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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 373, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of severed rootstocks and shoots to re-establish vascular connections is used to generate grafted plants that combine desirable traits from both scions and rootstocks. Clarifying the mechanisms of graft healing is essential for its further application. We performed RNA sequencing of internodes near the cut position, making a distinction between separated or grafted tissues above and below the cut, in order to obtain a genetic description of graft union formation. RESULTS: Using weighted gene co-expression analysis, variable transcripts were clustered into 10 distinct co-expression networks (modules) based on expression profiles, and genes with the most "hubness" ("hub" genes show the most connections in a network) within each module were predicted. A large proportion of modules were related to Position, and represent asymmetric expression networks from different pathways. Expression of genes involved in auxin and sugar transport and signaling, and brassinosteroid biosynthesis was increased above the cut, while stress response genes were up-regulated below the cut. Some modules were related to graft union formation, among which oxidative detoxification genes were co-expressed along with both wounding response and cell wall organization genes. CONCLUSIONS: The present work provides a comprehensive understanding of graft healing-related gene networks in tomato. Also, the candidate pathways and hub genes identified here will be valuable for future studies of grafting in tomato.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Regeneração/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2767-2774, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418202

RESUMO

To reveal the physiological effects of rice alleviated by cadmium-tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa under cadmium stress condition, the influences of bacterial strian on the root vigor and leaf physiological characteristics were analyzed under a set of hydroponic experiments involving adding bacteria suspension, empty carrier, microbial inoculum with 20 µmol·L-1 Cd. Cadmium-free treatment as control. The results showed that the root vigor was significantly inhibited, leaf photosynthetic rate decreased, and the contents of soluble protein, flavonoid and total phenols in rice leaves were reduced, while the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide anion(O2-·) increased significantly under cadmium stress condition. Compared with cadmium treatment, root vigors of rice were increased by 36.1%-42.5% and 49.4%-53.0% respectively in bacteria suspension and microbial inoculum additions, net photosynthetic rates in leaves were increased by 118.5%-147.1% and 137.6%-156.9%, and the contents of soluble protein were increased by 37.0%-49.3% and 37.7%-72.6%, respectively. For the bacteria suspension treatment, the activities of SOD, POD and CAT in leaves were increased by 25.8%-36.6%, 40.9%-55.9%, 24.0%-29.2%, and the activities of SOD, POD and CAT in leaves under microbial inoculum treatment were increased by 36.9%-42.6%, 82.7%-92.6% and 43.3%-52.2%, respectively, with the stimulative effects on antioxidation enzymes in rice leaves being higher than those of bacteria suspension. Compared with cadmium treatment, the contents of MDA and O2-· in rice leaves were reduced by 44.8%-54.7%, 29.4%-41.9% and 9.9%-10.2%, 3.0%-7.1% in microbial inoculum and bacteria suspension treatments, respectively. In contrast, the contents of flavonoids and total phenols were increased by 125.4%-135.7%, 100.8%-119.4% and 139.4%-146.7%, 115.0%-134.7%, respectively. In summary, P. aeruginosa and the microbial inoculum could promote rice seedling growth by improving root vigor and photosynthetic rate, as well as the contents of flavonoids and total phenols, which led to the fact that P. aeruginosa could significantly alleviate the stress of cadmium on rice.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Oryza/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Oryza/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula , Estresse Fisiológico
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 341, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Barley is a low phosphorus (P) demand cereal crop. Tibetan wild barley, as a progenitor of cultivated barley, has revealed outstanding ability of tolerance to low-P stress. However, the underlying mechanisms of low-P adaption and the relevant genetic controlling are still unclear. RESULTS: We identified low-P tolerant barley lines in a doubled-haploid (DH) population derived from an elite Tibetan wild barley accession and a high-yield cultivar. The tolerant lines revealed greater root plasticity in the terms of lateral root length, compared to low-P sensitive lines, in response to low-P stress. By integrating the QTLs associated with root length and root transcriptomic profiling, candidate genes encoding isoflavone reductase, nitrate reductase, nitrate transporter and transcriptional factor MYB were identified. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved the growth of lateral root, Pi transport within cells as well as from roots to shoots contributed to the differences between low-P tolerant line L138 and low-P sensitive lines L73 in their ability of P acquisition and utilization. CONCLUSIONS: The plasticity of root system is an important trait for barley to tolerate low-P stress. The low-P tolerance in the elite DH line derived from a cross of Tibetan wild barley and cultivated barley is characterized by enhanced growth of lateral root and Pi recycling within plants under low-P stress.


