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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10496-10505, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488337

RESUMO

Lipid peroxidation is a common event during aluminum (Al) toxicity in plants, and it generates an array of aldehyde fragments. The present study investigated and compared the profile and physiological functions of lipid peroxide-derived aldehydes under Al stress in two wheat genotypes that differed in Al resistance. Under Al stress, the sensitive genotype Yangmai-5 suffered more severe plasma membrane damage and accumulated higher levels of aldehydes in roots than the Al-tolerant genotype Jian-864. The complementary use of high-resolution mass spectrometry and standard compounds allowed the identification and quantification of 13 kinds of short-chain aldehydes sourced from lipids in wheat roots. Among these aldehydes, acetaldehyde, isovaldehyde, valeraldehyde, (E)-2-hexenal (HE), heptaldehyde, and nonyl aldehyde were the predominant species. Moreover, it was found that HE in the sensitive genotype was over 2.63 times higher than that in the tolerant genotype after Al treatment. Elimination of aldehydes using carnosine rescued root growth inhibition by 19.59 and 11.63% in Jian-864 and Yangmai-5, respectively, and alleviated Al-induced membrane damage and protein oxidation. Exogenous aldehyde application further inhibited root elongation and exacerbated oxidative injury. The tolerant genotype Jian-864 showed elevated aldehyde detoxifying enzyme activity and transcript levels. These results suggest that lipid peroxide-derived short-chain aldehydes are involved in Al toxicity, and a higher aldehyde-detoxifying capacity may be responsible for Al tolerance.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Triticum , Aldeídos/toxicidade , Alumínio/toxicidade , Peróxidos Lipídicos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445105

RESUMO

In grafted plants, the movement of long-distance signals from rootstocks can modulate the development and function of the scion. To understand the mechanisms by which tolerant rootstocks improve scion responses to osmotic stress (OS) conditions, mRNA transport of osmotic responsive genes (ORGs) was evaluated in a tomato/potato heterograft system. In this system, Solanum tuberosum was used as a rootstock and Solanum lycopersicum as a scion. We detected changes in the gene expression levels of 13 out of the 21 ORGs tested in the osmotically stressed plants; of these, only NPR1 transcripts were transported across the graft union under both normal and OS conditions. Importantly, OS increased the abundance of StNPR1 transcripts in the tomato scion. To examine mRNA mobility in transgrafted plants, StNPR1 and StDREB1 genes representing the mobile and non-mobile transcripts, respectively, were overexpressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The evaluation of transgenic tobacco plants indicated that overexpression of these genes enhanced the growth and improved the physiological status of transgenic plants growing under OS conditions induced by NaCl, mannitol and polyethylene glycol (PEG). We also found that transgenic tobacco rootstocks increased the OS tolerance of the WT-scion. Indeed, WT scions on transgenic rootstocks had higher ORGs transcript levels than their counterparts on non-transgenic rootstocks. However, neither StNPR1 nor StDREB1 transcripts were transported from the transgenic rootstock to the wild-type (WT) tobacco scion, suggesting that other long-distance signals downstream these transgenes could have moved across the graft union leading to OS tolerance. Overall, our results signify the importance of StNPR1 and StDREB1 as two anticipated candidates for the development of stress-resilient crops through transgrafting technology.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Osmose/fisiologia , Pressão Osmótica/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Tabaco/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transgenes/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445115

RESUMO

The SWEET (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins are a novel family of sugar transporters that play key roles in sugar efflux, signal transduction, plant growth and development, plant-pathogen interactions, and stress tolerance. In this study, 22 ClaSWEET genes were identified in Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) through homology searches and classified into four groups by phylogenetic analysis. The genes with similar structures, conserved domains, and motifs were clustered into the same groups. Further analysis of the gene promoter regions uncovered various growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responsive cis-regulatory elements. Tissue-specific analysis showed most of the genes were highly expressed in male flowers and the roots of cultivated varieties and wild cultivars. In addition, qRT-PCR results further imply that ClaSWEET proteins might be involved in resistance to Fusarium oxysporum infection. Moreover, a significantly higher expression level of these genes under various abiotic stresses suggests its multifaceted role in mediating plant responses to drought, salt, and low-temperature stress. The genome-wide characterization and phylogenetic analysis of ClaSWEET genes, together with the expression patterns in different tissues and stimuli, lays a solid foundation for future research into their molecular function in watermelon developmental processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/genética , Citrullus/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Açúcares/metabolismo , Fusarium/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 10002-10016, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406741

