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1.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20003, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016634

RESUMO

Root anatomical phenes have important roles in soil resource capture and plant performance; however, their phenotypic plasticity and genetic architecture is poorly understood. We hypothesized that (a) the responses of root anatomical phenes to water deficit (stress plasticity) and different environmental conditions (environmental plasticity) are genetically controlled and (b) stress and environmental plasticity are associated with different genetic loci than those controlling the expression of phenes under water-stress and well-watered conditions. Root anatomy was phenotyped in a large maize (Zea mays L.) association panel in the field with and without water deficit stress in Arizona and without water deficit stress in South Africa. Anatomical phenes displayed stress and environmental plasticity; many phenotypic responses to water deficit were adaptive, and the magnitude of response varied by genotype. We identified 57 candidate genes associated with stress and environmental plasticity and 64 candidate genes associated with phenes under well-watered and water-stress conditions in Arizona and under well-watered conditions in South Africa. Four candidate genes co-localized between plasticity groups or for phenes expressed under each condition. The genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity is highly quantitative, and many distinct genes control plasticity in response to water deficit and different environments, which poses a challenge for breeding programs.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas , Zea mays , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Solo , Água , Zea mays/genética
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110961, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888621

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), which seriously affects plant growth and crop production, is harmful to humans. Previous studies revealed ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) exhibits Cd tolerance, and may be useful as a potential hyperaccumulator because of its wide distribution. In this study, the physiological and transcriptional responses of two ryegrass cultivars [i.e., high (LmHC) and low (LmLC) Cd tolerance] to Cd stress were investigated and compared. The Cd tolerance of LmHC was greater than that of LmLC at various Cd concentrations. The uptake of Evans blue dye revealed that Cd-induced root cell mortality was higher in LmLC than in LmHC after a 12-h Cd treatment. Furthermore, the content and influx rate of Cd in LmLC roots were greater than in LmHC roots under Cd stress conditions. The RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR data indicated that the Cd transport regulatory genes (ABCG37, ABCB4, NRAMP4, and HMA5) were differentially expressed between the LmLC and LmHC roots. This expression-level diversity may contribute to the differences in the Cd accumulation and translocation between LmLC and LmHC. These findings may help clarify the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying ryegrass responses to Cd toxicity. Additionally, ryegrass may be able to hyperaccumulate toxic heavy metals during the phytoremediation of contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Cádmio/metabolismo , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Biológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Genes de Plantas , Lolium/química , Lolium/genética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111016, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888590

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is considered a beneficial element to higher plants based on its regulation of antioxidative system under abiotic or biotic stresses. However, the limit of beneficial and toxic physiological effects of Se is very narrow. In the present study, the antioxidant performance, nutritional composition, long-distance transport of Se, photosynthetic pigments, and growth of Coffea arabica genotypes in response to Se concentration in solution were evaluated. Five Coffea arabica genotypes (Obatã, IPR99, IAC125, IPR100 and Catucaí) were used, which were grown in the absence and presence of Se (0 and 1.0 mmol L-1) in nutrient solution. The application of 1 mmol L-1 Se promoted root browning in all genotypes. There were no visual symptoms of leaf toxicity, but there was a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus and sulfur in the shoots of plants exposed to high Se concentration. Except for genotype Obatã, the coffee seedlings presented strategies for regulating Se uptake by reducing long-distance transport of Se from roots to shoots. The concentrations of total chlorophyll, total pheophytin, and carotenoids were negatively affected in genotypes Obatã, IPR99, and IAC125 upon exposure to Se at 1 mmol L-1. H2O2 production was reduced in genotypes IPR99, IPR100, and IAC125 upon exposure to Se, resulting in lower activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). These results suggest that antioxidant metabolism was effective in regulating oxidative stress in plants treated with Se. The increase in sucrose, and decrease in SOD, CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, as well as Se compartmentalization in the roots, were the main biochemical and physiological modulatory effects of coffee seedlings under stress conditions due to excess of Se.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Coffea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Coffea/genética , Coffea/metabolismo , Coffea/fisiologia , Genótipo , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Selênio/análise , Selênio/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110999, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888604