Assuntos
Hordeum/fisiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Fósforo/deficiência , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 129-148, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267256

RESUMO

Iron and phosphorus are abundant elements in soils but poorly available for plant nutrition. The availability of these two nutrients represents a major constraint for fruit tree cultivation such as apple (Malus × domestica) leading very often to a decrease of fruit productivity and quality worsening. Aim of this study was to characterize common and specific features of plant response to Fe and P deficiencies by ionomic, transcriptomic and exudation profiling of apple roots. Under P deficiency, the root release of oxalate and flavonoids increased. Genes encoding for transcription factors and transporters involved in the synthesis and release of root exudates were upregulated by P-deficient roots, as well as those directly related to P acquisition. In Fe-deficiency, plants showed an over-accumulation of P, Zn, Cu and Mn and induced the transcription of those genes involved in the mechanisms for the release of Fe-chelating compounds and Fe mobilization inside the plants. The intriguing modulation in roots of some transcription factors, might indicate that, in this condition, Fe homeostasis is regulated by a FIT-independent pathway. In the present work common and specific features of apple response to Fe and P deficiency has been reported. In particular, data indicate similar modulation of a. 230 genes, suggesting the occurrence of a crosstalk between the two nutritional responses involving the transcriptional regulation, shikimate pathway, and the root release of exudates.


Assuntos
Ferro/deficiência , Malus/fisiologia , Fósforo/deficiência , Transcriptoma , Transporte Biológico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Ferro/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Fósforo/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 331, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salt stress is one of the environmental factors that greatly limits crop production worldwide because high salt concentrations in the soil affect morphological responses and physiological and metabolic processes, including root morphology and photosynthetic characteristics. Soil aeration has been reported to accelerate the growth of plants and increase crop yield. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 3 NaCl salinity levels (28, 74 and 120 mM) and 3 aeration volume levels (2.3, 4.6 and 7.0 L/pot) versus non-aeration and salinity treatments on the root morphology, photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content of potted tomato plants. RESULTS: The results showed that both aeration volume and salinity level affected the root parameters, photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content of potted tomato plants. The total length, surface area and volume of roots increased with the increase in aeration volume under each NaCl stress level. The effect was more marked in the fine roots (especially in ≤1 mm diameter roots). Under each NaCl stress level, the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content of tomato significantly increased in response to the aeration treatments. The net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll a and t content increased by 39.6, 26.9, and 17.9%, respectively, at 7.0 L/pot aeration volume compared with no aeration in the 28 mM NaCl treatment. We also found that aeration could reduce the death rate of potted tomato plants under high salinity stress conditions (120 mM NaCl). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the negative effect of NaCl stress can be offset by soil aeration. Soil aeration can promote root growth and increase the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content, thus promoting plant growth and reducing the plant death rate under NaCl stress conditions.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/anatomia & histologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Solo
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22835-22845, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177416

RESUMO

Soil compaction is a major environmental problem that affects plant growth and development. In this study, to further our understanding of its negative effects on plant growth, we investigated the effects of soil compaction on the growth, mineral absorption, and activities of key respiratory enzymes in soybean seedlings. We found that moderate-level soil compaction increased the activities of pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase in soybean seedling roots, enhancing the accumulation of P, K, Mg, Ca, and other elements. These accumulated elements, particularly Ca, increased the number of fibrous upper roots, but reduced root length and inhibited plant growth. High-level soil compaction inhibited the accumulation of P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn and increased the accumulation of Ca via decreasing the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase. These effects led to a decreased root cell size, blurred root cell boundaries, and the inhibition of plant growth. Taken together, our results provide a new insight into the mechanisms by which soil compaction inhibits plant growth.


Assuntos
Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Minerais , Nutrientes , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 407-414, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228797

RESUMO

Polyphenols are constituents of all higher plants. However, their biosynthesis is often induced when plants are exposed to abiotic stresses, such as drought. The aim of the present work was to determine the phenolic status in the roots of olive trees grown under water deficit conditions. The results revealed that roots of water-stressed plants had a higher content of total phenols. The main compound detected in well-watered olive tree roots was verbascoside. Oleuropein was established as the predominant phenolic compound of water-stressed plants. The oleuropein/verbascoside ratio varied between 0.31 and 6.02 in well-watered and water-stressed plants respectively, which could be a useful indicator of drought tolerance in olive trees. Furthermore, this study is the first to provide experimental evidence showing that luteolin-7-rutinoside, luteolin-7-glucoside and apigenin-7-glucoside were the dominant flavonoid glucosides in olive tree roots and showed the most significant variations under water stress.