RESUMO

Theanine and flavonoids (especially proanthocyanidins) are the most important and abundant secondary metabolites synthesized in the roots of tea plants. Nitrogen promotes theanine and represses flavonoid biosynthesis in tea plant roots, but the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Here, we analyzed theanine and flavonoid metabolism in tea plant roots under nitrogen deficiency and explored the regulatory mechanism using proteome and ubiquitylome profiling together with transcriptome data. Differentially expressed proteins responsive to nitrogen deficiency were identified and found to be enriched in flavonoid, nitrogen, and amino acid metabolism pathways. The proteins responding to nitrogen deficiency at the transcriptional level, translational level, and both transcriptional and translational levels were classified. Nitrogen-deficiency-responsive and ubiquitinated proteins were further identified. Our results showed that most genes encoding enzymes in the theanine synthesis pathway, such as CsAlaDC, CsGDH, and CsGOGATs, were repressed by nitrogen deficiency at transcriptional and/or protein level(s). While a large number of enzymes in flavonoid metabolism were upregulated at the transcriptional and/or translational level(s). Importantly, the ubiquitylomic analysis identified important proteins, especially the hub enzymes in theanine and flavonoid biosynthesis, such as CsAlaDC, CsTSI, CsGS, CsPAL, and CsCHS, modified by ubiquitination. This study provided novel insights into the regulation of theanine and flavonoid biosynthesis and will contribute to future studies on the post-translational regulation of secondary metabolism in tea plants.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Nitrogênio , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutamatos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Chá
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360953

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal toxic to humans, easily accumulates in rice grains. Rice with unacceptable Cd content has become a serious food safety problem in many rice production regions due to contaminations by industrialization and inappropriate waste management. The development of rice varieties with low grain Cd content is seen as an economic and long-term solution of this problem. The cation/H+ exchanger (CAX) family has been shown to play important roles in Cd uptake, transport and accumulation in plants. Here, we report the characterization of the rice CAX family. The six rice CAX genes all have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phylogenetic analysis identified two subfamilies with three rice and three Arabidopsis thaliana genes in both of them. All rice CAX genes have trans-member structures. OsCAX1a and OsCAX1c were localized in the vacuolar while OsCAX4 were localized in the plasma membrane in rice cell. The consequences of qRT-PCR analysis showed that all the six genes strongly expressed in the leaves under the different Cd treatments. Their expression in roots increased in a Cd dose-dependent manner. GUS staining assay showed that all the six rice CAX genes strongly expressed in roots, whereas OsCAX1c and OsCAX4 also strongly expressed in rice leaves. The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells expressing OsCAX1a, OsCAX1c and OsCAX4 grew better than those expressing the vector control on SD-Gal medium containing CdCl2. OsCAX1a and OsCAX1c enhanced while OsCAX4 reduced Cd accumulation in yeast. No auto-inhibition was found for all the rice CAX genes. Therefore, OsCAX1a, OsCAX1c and OsCAX4 are likely to involve in Cd uptake and translocation in rice, which need to be further validated.