RESUMO

Aluminium (Al) is a key element that plays a major role in inhibiting plant growth and productivity under acidic soils. While lipids may be involved in plant tolerance/sensitivity to Al, the role of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) in Al response remains unknown. In this study, Arabidopsis MGDG synthase (AtMGD) mutants (mgd1, mgd2 and mgd3) and wild-type (Col-0) plants were treated with AlCl3; the effect of aluminium on root growth, aluminium distribution, plasma membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide content and membrane lipid compositions were analysed. Under Al stress, mgd mutants exhibited a more severe root growth inhibition, plasma membrane integrity damage and lipid peroxidation compared to Col-0. Al accumulation in root tips showed no difference between Col-0 and mutants under Al stress. Lipid analysis demonstrated that under Al treatment the MGDG content in all plants and MGDG/DGDG (digalactosyldiacylglycerol) remarkably reduced, especially in mutants impairing the stability and permeability of the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the Arabidopsis mgd mutants are hypersensitive to Al stress due to the reduction in MGDG content, and this is of great significance in the discovery of effective measures for plants to inhibit aluminium toxicity.


Assuntos
Alumínio/toxicidade , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Galactolipídeos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Alumínio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Galactolipídeos/genética , Galactosiltransferases/genética , Galactosiltransferases/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111131, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827964

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic contaminants to food crops, and as such, decreasing crops uptake and accumulation of As cannot be overemphasized. Here, we characterized a functional wheat NIP2;1 homolog of the As transporter, TaNIP2;1. TaNIP2;1 expression was suppressed by arsenite (As(III)) in wheat. Ectopic expression of TaNIP2;1 in the Δfps1 yeast mutant enhanced yeast sensitivity towards As(III). Conversely, the elevated expression of TaNIP2;1 in Δacr3 mutants decreased yeast sensitivity to arsenate (As(V)), demonstrating that TaNIP2;1 showed both influx and efflux transport activities for As(III) in yeasts. This is further supported by increased As concentration in the yeast cells that overproduce TaNIP2;1 in Δfps1, while As concentration decreased in Δacr3. Furthermore, ectopic expression of TaNIP2;1 in Arabidopsis confirmed that TaNIP2;1 can transport As into plants, as supported by increased sensitivity to and uptake of As(III). No change in plant sensitivity was found to Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) or Ni(II), indicating that transport activity of TaNIP2;1 is specific for As(III). Taken together, our data show that TaNIP2;1 may be involved in As(III) transportation in plants. This finding reveals a functional gene that can be manipulated to reduce As content in wheat.


Assuntos
Aquagliceroporinas/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Expressão Ectópica do Gene/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aquagliceroporinas/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Transporte Biológico , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111175, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836161

RESUMO

Mangroves are susceptible to contamination due to their proximity to shores and human activities. Exposure to excessive trace metals can disturb their physiological functions and may eventually lead to death. Rhizophora mucronata is a common species growing in the mangrove forests of Thailand. Previous studies have shown that seedlings of R. mucronata are tolerant of trace metal and that they accumulate a large metal content in their root tissue. However, knowledge of their tolerance mechanisms is still lacking. To elicit the role of metal detoxification and sequestration by phytochelatins (PC) in the roots of R. mucronata seedlings, the impacts of Cu and Zn exposure were assessed on 1) physiological characteristics 2) the concentration of glutathione (GSH), a precursor of PC and 3) the level of the transcripts encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), the key enzyme for PC biosynthesis. Seedlings of R. mucronata were exposed to Cu and Zn in a hydroponic experiment (200 mg Cu or Zn/L in 1/4× Hoagland solution containing 8‰ NaCl, single addition). We found that both trace metals were largely accumulated in the roots. Only Cu-treated seedlings showed a decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency, in line with observed toxicity symptoms (i.e. bent stems and slight wilting of leaves). Metal accumulation, however, did not induce oxidative stress in the roots as indicated by similar level of total reactive species and lipid peroxidation across treatments. The GSH content in the roots exposed to Cu was significantly reduced while no change was observed in Zn-exposed roots. Coordinated semi-quantitative PCR and RT-qPCR revealed pcs down-regulation in Cu-treated roots, whereas Zn-treated roots showed a down-regulation on day 1 and a subsequent recovery on day 5. Failure of detoxification and sequestration of excess Cu due to GSH limitation and down-regulation of pcs may lead to the phytotoxic effects observed in Cu-treated plants. Our results suggest that both GSH and PC play an important role in trace metal tolerance in R. mucronata seedlings.