Assuntos
Secas , Iridoides/química , Olea/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/química , Apigenina/química , Flavonoides/química , Glucosídeos/química , Fenol/química , Fenóis/química , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Polifenóis/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Estresse Fisiológico , Água
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 122-132, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151078

RESUMO

Most of the hot spots about rice research are related to roots; increasing rice yield is mainly associated with improving root traits. Understanding phenotype-gene regulation relationship in different rice cultivars can contribute to the genetic improvement of root system. The expression pattern of root genes in moroberekan (deep and thick roots and high root/shoot ratio "R/S") was compared to that in Giza178 and PM12 (numerous but shallow roots) and IR64 (fewer but deeper roots than the latter ones). In contrast to the other genotypes, moroberekan did not cease developing deep and thick roots even after 60 days from sowing, perhaps because of not only the consistent upregulation but also the interaction of root genes. Xylem sap flow was significantly higher even under drought (low water content) in moroberekan. Auxin signaling-related ARF12 and PIN1 genes could play key roles in improving root traits in response to low water or nitrogen content. Their concurrent upregulation was coincided with developing 1) deeper roots in moroberekan under drought, 2) thicker and deeper roots in PM12 under low nitrogen content (LN) and 3) new roots with thicker and deeper characteristics in the four genotypes after root trimming. The upregulation of PIN1 or ARF12 in Giza178 at LN, PM12 at drought or in IR64 under drought or LN did not greatly change the root traits. Hierarchical analysis showed that ARF12 and PIN1 were distantly related, but overlapped with other genes controlling root traits. Overexpression of ARF12 and PIN1 could improve root traits in rice cultivars.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Nitrogênio/química , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Água/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
9.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 81-93, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201686

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Here we show that accumulation of galactose-containing lipids in plastid membranes in shoots and the other membranes in roots maintains Arabidopsis growth under acidic stress and acidic phosphate deficiency. Soil acidification and phosphate deficiency are closely related to each other in natural environments. In addition to the toxicity of high proton concentrations, acid soil can lead to imbalances of ion availability and nutritional deficiencies, including inorganic phosphate (Pi). Among plants, activation of non-phosphorus-containing galactolipid, digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), synthesis concomitant with phospholipid degradation, namely membrane lipid remodeling, is crucial for coping with Pi starvation. However, regulation mechanisms of membrane lipid composition during acidic stress have not been clarified. Here, we investigated lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana grown under acidic stress with or without Pi. Under Pi-sufficient acidic conditions, DGDG was increased in shoot membranes, and some Pi starvation-responsive genes that are involved in lipid remodeling were upregulated without reducing Pi content in leaves. In contrast, under acidic Pi deficiency, membrane lipid remodeling in roots was partially repressed at a lower external pH. Nevertheless, phenotypic comparison between wild type and the double mutant of MGD2/3, which are responsible for DGDG accumulation during Pi starvation, indicated that the complete absence of lipid remodeling in roots resulted in a loss of tolerance to Pi deficiency rather specifically under acidic conditions. This result suggested important physiological roles of galactolipid-enriched membranes under acidic Pi deficiency.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Galactolipídeos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfatos/deficiência , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 229, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The close planting of dwarfing self-rooted rootstocks is currently a widely used method for apple production; however, self-rooted rootstocks are weak with shallow roots and poor grounding. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms that establish the gravitropic set-point angles (GSAs) of the adventitious roots of self-rooted apple stocks is important for developing self-rooted apple rootstock cultivars with deep roots. RESULTS: We report that the apple FOUR LIPS (MdFLP), an R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF), functions in establishing the GSA of the adventitious roots of self-rooted apple stocks in response to gravity. Biochemical analyses demonstrate that MdFLP directly binds to the promoters of two auxin efflux carriers, MdPIN3 and MdPIN10, that are involved in auxin transport, activates their transcriptional expression, and thereby promotes the development of adventitious roots in self-rooted apple stocks. Additionally, the apple auxin response factor MdARF19 influences the expression of those auxin efflux carriers and the establishment of the GSA of adventitious roots of apple in response to gravity by directly activating the expression of MdFLP. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of MdFLP by the auxin response factor MdARF19 in the regulation of the GSA of adventitious roots of self-rooted apple stocks in response to gravity.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Gravitropismo , Malus/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transporte Biológico , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Plant Sci ; 285: 110-121, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203875