Assuntos
Antiporters/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Antiporters/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Transporte de Íons , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445398

RESUMO

Gibberellins (GAs) are an important group of phytohormones associated with diverse growth and developmental processes, including cell elongation, seed germination, and secondary growth. Recent genomic and genetic analyses have advanced our knowledge of GA signaling pathways and related genes in model plant species. However, functional genomics analyses of GA signaling pathways in Panax ginseng, a perennial herb, have rarely been carried out, despite its well-known economical and medicinal importance. Here, we conducted functional characterization of GA receptors and investigated their physiological roles in the secondary growth of P. ginseng storage roots. We found that the physiological and genetic functions of P. ginseng gibberellin-insensitive dwarf1s (PgGID1s) have been evolutionarily conserved. Additionally, the essential domains and residues in the primary protein structure for interaction with active GAs and DELLA proteins are well-conserved. Overexpression of PgGID1s in Arabidopsis completely restored the GA deficient phenotype of the Arabidopsis gid1a gid1c (atgid1a/c) double mutant. Exogenous GA treatment greatly enhanced the secondary growth of tap roots; however, paclobutrazol (PCZ), a GA biosynthetic inhibitor, reduced root growth in P. ginseng. Transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng roots revealed that GA-induced root secondary growth is closely associated with cell wall biogenesis, the cell cycle, the jasmonic acid (JA) response, and nitrate assimilation, suggesting that a transcriptional network regulate root secondary growth in P. ginseng. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism controlling secondary root growth in P. ginseng.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Panax/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445508

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of root-restriction cultivation on the root architecture, endogenous strigolactone (SL) content, and SL-related genes expression in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In addition, we clarified the effects of synthetic SL analog GR24 application on grapevine roots to explore the role of SLs in their development. The results showed that the root architecture changed significantly under root-restriction cultivation. At 40 days after transplantation (DAT), the contents of two types of SLs in roots under root restriction were both significantly lower than that in roots of the control. SL content was significantly positively correlated with the expression levels of VvCCD8 and VvD27, indicating that they play vital roles in SLs synthesis. After GR24 treatment for 20 days, the root length was significantly shorter than in the control. A low concentration (0.1 µM) of GR24 significantly reduced the root diameter and increased the fine-root density, while a high concentration (10 µM) of GR24 significantly reduced the lateral root (LR) length and increased the LR density. Concomitantly, GR24 (0.1 µM) reduced endogenous SL content. After GR24 treatment for 5 days, the total content of two tested SLs was highly positively correlated with the expression levels of VvDAD2, whereas it was highly negatively correlated with VvSMAXL4 at 20 days after GR24 treatment. This study helps to clarify the internal mechanism of root-restriction cultivation affecting the changes in grapevine root architecture, as well as further explore the important role of SLs in the growth of grapevine roots in response to root-restriction treatment.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dioxigenases/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445541

RESUMO

Mallotus japonicus is a valuable traditional medicinal plant in East Asia for applications as a gastrointestinal drug. However, the molecular components involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites have not yet been explored, primarily due to a lack of omics resources. In this study, we established metabolome and transcriptome resources for M. japonicus to capture the diverse metabolite constituents and active transcripts involved in its biosynthesis and regulation. A combination of untargeted metabolite profiling with data-dependent metabolite fragmentation and metabolite annotation through manual curation and feature-based molecular networking established an overall metabospace of M. japonicus represented by 2129 metabolite features. M. japonicus de novo transcriptome assembly showed 96.9% transcriptome completeness, representing 226,250 active transcripts across seven tissues. We identified specialized metabolites biosynthesis in a tissue-specific manner, with a strong correlation between transcripts expression and metabolite accumulations in M. japonicus. The correlation- and network-based integration of metabolome and transcriptome datasets identified candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of key specialized metabolites of M. japonicus. We further used phylogenetic analysis to identify 13 C-glycosyltransferases and 11 methyltransferases coding candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of medicinally important bergenin. This study provides comprehensive, high-quality multi-omics resources to further investigate biological properties of specialized metabolites biosynthesis in M. japonicus.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mallotus (Planta)/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mallotus (Planta)/genética , Mallotus (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445457