Assuntos
Aminoaciltransferases/genética , Cobre/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rhizophoraceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Zinco/toxicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rhizophoraceae/genética , Rhizophoraceae/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo
7.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008883, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609718

RESUMO

Plant steroid hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant growth and development at many levels. While negative regulatory factors that inhibit development and are counteracted by BRs exist in the root meristem, these factors have not been characterized. The functions of UPB1 transcription factor in BR-regulated root growth have not been established, although its role in regulating root are well documented. Here, we found that BIN2 interacts with and phosphorylates the UPB1 transcription factor consequently promoting UPB1 stability and transcriptional activity. Genetic analysis revealed that UPB1 deficiency could partially recover the short-root phenotype of BR-deficient mutants. Expression of a mutated UPB1S37AS41A protein lacking a conserved BIN2 phosphorylation sites can rescue shorter root phenotype of bin2-1 mutant. In addition, UPB1 was repressed by BES1 at the transcriptional level. The paclobutrazol-resistant protein family (PRE2/3) interacts with UPB1 and inhibits its transcriptional activity to promote root meristem development, and BIN2-mediated phosphorylation of UPB1 suppresses its interaction with PRE2/3, and subsequently impairing root meristem development. Taken together, our data elucidate a molecular mechanism by which BR promotes root growth via inhibiting BIN2-UPB1 module.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosforilação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235896, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730265

RESUMO

Mature sorghum herbage is known to contain several water-soluble secondary metabolites (allelochemicals). In this study, we investigated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with allelochemical characteristics in sorghum using linkage mapping and linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping. A sorghum diversity research set (SDRS) of 107 accessions was used in LD mapping whereas, F2:3 lines derived from a cross between Japanese and African landraces were used in linkage mapping. The QTLs were further confirmed by positional (targeted) association mapping with Q+K model. The inhibitory effect of water-soluble extracts (WSE) was tested on germination and root length of lettuce seedlings in four concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). A Significant range of variations was observed among genotypes in both types of mapping populations (P < 0.05). A total of 181 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) derived from antecedently reported map have been used for genotyping of SDRS. A genetic linkage map of 151 sorghum SSR markers was also developed on 134 F2 individuals. The total map length was 1359.3 cM, with an average distance of 8.2 cM between adjacent markers. LD mapping identified three QTLs for inhibition effect on germination and seven QTLs for root length of lettuce seedlings. Whereas, a total of six QTLs for inhibition of germination and ten QTLs for root length were detected in linkage mapping approach. The percent phenotypic variation explained by individual QTL ranged from 6.9% to 27.3% in SDRS and 9.9% to 35.6% in F2:3 lines. Regional association analysis identified four QTLs, three of them are common in other methods too. No QTL was identified in the region where major gene for sorgoleone (SOR1) has been cloned previously on chromosome 5.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sorghum/genética , Ligação Genética , Germinação/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/fisiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730292

RESUMO

Grapevines, although adapted to occasional drought or salt stress, are relatively sensitive to growth- and yield-limiting salinity stress. To understand the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and identify genes commonly regulated by both stresses in grapevine, we investigated transcript profiles in leaves of the salt-tolerant grapevine rootstock 1616C under salt- and ER-stress. Among 1643 differentially expressed transcripts at 6 h post-treatment in leaves, 29 were unique to ER stress, 378 were unique to salt stress, and 16 were common to both stresses. At 24 h post-treatment, 243 transcripts were unique to ER stress, 1150 were unique to salt stress, and 168 were common to both stresses. GO term analysis identified genes in categories including 'oxidative stress', 'protein folding', 'transmembrane transport', 'protein phosphorylation', 'lipid transport', 'proteolysis', 'photosynthesis', and 'regulation of transcription'. The expression of genes encoding transporters, transcription factors, and proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis increased in response to both ER and salt stresses. KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes for both ER and salt stress were divided into four main categories including; carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, signal transduction and lipid metabolism. Differential expression of several genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis, which validated our microarray results. We identified transcripts for genes that might be involved in salt tolerance and also many genes differentially expressed under both ER and salt stresses. Our results could provide new insights into the mechanisms of salt tolerance and ER stress in plants and should be useful for genetic improvement of salt tolerance in grapevine.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Vitis/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Osmose , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tunicamicina/farmacologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236317, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702002