RESUMO

In agricultural soil, the bioavailability of iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) is often below the plant's requirement causing nutritional deficiency in crops. Under P-limiting conditions, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) activates mechanisms that promote P solubility in the soil through morphological, physiological and molecular adaptations. Similar changes occur also in Fe-deficient white lupin roots; however, no information is available on the molecular bases of the response. In the present work, responses to Fe and P deficiency and their reciprocal interactions were studied. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that white lupin roots upregulated Fe-responsive genes ascribable to Strategy-I response, this behaviour was mainly evident in cluster roots. The upregulation of some components of Fe-acquisition mechanism occurred also in P-deficient cluster roots. Concerning P acquisition, some P-responsive genes (as phosphate transporters and transcription factors) were upregulated by P deficiency as well by Fe deficiency. These data indicate a strong cross-connection between the responses activated under Fe or P deficiency in white lupin. The activation of Fe- and P-acquisition mechanisms might play a crucial role to enhance the plant's capability to mobilize both nutrients in the rhizosphere, especially P from its associated metal cations.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Lupinus/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , FMN Redutase/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Ferro/deficiência , Lupinus/genética , Lupinus/fisiologia , Fósforo/deficiência , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
12.
Plant Sci ; 285: 68-78, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203895

RESUMO

The miR169 family, a large-scale microRNA gene family conserved in plants, is involved in stress responses, although how soybean miR169 functions in response to drought stress remains unclear. We show that gma-miR169c exerts a negative regulatory role in the response to drought stress by inhibiting the expression of its target gene, nuclear factor Y-A (NF-YA). A real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that gma-miR169c is widely expressed in soybean tissues and induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), high salt, cold stress and abscisic acid (ABA). Histochemical ß-glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that the gma-miR169c promoter drives GUS reporter gene expression in various transgenic Arabidopsis tissues, and the stress-induced pattern was confirmed in transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic soybean hairy roots. Arabidopsis overexpressing gma-miR169c is more sensitive to drought stress, with reduced survival, accelerated leaf water loss, and shorter root length than wild-type plants. We identified a precise cleavage site for 10 gma-miR169c targets and found reduced transcript levels of the AtNFYA1 and AtNFYA5 transcription factors in gma-miR169c-overexpressing Arabidopsis and reduced expression of the stress response genes AtRD29A, AtRD22, AtGSTU25 and AtCOR15A. These results indicate that gma-miR169c plays a negative regulatory role in drought stress and is a candidate miRNA for improving plant drought adaptation.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Soja/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Desidratação , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Soja/fisiologia
13.
J Plant Physiol ; 239: 10-17, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177026

RESUMO

Auxin is one of the crucial plant hormones which stimulates and controls cell and plant growth. The effects of auxin IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) during 10-days on maize plants growth in controlled conditions (hydroponic, 16-h photoperiod, 70% humidity, 25/20 °C temperature), depended on its concentration in the substrate. A high concentration (10-7 M) of IBA inhibited root growth, evoked the development of apoplasmic barriers (Casparian bands and suberin lamellae) closer to the root apex, and elevated the amount of lignin in roots. A low concentration (10-11 M) of IBA stimulated root growth but affected neither the development of apoplasmic barriers, nor the amount of lignin. Auxin in a 10-8 M concentration influenced the root growth to a minimal extent compare to the control, and it was the non-effective concentration. Plant cell walls as cell structures ensure cell enlargement and plant growth, and have to react to auxin stimulus by modification of their components. We found the most significant changes in the composition of the PF III fraction (lignocellulosic complex) of the cell wall. The presence of auxin in the substrate affected all three components of this fraction - Klason lignin and both the by acid (2 M TFA) non-hydrolysable and the hydrolysable parts of this complex. The ratio of the non-hydrolysable part to the Klason lignin increased from 1.3 to 3.3 with increasing auxin concentrations in the substrate. This may be related to the deposition of polysaccharides and lignin in the cell wall, which help maintain the specific tensile stress of, and turgor pressure on, the cell walls.