RESUMO

Strigolactones (SLs) regulate plant shoot development by inhibiting axillary bud growth and branching. However, the role of SLs in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) shoot branching remains unknown. Here, we identified and isolated two wintersweet genes, CCD7 and CCD8, involved in the SL biosynthetic pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 were down-regulated in wintersweet during branching. When new shoots were formed, expression levels of CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 were almost the same as the control (un-decapitation). CpCCD7 was expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression in shoot tips and roots, while CpCCD8 showed the highest expression in roots. Both CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 localized to chloroplasts in Arabidopsis. CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 overexpression restored the phenotypes of branching mutant max3-9 and max4-1, respectively. CpCCD7 overexpression reduced the rosette branch number, whereas CpCCD8 overexpression lines showed no phenotypic differences compared with wild-type plants. Additionally, the expression of AtBRC1 was significantly up-regulated in transgenic lines, indicating that two CpCCD genes functioned similarly to the homologous genes of the Arabidopsis. Overall, our study demonstrates that CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 exhibit conserved functions in the CCD pathway, which controls shoot development in wintersweet. This research provides a molecular and theoretical basis for further understanding branch development in wintersweet.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Calycanthaceae/genética , Dioxigenases , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Calycanthaceae/enzimologia , Dioxigenases/biossíntese , Dioxigenases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/enzimologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361028

RESUMO

The growth and productivity of several apple rootstocks have been evaluated in various previous studies. However, limited information is available on their tolerance to osmotic stress. In the present study, the physiological and molecular responses as well as abscisic acid (ABA) levels were assessed in six apple rootstocks (M26, V3, G41, G935, B9 and B118) osmotically stressed with polyethylene glycol (PEG, 30%) application under greenhouse conditions. Our results showed that V3, G41, G935 and B9 had higher relative water content (RWC), and lower electrolyte leakage (EL) under stress conditions compared to M26 and B118. Additionally, water use efficiency (WUE) was higher in V3, G41 and B9 than M26, which might be partially due to the lower transpiration rate in these tolerant rootstocks. V3, G41 and B9 rootstocks also displayed high endogenous ABA levels which was combined with a reduction in stomatal conductance and decreased water loss. At the transcriptional level, genes involved in ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways, e.g., SnRK, DREB, ERD and MYC2, showed higher expression in V3, G41, G935 and B9 rootstocks compared to M26 in response to stress. In contrast, WRKY29 was down-regulated in response to stress in the tolerant rootstocks, and its expression was negatively correlated with ABA content and stomatal closure. Overall, the findings of this study showed that B9, V3 and G41 displayed better osmotic stress tolerance followed by G935 then M26 and B118 rootstocks.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4682, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344886

RESUMO

A key impediment to studying water-related mechanisms in plants is the inability to non-invasively image water fluxes in cells at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we report that Raman microspectroscopy, complemented by hydrodynamic modelling, can achieve this goal - monitoring hydrodynamics within living root tissues at cell- and sub-second-scale resolutions. Raman imaging of water-transporting xylem vessels in Arabidopsis thaliana mutant roots reveals faster xylem water transport in endodermal diffusion barrier mutants. Furthermore, transverse line scans across the root suggest water transported via the root xylem does not re-enter outer root tissues nor the surrounding soil when en-route to shoot tissues if endodermal diffusion barriers are intact, thereby separating 'two water worlds'.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/anatomia & histologia , Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman , Xilema/metabolismo
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 392, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sorghum yields in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are greatly reduced by parasitic plants of the genus Striga (witchweed). Vast global sorghum genetic diversity collections, as well as the availability of modern sequencing technologies, can be potentially harnessed to effectively manage the parasite. RESULTS: We used laboratory assays - rhizotrons to screen a global sorghum diversity panel to identify new sources of resistance to Striga; determine mechanisms of resistance, and elucidate genetic loci underlying the resistance using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). New Striga resistant sorghum determined by the number, size and biomass of parasite attachments were identified. Resistance was by; i) mechanical barriers that blocked parasite entry, ii) elicitation of a hypersensitive reaction that interfered with parasite development, and iii) the inability of the parasite to develop vascular connections with hosts. Resistance genes underpinning the resistance corresponded with the resistance mechanisms and included pleiotropic drug resistance proteins that transport resistance molecules; xylanase inhibitors involved in cell wall fortification and hormonal regulators of resistance response, Ethylene Response Factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are of fundamental importance to developing durable and broad-spectrum resistance against Striga and have far-reaching applications in many SSA countries where Striga threatens the livelihoods of millions of smallholder farmers that rely on sorghum as a food staple.