RESUMO

Heterodera avenae, as an obligate endoparasite, causes severe yield loss in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Investigation on the mechanisms how H. avenae perceives wheat roots is limited. Here, the attractiveness of root exudates from eight plant genotypes to H. avenae were evaluated on agar plates. Results showed that the attraction of H. avenae to the root exudates from the non-host Brachypodium distachyon variety Bd21-3 was the highest, approximately 50 infective second-stage juveniles (J2s) per plate, followed by that from three H. avenae-susceptible wheat varieties, Zhengmai9023, Yanmai84 and Xiangmai25, as well as the resistant one of Xinyuan958, whereas the lowest attractive activity was observed in the two H. avenae-resistant wheat varieties, Xianmai20 (approximately 12 J2s/plate) and Liangxing66 (approximately 11 J2s/plate). Then Bd21-3, Zhengmai9023 and Heng4399 were selected for further assays as their different attractiveness and resistance to H. avenae, and attractants for H. avenae in their root exudates were characterized to be heat-labile and low-molecular compounds (LM) by behavioral bioassay. Based on these properties of the attractants, a principle of identifying attractants for H. avenae was set up. Then LM of six root exudates from the three plants with and without heating were separated and analyzed by HPLC-MS. Finally, dihydroxyacetone (DHA), methylprednisolone succinate, embelin and diethylpropionin in the root exudates were identified to be putative attractants for H. avenae according to the principle, and the attraction of DHA to H. avenae was validated by behavioral bioassay on agar. Our study enhances the recognition to the orientation mechanism of H. avenae towards wheat roots.


Assuntos
Di-Hidroxiacetona/química , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Triticum/química , Animais , Brachypodium/genética , Brachypodium/parasitologia , Di-Hidroxiacetona/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/parasitologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Tylenchoidea/genética , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722723

RESUMO

Grafting is a well-established agricultural practice in cherry production for clonal propagation, altered plant vigor and architecture, increased tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, precocity, and higher yield. Mobile molecules, such as water, hormones, nutrients, DNAs, RNAs, and proteins play essential roles in rootstock-scion interactions. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are 19 to 30-nucleotides (nt) RNA molecules that are a group of mobile signals in plants. Rootstock-to-scion transfer of transgene-derived small interfering RNAs enabled virus resistance in nontransgenic sweet cherry scion. To determine whether there was long-distance scion-to-rootstock transfer of endogenous sRNAs, we compared sRNAs profiles in bud tissues of an ungrafted 'Gisela 6' rootstock, two sweet cherry 'Emperor Francis' scions as well as their 'Gisela 6' rootstocks. Over two million sRNAs were detected in each sweet cherry scion, where 21-nt sRNA (56.1% and 55.8%) being the most abundant, followed by 24-nt sRNAs (13.1% and 12.5%). Furthermore, we identified over three thousand sRNAs that were potentially transferred from the sweet cherry scions to their corresponding rootstocks. In contrast to the sRNAs in scions, among the transferred sRNAs in rootstocks, the most abundant were 24-nt sRNAs (46.3% and 34.8%) followed by 21-nt sRNAs (14.6% and 19.3%). In other words, 21-nt sRNAs had the least transferred proportion out of the total sRNAs in sources (scions) while 24-nt had the largest proportion. The transferred sRNAs were from 574 cherry transcripts, of which 350 had a match from the Arabidopsis thaliana standard protein set. The finding that "DNA or RNA binding activity" was enriched in the transcripts producing transferred sRNAs indicated that they may affect the biological processes of the rootstocks at different regulatory levels. Overall, the profiles of the transported sRNAs and their annotations revealed in this study facilitate a better understanding of the role of the long-distance transported sRNAs in sweet cherry rootstock-scion interactions as well as in branch-to-branch interactions in a tree.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/genética , Prunus avium/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/química , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/isolamento & purificação
12.
Food Chem ; 331: 127365, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619909