Assuntos
Indóis/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/fisiologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácidos Indolacéticos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Xilema/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilema/fisiologia
14.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(9): 1181-1197, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165250

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Drastic changes in soil water content can activate the short-term high expression of key enzyme-encoding genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis thereby increasing the content of secondary metabolites. Bupleurum chinense DC. is a traditional medicinal herb that is famous for its abundant saikosaponins. In the current study, the effects of drought-re-watering-drought on the photosynthesis physiology and biosynthesis of saikosaponins were investigated in 1-year-old B. chinense. The results showed that alterations in soil moisture altered the photosynthesis physiological process of B. chinense. The dry weight and fresh weight of the roots, photosynthesis capacity, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and SOD, POD and CAT activities were significantly reduced, and the contents of SP, soluble sugars, PRO and MDA increased. There were strong correlations between different physiological stress indices. All indices promoted and restricted each other, responded to soil moisture changes synergistically, maintained plant homeostasis and guaranteed normal biological activities. It was found that RW and RD_1 were the key stages of the water-control experiment affecting the expression of saikosaponin-related genes. At these two stages, the expression of multiple genes was affected by changes in soil moisture, with their expression levels reaching several-fold higher than those at the previous stage. We noticed that the expression of saikosaponin synthesis genes (which were rapidly upregulated at the RW and RD_1 stages) did not coincide with the rapid accumulation of saikosaponins (at the RD-2 stage), which were found to correspond to each other at the later stages of the water-control experiment. This finding indicates that there is a time lag between gene expression and the final product synthesis. Rapid changes in the external environment (RW to RD_1) have a short-term promoting effect on gene expression. This study reveals that short-term stress regulation may be an effective way to improve the quality of medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Bupleurum/fisiologia , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Saponinas/biossíntese , Metabolismo Secundário , Água/fisiologia , Bupleurum/química , Secas , Ácido Oleanólico/biossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Medicinais , Solo/química , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
Plant Sci ; 284: 135-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084866

RESUMO

Bacteria rely on chemical communication to sense the environment and to retrieve information on their population densities. Accordingly, a vast repertoire of molecules is released, which synchronizes expression of genes, coordinates behavior through a process termed quorum-sensing (QS), and determines the relationships with eukaryotic species. Already identified QS molecules from Gram negative bacteria can be grouped into two main classes, N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) and cyclodipeptides (CDPs), with roles in biofilm formation, bacterial virulence or symbiotic interactions. Noteworthy, plants detect each of these molecules, change their own gene expression programs, re-configurate root architecture, and activate defense responses, improving in this manner their adaptation to natural and agricultural ecosystems. AHLs may act as alarm signals, pathogen and/or microbe-associated molecular patterns, whereas CDPs function as hormonal mimics for plants via their putative interactions with the auxin receptor Transport Inhibitor Response1 (TIR1). A major challenge is to identify the molecular pathways of QS-mediated crosstalk and the plant receptors and interacting proteins for AHLs, CDPs and related signals.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Percepção de Quorum/fisiologia , Rhizobiaceae/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia
16.
Plant Sci ; 284: 185-191, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084871

RESUMO

Transcriptional activation of ascorbate biosynthesis-associated genes under illumination is one of the important steps in ascorbate pool size regulation in photosynthetic tissues. Several biological processes within chloroplasts such as photosynthesis are required for this activation, suggesting functional chloroplasts to play a key role. We herein found that when grown on agar plate, ascorbate content in Arabidopsis non-photosynthetic tissues, roots, are unexpectedly almost comparable to that in shoots. The high accumulation of ascorbate was particularly observed in root regions closer to the root-hypocotyl junction, in which chloroplast development occurred because of a direct exposure to light. When chloroplast development in roots were further stimulated by shoot removal, the expression of biosynthetic genes, especially VTC2 gene that encodes GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase, was activated, resulting in an increase in ascorbate pool size. These positive effects were canceled when the roots were treated with a photosynthetic inhibitor. A null mutation in the LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) gene almost completely inhibited root greening as well as the VTC2 expression. Overall, these findings show that chloroplast development can trigger the expression of ascorbate biosynthesis-associated genes not only in leaves but also in roots.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/biossíntese , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
17.
Plant Sci ; 284: 82-90, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084882

RESUMO

Waterlogging leads to hypoxia of the root system. Metabolic changes occur that enable the plant to tolerate the hypoxic stress. We investigated the export of organic acids, products of anaerobic metabolism, via xylem of waterlogged soybean (Glycine max) plants. Organic acids were quantified by GC-MS and their formation via aspartate metabolism investigated using [4-13C]aspartate. Elevated levels of malate were found together with variable amounts of other organic acids, notably lactate and succinate. Addition of [4-13C]aspartate to the medium led to isotopic enrichment of several organic acids in the xylem sap. Quantitatively, malate carried the highest amount of label among the organic acids. Labelling of succinate indicates its formation by reversal of the TCA-cycle from oxaloacetate. Since aspartate was a prominent amino acid of the phloem sap, it is suggested that this is an important source of malate exported in the xylem. The export of these organic acids will play the role of removing electrons from the hypoxic roots, representing an additional mechanism in the metabolic response to root hypoxia. Malate, normally considered an intermediate in succinate formation, is definitively a product of anaerobic metabolism.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Xilema/metabolismo , Anaerobiose/fisiologia , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Soja/fisiologia , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Água
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(21): 6056-6073, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070911