Assuntos
Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/imunologia , Striga/genética , Striga/parasitologia , África ao Sul do Saara , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/imunologia , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/imunologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 310, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of chickpea to obtain sufficient nitrogen via its symbiotic relationship with Mesorhizobium ciceri is of critical importance in supporting growth and grain production. A number of factors can affect this symbiotic relationship including abiotic conditions, plant genotype, and disruptions to host signalling/perception networks. In order to support improved nodule formation in chickpea, we investigated how plant genotype and soil nutrient availability affect chickpea nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. Further, using transcriptomic profiling, we sought to identify gene expression patterns that characterize highly nodulated genotypes. RESULTS: A study involving six chickpea varieties demonstrated large genotype by soil nitrogen interaction effects on nodulation and further identified agronomic traits of genotypes (such as shoot weight) associated with high nodulation. We broadened our scope to consider 29 varieties and breeding lines to examine the relationship between soilborne disease resistance and the number of nodules developed and real-time nitrogen fixation. Results of this larger study supported the earlier genotype specific findings, however, disease resistance did not explain differences in nodulation across genotypes. Transcriptional profiling of six chickpea genotypes indicates that genes associated with signalling, N transport and cellular localization, as opposed to genes associated with the classical nodulation pathway, are more likely to predict whether a given genotype will exhibit high levels of nodule formation. CONCLUSIONS: This research identified a number of key abiotic and genetic factors affecting chickpea nodule development and nitrogen fixation. These findings indicate that an improved understanding of genotype-specific factors affecting chickpea nodule induction and function are key research areas necessary to improving the benefits of rhizobial symbiosis in chickpea.


Assuntos
Cicer/genética , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Nodulação/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Solo , Biomassa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Genótipo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
14.
Development ; 148(14)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251020

RESUMO

Cell wall remodeling is essential for the control of growth and development as well as the regulation of stress responses. However, the underlying cell wall monitoring mechanisms remain poorly understood. Regulation of root hair fate and flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana requires signaling mediated by the atypical receptor kinase STRUBBELIG (SUB). Furthermore, SUB is involved in cell wall integrity signaling and regulates the cellular response to reduced levels of cellulose, a central component of the cell wall. Here, we show that continuous exposure to sub-lethal doses of the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor isoxaben results in altered root hair patterning and floral morphogenesis. Genetically impairing cellulose biosynthesis also results in root hair patterning defects. We further show that isoxaben exerts its developmental effects through the attenuation of SUB signaling. Our evidence indicates that downregulation of SUB is a multi-step process and involves changes in SUB complex architecture at the plasma membrane, enhanced removal of SUB from the cell surface, and downregulation of SUB transcript levels. The results provide molecular insight into how the cell wall regulates cell fate and tissue morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Morfogênese/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299156

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression involved in plant development and abiotic stress responses. Recently, miRNAs have also been reported to be engaged in the regulation of secondary plant metabolism. However, there are few functional studies of miRNAs in medicinal plants. For this study, we obtained Sm-miR408 interference lines to investigate the function of Sm-miR408 in a medicinal model plant (Salvia miltiorrhiza). It was found that inhibiting the expression of Sm-miR408 could increase the content of salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid in the roots. The SmLAC3 and Sm-miR408 expression patterns were analyzed by qRT-PCR. A 5' RLM-RACE assay confirmed that Sm-miR408 targets and negatively regulates SmLAC3. Moreover, the overexpression of SmLAC3 in S. miltiorrhiza promoted the accumulation of salvianolic acids in the roots. Furthermore, the lignin content of the roots in overexpressed SmLAC3 lines was decreased. Taken together, these findings indicated that Sm-miR408 modulates the accumulation of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza by targeting SmLAC3 expression levels.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia miltiorrhiza/genética , Salvia miltiorrhiza/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Planta ; 254(2): 38, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312721