RESUMO

Phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza have been widely used in nutritious, health-promoting products with an increasing demand. In the current study, two biosynthetic genes RAS (rosmarinic acid synthase) and CYP98A14 (a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase) were successfully introduced into S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Overexpression of RAS and CYP98A14 resulted in higher content of phenolic acids (up to over 3-fold) in transgenic lines compared to the control. Meanwhile, DPPH results revealed that engineered S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots had stronger antioxidant activities than the control. In addition, phenolic acid crude extracts of the engineered hairy root lines overexpressing RAS or CYP98A14 showed improved antibacterial activities compared to the control lines. Our work exhibits a useful strategy for enhancement of phenolic acid production and bioactivities of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots by genetic manipulation of RAS and CYP98A14, and also provides a new resource material to obtain active phenolic acids for food and healthy products.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Salvia miltiorrhiza/genética , Aciltransferases/genética , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574172

RESUMO

Plant-soil feedback studies attempt to understand the interplay between composition of plant and soil microbial communities. A growing body of literature suggests that plant species can coexist when they interact with a subset of the soil microbial community that impacts plant performance. Most studies focus on the microbial community in the soil rhizosphere; therefore, the degree to which the bacterial community within plant roots (root-endophytic compartment) influences plant-microbe interactions remains relatively unknown. To determine if there is an interaction between conspecific vs heterospecific soil microbes and plant performance, we sequenced root-endophytic bacterial communities of five tallgrass-prairie plant species, each reciprocally grown with soil microbes from each hosts' soil rhizosphere. We found evidence of plant-soil feedbacks for some pairs of plant hosts; however, the strength and direction of feedbacks varied substantially across plant species pairs-from positive to negative feedbacks. Additionally, each plant species harbored a unique subset of root-endophytic bacteria. Conspecifics that hosted similar bacterial communities were more similar in biomass than individuals that hosted different bacterial communities, suggesting an important functional link between root-endophytic bacterial community composition and plant fitness. Our findings suggest a connection between an understudied component of the root-endophytic microbiome and plant performance, which may have important implications in understanding plant community composition and coexistence.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Pradaria , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16649-16659, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586957

RESUMO

Low availability of nitrogen (N) is often a major limiting factor to crop yield in most nutrient-poor soils. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are beneficial symbionts of most land plants that enhance plant nutrient uptake, particularly of phosphate. A growing number of reports point to the substantially increased N accumulation in many mycorrhizal plants; however, the contribution of AM symbiosis to plant N nutrition and the mechanisms underlying the AM-mediated N acquisition are still in the early stages of being understood. Here, we report that inoculation with AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis remarkably promoted rice (Oryza sativa) growth and N acquisition, and about 42% of the overall N acquired by rice roots could be delivered via the symbiotic route under N-NO3 - supply condition. Mycorrhizal colonization strongly induced expression of the putative nitrate transporter gene OsNPF4.5 in rice roots, and its orthologs ZmNPF4.5 in Zea mays and SbNPF4.5 in Sorghum bicolor OsNPF4.5 is exclusively expressed in the cells containing arbuscules and displayed a low-affinity NO3 - transport activity when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Moreover, knockout of OsNPF4.5 resulted in a 45% decrease in symbiotic N uptake and a significant reduction in arbuscule incidence when NO3 - was supplied as an N source. Based on our results, we propose that the NPF4.5 plays a key role in mycorrhizal NO3 - acquisition, a symbiotic N uptake route that might be highly conserved in gramineous species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/metabolismo , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Nitratos/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Sorghum/microbiologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0221008, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525951

