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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 341, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Barley is a low phosphorus (P) demand cereal crop. Tibetan wild barley, as a progenitor of cultivated barley, has revealed outstanding ability of tolerance to low-P stress. However, the underlying mechanisms of low-P adaption and the relevant genetic controlling are still unclear. RESULTS: We identified low-P tolerant barley lines in a doubled-haploid (DH) population derived from an elite Tibetan wild barley accession and a high-yield cultivar. The tolerant lines revealed greater root plasticity in the terms of lateral root length, compared to low-P sensitive lines, in response to low-P stress. By integrating the QTLs associated with root length and root transcriptomic profiling, candidate genes encoding isoflavone reductase, nitrate reductase, nitrate transporter and transcriptional factor MYB were identified. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved the growth of lateral root, Pi transport within cells as well as from roots to shoots contributed to the differences between low-P tolerant line L138 and low-P sensitive lines L73 in their ability of P acquisition and utilization. CONCLUSIONS: The plasticity of root system is an important trait for barley to tolerate low-P stress. The low-P tolerance in the elite DH line derived from a cross of Tibetan wild barley and cultivated barley is characterized by enhanced growth of lateral root and Pi recycling within plants under low-P stress.


Assuntos
Hordeum/fisiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Fósforo/deficiência , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 540, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378832

RESUMO

In this work, we present the results of the investigation of trace elements (Fe, Mg, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Cd, Pb) accumulation potential of Noccaea kovatsii (Heuff.) F. K. Mey., from the Balkan Peninsula. The study included eight populations from ultramafic soils, six from Bosnia and Herzegovina, and two from Serbia. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reveal relationships of elements in soil, and Pearson's correlation coefficients for analysing associations of available quantities of elements in soil and those in roots and shoots of N. kovatsii. Uptake and translocation efficiency was assessed by using bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation factors (TF). All the analysed populations of N. kovatsii emerged as strong Ni accumulators, with the highest shoot concentrations of 12,505 mg kg-1. Even thought contents of Zn in plant tissues of N. kovatsii were under the hyperaccumulation level (602 mg kg-1 and 1120 mg kg-1 respectively), BCF was up to 667, indicating that certain surveyed populations have strong accumulative potential for this element.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Brassicaceae/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Sérvia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9738-9748, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411877

RESUMO

The presence of chromium (Cr) in cultivated fields affects carbohydrate metabolism of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and weakens its productivity. Little is known about the molecular mechanism of sucrose metabolism underlying Cr stress response in rice plants. In the present study, the transcriptome map of sucrose metabolism in rice seedlings exposed to both trivalent and hexavalent chromium was investigated using Agilent 4 × 44K rice microarray analysis. Results indicated that Cr exposure (3 days) significantly (p < 0.05) improved sucrose accumulation, and altered the activities of sucrose synthetase, sucrose phosphate phosphatase, and amylosynthease in rice tissues. We identified 119 differentially regulated genes involved in 17 sucrose metabolizing enzymes and found that gene responses in roots were significantly (p < 0.05) stronger than in shoots under both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) treatment. The network maps of gene regulation responsible for sucrose metabolism in rice plants provide a theoretical basis for further cultivating Cr-resistant rice cultivars through molecular genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Cromo/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Sacarose/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
4.
Physiol Plant ; 167(1): 2-4, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268563

RESUMO

Generating salt-tolerant plants that can cope with increasing soil salinity is a major goal of crop-breeding programs worldwide. Together with genetic approaches, research efforts are focusing on finding chemical modulators of salt tolerance. The exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been shown to improve salt tolerance in diverse crop species, but its mechanism of action is not properly understood. Wu et al. (2019) report that ALA treatment enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the roots of salt-stressed strawberry plants. Activation of several key ion transporters downstream to the ROS signal helps to sequester the toxic Na+ ions in the roots and protects the shoots against salt stress.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/metabolismo , Fragaria/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8740-8745, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334643

RESUMO

Just recently, the "horizontal natural product transfer" was unveiled: alkaloids, which have been leached out from decomposing alkaloidal donor plants, are taken up by the roots of acceptor plants. In the same manner, many other natural products, such as coumarins or stilbenes, are also taken up from the soil. Recent research outlined that alkaloids are transferred also from a living donor plant to plants growing in their vicinity. In the acceptor plants, the imported natural products might be modified by hydroxylation and glucosylation. These insights will strongly impact our understanding of contamination of plant-derived commodities as well as plant-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/análise , Transporte Biológico , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/química
6.
Gene ; 712: 143962, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288057

RESUMO

Veratrum nigrum is protected plant of Melanthiaceae family, able to synthetize unique steroidal alkaloids important for pharmacy. Transcriptomes from leaves, stems and rhizomes of in vitro maintained V. nigrum plants were sequenced and annotated for genes and markers discovery. Sequencing of samples derived from the different organs resulted in a total of 108,511 contigs with a mean length of 596 bp. Transcripts derived from leaf and stalk were annotated at 28%, and 38% in Nr nucleotide database, respectively. The sequencing revealed 949 unigenes related with lipid metabolism, including 73 transcripts involved in steroids and genus-specific steroid alkaloids biosynthesis. Additionally, 3203 candidate SSRs markers we identified in unigenes with average density of one SSR locus every 6.2 kb sequence. Unraveling of biochemical machinery of the pathway responsible for steroidal alkaloids will open possibility to design and optimize biotechnological process. The transcriptomic data provide valuable resources for biochemical, molecular genetics, comparative transcriptomics, functional genomics, ecological and evolutionary studies of V. nigrum.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Esteroides/biossíntese , Transcriptoma , Veratrum/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Biblioteca Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Repetições de Microssatélites , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
7.
J Plant Physiol ; 239: 92-108, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255944

