auxin α-naphthylacetic acid to NH4+-treated rice plants promoted LR initiation to levels similar to those under NO3- at 7 d; conversely, the application of the SL analogue GR24 to NH4+-treated rice inhibited LR initiation to levels similar to those under NO3- supply by reducing the root auxin levels at 10 d. D10 and D14 mutations caused loss of sensitivity of the LR formation response to NO3-. The application of NO3- and GR24 downregulated the transcription of PIN-FORMED 2(PIN2), an auxin efflux carrier in roots. LR number and density in pin2 mutant lines were insensitive to NO3- treatment. These results indicate that NO3- modulates LR formation by affecting the auxin response and transport in rice, with the involvement of SLs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Nitratos/farmacologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/farmacologia , Mutação , Ácidos Naftalenoacéticos/farmacologia , Nitratos/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
14.
Development ; 148(14)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251020

RESUMO

Cell wall remodeling is essential for the control of growth and development as well as the regulation of stress responses. However, the underlying cell wall monitoring mechanisms remain poorly understood. Regulation of root hair fate and flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana requires signaling mediated by the atypical receptor kinase STRUBBELIG (SUB). Furthermore, SUB is involved in cell wall integrity signaling and regulates the cellular response to reduced levels of cellulose, a central component of the cell wall. Here, we show that continuous exposure to sub-lethal doses of the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor isoxaben results in altered root hair patterning and floral morphogenesis. Genetically impairing cellulose biosynthesis also results in root hair patterning defects. We further show that isoxaben exerts its developmental effects through the attenuation of SUB signaling. Our evidence indicates that downregulation of SUB is a multi-step process and involves changes in SUB complex architecture at the plasma membrane, enhanced removal of SUB from the cell surface, and downregulation of SUB transcript levels. The results provide molecular insight into how the cell wall regulates cell fate and tissue morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Morfogênese/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281238

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of different light spectra (white light; WL, blue light; BL and red light; RL) on the root morphological traits and metabolites accumulation and biosynthesis in Sarcandra glabra. We performed transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling by RNA-seq and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS), respectively. When morphological features were compared to WL, BL substantially increased under-ground fresh weight, root length, root surface area, and root volume, while RL inhibited these indices. A total of 433 metabolites were identified, of which 40, 18, and 68 compounds differentially accumulated in roots under WL (WG) vs. roots under BL (BG), WG vs. roots under RL (RG), and RG vs. BG, respectively. In addition, the contents of sinapyl alcohol, sinapic acid, fraxetin, and 6-methylcoumarin decreased significantly in BG and RG. In contrast, chlorogenic acid, rosmarinyl glucoside, quercitrin and quercetin were increased considerably in BG. Furthermore, the contents of eight terpenoids compounds significantly reduced in BG. Following transcriptomic profiling, several key genes related to biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived and terpenoids metabolites were differentially expressed, such as caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase) (COMT), hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT), O-methyltransferase (OMT), and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthetase (DXS). In summary, our findings showed that BL was suitable for growth and accumulation of bioactive metabolites in root tissue of S. glabra. Exposure to a higher ratio of BL might have the potential to improve the production and quality of S. glabra seedlings, but this needs to be confirmed further.


Assuntos
Cor , Magnoliopsida/efeitos da radiação , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos da radiação , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281242

RESUMO

Cultivars with efficient root systems play a major role in enhancing resource use efficiency, particularly water absorption, and thus in drought tolerance. In this study, a diverse wheat association panel of 136 wheat accessions including mini core subset was genotyped using Axiom 35k Breeders' Array to identify genomic regions associated with seedling stage root architecture and shoot traits using multi-locus genome-wide association studies (ML-GWAS). The association panel revealed a wide variation of 1.5- to 50-fold and were grouped into six clusters based on 15 traits. Six different ML-GWAS models revealed 456 significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) for various traits with phenotypic variance in the range of 0.12-38.60%. Of these, 87 QTNs were repeatedly detected by two or more models and were considered reliable genomic regions for the respective traits. Among these QTNs, eleven were associated with average diameter and nine each for second order lateral root number (SOLRN), root volume (RV) and root length density (RLD). A total of eleven genomic regions were pleiotropic and each controlled two or three traits. Some important candidate genes such as Formin homology 1, Ubiquitin-like domain superfamily and ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase were identified from the associated genomic regions. The genomic regions/genes identified in this study could potentially be targeted for improving root traits and drought tolerance in wheat.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Osmorregulação/genética , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Secas , Variação Genética , Poliploidia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205973