RESUMO

Soil salinity is one of the major constraints affecting agricultural production and crop yield. A detailed understanding of the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms of the different genotypic salt tolerance response in crops under salinity is therefore a prerequisite for enhancing this tolerance. In this study, we explored the changes in physiological and proteome profiles of salt-sensitive (S210) and salt-tolerant (T510) sugar beet cultivars in response to salt stress. T510 showed better growth status, higher antioxidant enzymes activities and proline level, less Na accumulation, and lower P levels after salt-stress treatments. With iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics method, 47 and 56 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the roots and leaves of S210, respectively. In T510, 56 and 50 proteins changed significantly in the roots and leaves of T510, respectively. These proteins were found to be involved in multiple aspects of functions such as photosynthesis, metabolism, stress and defense, protein synthesis, and signal transduction. Our proteome results indicated that sensitive and tolerant sugar beet cultivars respond differently to salt stress. The proteins that were mapped to the protein modification, amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, cell wall synthesis, and reactive oxygen species scavenging changed differently between the sensitive and tolerant cultivars, suggesting that these pathways may promote salt tolerance in the latter. This work leads to a better understanding of the salinity mechanism in sugar beet and provides a list of potential markers for the further engineering of salt tolerance in crops.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Tolerância ao Sal , Beta vulgaris/química , Beta vulgaris/genética , Beta vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteômica
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(3): 1280-1286, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087975

RESUMO

In the subsurface flow of a constructed wetland (CW) used for treating wastewater, low oxygen diffusion results in long-term anoxic or anaerobic surroundings, which cannot meet the needs of plant respiration and poses a threat to the survival of macrophytes. Although sweet sedge (Acorus calamus L.) has a significant ability to resist hypoxia, membrane lipid oxidation would still occur in the plant due to the long-term hypoxia in the CW. According to reports in the existing literature, activation of the antioxidative response system could be promoted by adding biochar, thereby significantly decreasing the malonic dialdehyde in the plants. However, the specific reasons why biochar alleviates the stress from anoxia are still not clear. Thus, the responses of macrophyte roots to biochar application were studied in five different CWs built in a greenhouse, using plant ecology analyses combined with root aerenchyma, root porosity, and radial oxygen loss (ROL). The results showed that adding biochar to CW was beneficial for sweet sedge to form root aerenchyma and to increase root porosity. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between root porosity and the amount of biochar applied. Photosynthetic metabolism could be indirectly promoted by biochar application by increasing oxygen partial pressure in the blades, helping to transport O2 to underground parts through aerenchyma, and spreading O2 to the rhizosphere in the form of ROL. The reduction environment could be improved by applying biochar in CWs, which was also beneficial for ROL. Compared with other light conditions, 3000 µmol·(m2·s)-1 was more suitable for the growth of A. calamus in CWs with biochar, where the ability of the plants to secrete oxygen would be stimulated and enhanced. However, the effect of the biochar application ratio on ROL was not significant.


Assuntos
Acorus/fisiologia , Carvão Vegetal , Oxigênio/análise , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Áreas Alagadas
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(5): 1735-1742, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107030

RESUMO

Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has complex effects on individual plants and terrestrial ecosystems. We synthesized results from 39 published papers (16 papers in English and 23 papers in Chinese) and conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the general responses of tree root traits to nitrogen addition, and further analyzed the difference of N-induced results between English papers and Chinese papers. Our results showed that N addition significantly increased fine root diameter (+6.7%), fine root N content (+8.9%), and root respiration rate (+17.5%), but did not affect fine root biomass, fine root length, specific root length, fine root C content, and fine root C:N ratio. Different climatic zone and fertilizer types had different effects on the experimental results. In addition, experimental results published in English papers were generally more significant than those in Chinese papers. We summarized the general effects of N addition on tree root systems, and further analyzed the mechanisms underlying the effects of N enrichment on forest ecosystem carbon cycle.


Assuntos
Florestas , Nitrogênio/análise , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Árvores , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo/química
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