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Transcriptional activation of subfamily II PHT1 members in roots is associated with the enhanced phosphorus use efficiency and growth promotion of barley seedlings inoculated with Glomus species. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi symbiotic associations in cereal crops are known to regulate growth in cultivar-specific manner and induce phosphate (Pi) transporters (PHT1) in roots. In the present study, we observed that both AM colonization of roots by Glomus species and phosphate starvation enhanced phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) in barley seedlings. Our search for the full complement of PHT1 members in the recently sequenced barley genome identified six additional genes, totaling their number to 17. Both AM colonization and Pi starvation triggered activation of common as well as different PHT1s. Pi starvation led to the robust upregulation of HvPHT1;6.2/6.3 at 7d and weak activation of HvPHT1;1 in shoots at 3d time-point. In roots, only HvPHT1;1, HvPHT1;6.2/6.3, HvPHT1;7, HvPHT1;8, HvPHT1;11.2 and HvPHT12 were induced at least one of the time-points. AM colonization specifically upregulated HvPHT1;11, HvPHT1;11.2, HvPHT1;12 and HvPHT1;13.1/13.2, members belonging to subfamily II, in roots. Sucrose availability seems to be obligatory for the robust activation of HvPHT1;1 as unavailability of this metabolite generally weakened its upregulation under Pi starvation. Intriguingly, lack of sucrose supply also led to induction of HvPHT1;5, HvPHT1;8, and HvPHT1;11.2 in either roots or shoot or both. The mRNA levels of HvPHT1;5 and HvPHT1;11.2 were not severely affected under combined deficiency of Pi and sucrose. Taken together, this study not only identify additional PHT1 members in barley, but also ascertain their AM, Pi and sucrose-specific transcript accumulation. The beneficial role of AM fungi in the promotion of PUE and barley seedlings' growth is also demonstrated.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Micorrizas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 73-88, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270005

RESUMO

In the context of plant regeneration, in vitro systems to produce embryos are frequently used. In many of these protocols, nonzygotic embryos are initiated that will produce shoot-like structures but may lack a primary root. By increasing the auxin-to-cytokinin ratio in the growth medium, roots are then regenerated in a second step. Therefore, in vitro systems might not or only partially execute a similar developmental program as employed during zygotic embryogenesis. There are, however, in vitro systems that can remarkably mimic zygotic embryogenesis such as Brassica microspore-derived embryos. In this case, the patterning process of these haploid embryos closely follows zygotic embryogenesis and all fundamental tissue types are generated in a rather similar manner. In this review, we discuss the most fundamental molecular events during early zygotic embryogenesis and hope that this brief summary can serve as a reference for studying and developing in vitro embryogenesis systems in the context of doubled haploid production.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/embriologia , Padronização Corporal/genética , Padronização Corporal/fisiologia , Brassicaceae/embriologia , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Regeneração/genética , Regeneração/fisiologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco/genética , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Zigoto
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 349, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Upon P shortage, plant responds with massive reprogramming of transcription, the Phosphate Starvation Response (PSR). In parallel, the production of strigolactones (SLs)-a class of plant hormones that regulates plant development and rhizosphere signaling molecules-increases. It is unclear, however, what the functional link is between these two processes. In this study, using tomato as a model, RNAseq was used to evaluate the time-resolved changes in gene expression in the roots upon P starvation and, using a tomato CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASES 8 (CCD8) RNAi line, what the role of SLs is in this. RESULTS: Gene ontology (GO)-term enrichment and KEGG analysis of the genes regulated by P starvation and P replenishment revealed that metabolism is an important component of the P starvation response that is aimed at P homeostasis, with large changes occurring in glyco-and galactolipid and carbohydrate metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including terpenoids and polyketides, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. In the CCD8 RNAi line about 96% of the PSR genes was less affected than in wild-type (WT) tomato. For example, phospholipid biosynthesis was suppressed by P starvation, while the degradation of phospholipids and biosynthesis of substitute lipids such as sulfolipids and galactolipids were induced by P starvation. Around two thirds of the corresponding transcriptional changes depend on the presence of SLs. Other biosynthesis pathways are also reprogrammed under P starvation, such as phenylpropanoid and carotenoid biosynthesis, pantothenate and CoA, lysine and alkaloids, and this also partially depends on SLs. Additionally, some plant hormone biosynthetic pathways were affected by P starvation and also here, SLs are required for many of the changes (more than two thirds for Gibberellins and around one third for Abscisic acid) in the gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that SLs are not just the end product of the PSR in plants (the signals secreted by plants into the rhizosphere), but also play a major role in the regulation of the PSR (as plant hormone).