RESUMO

Roots enable the plant to survive in the natural environment by providing anchorage and acquisition of water and nutrients. In this study, root architectural traits of 153 mungbean genotypes were compared under optimum and low phosphorus (P) conditions. Significant variations and medium to high heritability were observed for the root traits. Total root length was positively and significantly correlated with total root surface area, total root volume, total root tips and root forks under both optimum P (r = 0.95, r = 0.85, r = 0.68 and r = 0.82 respectively) and low P (r = 0.95, r = 0.82, r = 0.71 and r = 0.81 respectively). The magnitudes of the coefficient of variations were relatively higher for root forks, total root tips and total root volume. Total root length, total root surface area and total root volume were major contributors of variation and can be utilized for screening of P efficiency at the seedling stage. Released Indian mungbean varieties were found to be superior for root traits than other genotypic groups. Based on comprehensive P efficiency measurement, IPM-288, TM 96-25, TM 96-2, M 1477, PUSA 1342 were found to be the best highly efficient genotypes, whereas M 1131, PS-16, Pusa Vishal, M 831, IC 325828 were highly inefficient. Highly efficient genotypes identified would be valuable genetic resources for P efficiency for utilizing in the mungbean breeding programme.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Fósforo/deficiência , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/genética , Vigna/metabolismo , Genótipo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/fisiologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2965, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528082

RESUMO

Trajectories of cellular ontogeny are tightly controlled and often involve feedback-regulated molecular antagonism. For example, sieve element differentiation along developing protophloem cell files of Arabidopsis roots requires two antagonistic regulators of auxin efflux. Paradoxically, loss-of-function in either regulator triggers similar, seemingly stochastic differentiation failures of individual sieve element precursors. Here we show that these patterning defects are distinct and non-random. They can be explained by auxin-dependent bistability that emerges from competition for auxin between neighboring cells. This bistability depends on the presence of an auxin influx facilitator, and can be triggered by either flux enhancement or repression. Our results uncover a hitherto overlooked aspect of auxin uptake, and highlight the contributions of local auxin influx, efflux and biosynthesis to protophloem formation. Moreover, the combined experimental-modeling approach suggests that without auxin efflux homeostasis, auxin influx interferes with coordinated differentiation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transformação Genética/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0225564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380515

RESUMO

Senna tora is an annual herb with rich source of anthraquinones that have tremendous pharmacological properties. However, there is little mention of genetic information for this species, especially regarding the biosynthetic pathways of anthraquinones. To understand the key genes and regulatory mechanism of anthraquinone biosynthesis pathways, we performed spatial and temporal transcriptome sequencing of S. tora using short RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and long-read isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) technologies, and generated two unigene sets composed of 118,635 and 39,364, respectively. A comprehensive functional annotation and classification with multiple public databases identified array of genes involved in major secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways and important transcription factor (TF) families (MYB, MYB-related, AP2/ERF, C2C2-YABBY, and bHLH). Differential expression analysis indicated that the expression level of genes involved in anthraquinone biosynthetic pathway regulates differently depending on the degree of tissues and seeds development. Furthermore, we identified that the amount of anthraquinone compounds were greater in late seeds than early ones. In conclusion, these results provide a rich resource for understanding the anthraquinone metabolism in S. tora.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Extrato de Senna/metabolismo , Senna (Planta)/genética , Senna (Planta)/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232595, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374747