RESUMO

The Arabidopsis AtCRK5 protein kinase is involved in the establishment of the proper auxin gradient in many developmental processes. Among others, the Atcrk5-1 mutant was reported to exhibit a delayed gravitropic response via compromised PIN2-mediated auxin transport at the root tip. Here, we report that this phenotype correlates with lower superoxide anion (O2•-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels but a higher nitric oxide (NO) content in the mutant root tips in comparison to the wild type (AtCol-0). The oxidative stress inducer paraquat (PQ) triggering formation of O2•- (and consequently, H2O2) was able to rescue the gravitropic response of Atcrk5-1 roots. The direct application of H2O2 had the same effect. Under gravistimulation, correct auxin distribution was restored (at least partially) by PQ or H2O2 treatment in the mutant root tips. In agreement, the redistribution of the PIN2 auxin efflux carrier was similar in the gravistimulated PQ-treated mutant and untreated wild type roots. It was also found that PQ-treatment decreased the endogenous NO level at the root tip to normal levels. Furthermore, the mutant phenotype could be reverted by direct manipulation of the endogenous NO level using an NO scavenger (cPTIO). The potential involvement of AtCRK5 protein kinase in the control of auxin-ROS-NO-PIN2-auxin regulatory loop is discussed.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte Biológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravitação , Gravitropismo/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Paraquat/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206144

RESUMO

The Casparian strip domain protein 1 (OsCASP1) is necessary for the formation of the Casparian strip (CS) in the rice endodermis. It also controls Ca2+ transport to the stele. Here, we demonstrated that OsCASP1 overexpression enhanced Ca tolerance in rice. Under normal conditions, OsCASP1-overexpressed lines showed similar concentrations of essential metals in the roots and shoots compared to the wild type, while under high Ca conditions, Ca in the roots, shoots, and xylem sap of the OsCASP1-overexpressed lines was significantly decreased. This did not apply to other essential metals. Ca-inhibited growth was significantly alleviated in the OsCASP1-overexpressed lines. Furthermore, OsCASP1 overexpression resulted in earlier formation of both the CS and functional apoplastic barrier in the endodermis but did not induce ectopic CS formation in non-endodermal cell layers and affect suberin accumulation in the endodermis. These results indicate that the overexpression of OsCASP1 promotes CS formation in endodermal cells and inhibits Ca2+ transport by the apoplastic pathway, restricting Ca accumulation in the roots and shoots under high Ca conditions. Taken together, the results suggest that OsCASP1 overexpression is an effective way to improve rice adaptation to high Ca environments.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Caspase 1/genética , Oryza/genética , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299156

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression involved in plant development and abiotic stress responses. Recently, miRNAs have also been reported to be engaged in the regulation of secondary plant metabolism. However, there are few functional studies of miRNAs in medicinal plants. For this study, we obtained Sm-miR408 interference lines to investigate the function of Sm-miR408 in a medicinal model plant (Salvia miltiorrhiza). It was found that inhibiting the expression of Sm-miR408 could increase the content of salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid in the roots. The SmLAC3 and Sm-miR408 expression patterns were analyzed by qRT-PCR. A 5' RLM-RACE assay confirmed that Sm-miR408 targets and negatively regulates SmLAC3. Moreover, the overexpression of SmLAC3 in S. miltiorrhiza promoted the accumulation of salvianolic acids in the roots. Furthermore, the lignin content of the roots in overexpressed SmLAC3 lines was decreased. Taken together, these findings indicated that Sm-miR408 modulates the accumulation of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza by targeting SmLAC3 expression levels.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia miltiorrhiza/genética , Salvia miltiorrhiza/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 332, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pogoniopsis schenckii Cogn. is a mycoheterotrophic orchid that can be used as a model to understand the influence of mycoheterotrophy at different stages of the reproductive cycle. We aimed to verify the presence of endophytic and epiphytic fungi at each stage of the reproductive process and investigated how the breeding system may relate to genetic structure and diversity of populations. In this study we performed anatomical and ultrastructural analyses of the reproductive organs, field tests to confirm the breeding system, and molecular analysis to assess genetic diversity and structure of populations. RESULTS: During the development of the pollen grain, embryo sac and embryogenesis, no fungal infestation was observed. The presence of endophytic fungal hyphae was observed just within floral stems and indehiscent fruit. Beyond assuring the presence of fungus that promote seed germination, specific fungi hyphae in the fruit may affect other process, such as fruit ripening. As other mycoheterotrophic orchids, P. schenckii is autogamous, which may explain the low genetic diversity and high genetic structure in populations. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss an interesting interaction: fungal hyphae in the indehiscent fruit. These fungal hyphae seem to play different roles inside fruit tissues, such as acting in the fruit maturation process and increasing the proximity between fungi and plant seeds even before dispersion occurs. As other mycoheterotrophic orchids, P. schenckii is autogamous, which may explain the low genetic diversity and high genetic structure in populations. Altogether, our findings provide important novel information about the mechanisms shaping ecology and evolution of fragmented populations of mycoheterotrophic plant.


Assuntos
Micorrizas/genética , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orchidaceae/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Reprodução/genética , Simbiose/genética , Brasil , DNA Fúngico , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
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