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Fósforo/deficiência , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 346, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Root system architecture (RSA), which is determined by the crown root angle (CRA), crown root diameter (CRD), and crown root number (CRN), is an important factor affecting the ability of plants to obtain nutrients and water from the soil. However, the genetic mechanisms regulating crown root traits in the field remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, the CRA, CRD, and CRN of 316 diverse maize inbred lines were analysed in three field trials. Substantial phenotypic variations were observed for the three crown root traits in all environments. A genome-wide association study was conducted using two single-locus methods (GLM and MLM) and three multi-locus methods (FarmCPU, FASTmrMLM, and FASTmrEMMA) with 140,421 SNP. RESULTS: A total of 38 QTL including 126 SNPs were detected for CRA, CRD, and CRN. Additionally, 113 candidate genes within 50 kb of the significant SNPs were identified. Combining the gene annotation information and the expression profiles, 3 genes including GRMZM2G141205 (IAA), GRMZM2G138511 (HSP) and GRMZM2G175910 (cytokinin-O-glucosyltransferase) were selected as potentially candidate genes related to crown root development. Moreover, GRMZM2G141205, encoding an AUX/IAA transcriptional regulator, was resequenced in all tested lines. Five variants were identified as significantly associated with CRN in different environments. Four haplotypes were detected based on these significant variants, and Hap1 has more CRN. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may be useful for clarifying the genetic basis of maize root system architecture. Furthermore, the identified candidate genes and variants may be relevant for breeding new maize varieties with root traits suitable for diverse environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/anatomia & histologia , Zea mays/genética , China , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298963

RESUMO

Cadmium is a heavy metal that can be easily accumulated in durum wheat kernels and enter the human food chain. Two near-isogenic lines (NILs) with contrasting cadmium accumulation in grains, High-Cd or Low-Cd (H-Cd NIL and L-Cd NIL, respectively), were used to understand the Cd accumulation and transport mechanisms in durum wheat roots. Plants were cultivated in hydroponic solution, and cadmium concentrations in roots, shoots and grains were quantified. To evaluate the molecular mechanism activated in the two NILs, the transcriptomes of roots were analyzed. The observed response is complex and involves many genes and molecular mechanisms. We found that the gene sequences of two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (bHLH29 and bHLH38) differ between the two genotypes. In addition, the transporter Heavy Metal Tolerance 1 (HMT-1) is expressed only in the low-Cd genotype and many peroxidase genes are up-regulated only in the L-Cd NIL, suggesting ROS scavenging and root lignification as active responses to cadmium presence. Finally, we hypothesize that some aquaporins could enhance the Cd translocation from roots to shoots. The response to cadmium in durum wheat is therefore extremely complex and involves transcription factors, chelators, heavy metal transporters, peroxidases and aquaporins. All these new findings could help to elucidate the cadmium tolerance in wheat and address future breeding programs.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Triticum/genética
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