RESUMO

Cassava is the 6th most important source of dietary energy in the world but its root system architecture (RSA) had seldom been quantified. Ability to select superior genotypes at juvenile stages can significantly reduce the cost and time for breeding to bridge the large yield gap. This study adopted a simple approach to phenotyping RSA traits of juvenile and mature cassava plants to identify genotypic differences and the relationships between juvenile traits and harvest index of mature plants. Root classes were categorised and root and shoot traits of eight (8) juvenile pot-grown cassava genotypes, were measured at 30 and 45 days after planting (DAP). The same or related traits were measured at 7 months after planting of the same genotypes grown in the field while yield and yield components were measured in 12-months old field-grown plants. The field experiment was done in 2017 and repeated in 2018. Differences between genotypes for the measured traits were explored using analysis of variance (ANOVA) while traits in juvenile plants were correlated or regressed onto traits measured in 7- and 12-months old plants. The results show significant genotypic variations for most of the traits measured in both juvenile and 7-months old plants. In the 12-months old plants, differences between genotypes were consistent for both 2017 and 2018. Broad-sense heritability was highest for the number of commercial roots (0.87) and shoot fresh weight (0.78) and intermediate for the total number of roots (0.60), harvest index (0.58), fresh weight of roots (0.45). For all the sampling time points or growth stages, there were greater correlations between traits measured at a particular growth stage than between the same traits at different growth stages. However, some juvenile-mature plant trait relationships were significant, positive and consistent for both 2017 and 2018. For example, total root length and the total number of roots in 30 DAP, and branching density of upper nodal roots in 45 DAP, positively correlated with harvest index of 12-months old plants in both 2017 and 2018. Similarly, the diameter of nodal roots, for example, had a negative, significant correlation with fresh shoot biomass of mature plants in both 2017 and 2018. Regression of traits measured in 30 DAP explained up to 22% and 36% of the variation in HI of mature plants in 2017 and 2018, respectively. It is concluded that the simple, rapid, inexpensive phenotyping approach adopted in this study is robust for identifying genotypic variations in juvenile cassava using root system traits. Also, the results provide seminal evidence for the existence of useful relationships between traits of juvenile and mature cassava plants that can be explored to predict yield and yield components.


Assuntos
Manihot/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Variação Genética , Manihot/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Locos de Características Quantitativas
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428011

RESUMO

Nitrogen is an important nutrient for plant growth and tuber quality of potato. Since potato crop requires high dose of N, improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of plant is an inevitable approach to minimize N fertilization. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize microRNAs (miRNAs) by small RNA sequencing in potato plants grown in aeroponic under two contrasting N (high and low) regimes. A total of 119 conserved miRNAs belonging to 41 miRNAs families, and 1002 putative novel miRNAs were identified. From total, 52 and 54 conserved miRNAs, and 404 and 628 putative novel miRNAs were differentially expressed in roots and shoots, respectively under low N stress. Of total 34,135 predicted targets, the gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that maximum targets belong to biological process followed by molecular function and cellular component. Eexpression levels of the selected miRNAs and targets were validated by real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. Two predicted targets of potential miRNAs (miR397 and miR398) were validated by 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends). In general, predicted targets are associated with stress-related, kinase, transporters and transcription factors such as universal stress protein, heat shock protein, salt-tolerance protein, calmodulin binding protein, serine-threonine protein kinsae, Cdk10/11- cyclin dependent kinase, amino acid transporter, nitrate transporter, sugar transporter, transcription factor, F-box family protein, and zinc finger protein etc. Our study highlights that miR397 and miR398 play crucial role in potato during low N stress management. Moreover, study provides insights to modulate miRNAs and their predicted targets to develop N-use efficient potato using transgenic/genome-editing tools in future.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , MicroRNAs/genética , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110779, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460045

RESUMO

Melon is of great value in food, medicine and industry. In recent years, the continuous cropping obstacles of melon is increasingly prominent, which seriously affects the cultivation. Autotoxicity is the key factor for the obstacles. Root is the first line against autotoxicity and main organs for autotoxins secretion. Some physiological responses and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to autotoxicity are only limited to root system. Considering the lack of relevant research, physiological researches combined with transcriptome sequencing of melon seedling after autotoxicity stress mediated by root exudates (RE) was performed to help characterize the response mechanism to autotoxicity in melon roots. The results showed that autotoxicity inhibited root morphogenesis of melon seedlings, induced the excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation in roots, and activated most antioxidant enzymes. Compared with the control group, the osmoregulation substance content was always at a high level. DEGs response to autotoxicity in roots were distinguished from that in leaves. Functional annotation of these DEGs suggested that autotoxicity affected biological regulation in a negative manner. DEGs were mainly involved in the synthesis of antioxidants, DNA damage and metabolism, and stress response. These setbacks were associated with the deterioration of root morphogenesis, generation of dwarf and slender roots, and ultimately leading to plant death. The results may provide important information for revealing the response mechanism of root to autotoxicity, and provide theoretical basis for solving the continuous cropping obstacles in melon.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Cucumis melo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis melo/genética , Cucumis melo/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osmorregulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo
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