RESUMO

Acclimation by plants to hypoxia and anoxia is of importance in various ecological systems, and especially for roots in waterlogged soil. We present evidence for acclimation by roots via 'anoxic' cores rather than being triggered by O2 sensors. The evidence for 'anoxic' cores comes from radial O2 profiles across maize roots and associated metabolic changes such as increases in the 'anaerobic enzymes' ADH and PDC in the 'anoxic' core, and inhibition of Cl- transport to the xylem. These cores are predicted to develop within 15-20 min after sudden transfer of a root to hypoxia, so that the cores are 'anoxically-shocked'. We suggest that 'anoxic' cores could emanate a signal(s), such as ACC the precursor of ethylene and/or propagation of a 'Ca2+ wave', to other tissue zones. There, the signalling would result in acclimation of the tissues to energy crisis metabolism. An O2 diffusion model for tissues with an 'anoxic' core, indicates that the phytoglobin-nitric oxide (Pgb-NO) cycle would only be engaged in a thin 'shell' (annulus) of tissue surrounding the 'anoxic' core, and so would only contribute small amounts of ATP on a whole organ basis (e.g. whole roots). A key feature within this annulus of tissue, where O2 is likely to be limiting, is that the ratio (ATP formed) / (O2 consumed) is 5-6, both when the NAD(P)H of glycolysis is converted to NAD(P)+ by the Pgb-NO cycle or by the TCA cycle linked to the electron transport chain. The main function of the Pgb-NO cycle may be the modulating of NO levels and O2 scavenging, thus preventing oxidative damage. We speculate that an 'anoxic' core in hypoxic plant organs may have a particularly high tolerance to anoxia because cells might receive a prolonged supply of carbohydrates and/or ATP from the regions still receiving sufficient O2 for oxidative phosphorylation. Severely hypoxic or 'anoxic' cores are well documented, but much research on responses of roots to hypoxia is still based on bulk tissue analyses. More research is needed on the interaction between 'anoxic' cores and tissues still receiving sufficient O2 for oxidative phosphorylation, both during a hypoxic exposure and during subsequent anoxia of the tissue/organ as a whole.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Anaerobiose
8.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 39, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358053

RESUMO

In the growth condition(s) of plants, numerous secondary metabolites (SMs) are produced by them to serve variety of cellular functions essential for physiological processes, and recent increasing evidences have implicated stress and defense response signaling in their production. The type and concentration(s) of secondary molecule(s) produced by a plant are determined by the species, genotype, physiology, developmental stage and environmental factors during growth. This suggests the physiological adaptive responses employed by various plant taxonomic groups in coping with the stress and defensive stimuli. The past recent decades had witnessed renewed interest to study abiotic factors that influence secondary metabolism during in vitro and in vivo growth of plants. Application of molecular biology tools and techniques are facilitating understanding the signaling processes and pathways involved in the SMs production at subcellular, cellular, organ and whole plant systems during in vivo and in vitro growth, with application in metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways intermediates.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Metabolismo Secundário/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(8): e1900183, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361076

RESUMO

This work describes the study of the chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oils (EOs) of the different organs (leaves, flowers, stems and roots) from Eruca vesicaria. According to the GC and GC/MS analysis, all the EOs were dominated by erucin (4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate) with a percentage ranging from 17.9 % (leaves) to 98.5 % (roots). The isolated EOs were evaluated for their antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS and ß-carotene/linoleic acid), antibacterial and inhibitory property against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Most EOs exhibited an interesting α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory potential. The roots essential oil was found to be the most active with IC50 values of 0.80±0.06 and 0.11±0.01 µg mL-1 , respectively. The essential oil of roots exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH, PI=92.76±0.01 %; ABTS, PI=78.87±0.19; and ß-carotene, PI=56.1±0.01 %). The isolated oils were also tested for their antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Moderate results have been noted by comparison with Gentamicin used as positive control.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brassicaceae/química , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
10.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(2): 330-335, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263937

RESUMO

The immobilization effect and mechanism of nano-hydroxyapatite(NHAP) on Pb in the ryegrass rhizosphere soil were studied by root-bag experiment. The speciation analysis results revealed that the residual Pb concentrations in the rhizosphere soil significantly increased after NHAP application. The acid-soluble and reducible Pb concentrations significantly decreased, indicating that NHAP had obviously immobilized Pb. Meanwhile, NHAP significantly promoted the secretion of tartaric acid from ryegrass roots, resulting the rhizosphere soil pH had been below that of the control group. This helped to relieve the stress of Pb on ryegrass, also promoted the dissolution of NHAP, resulting the formation of stable precipitation with more Pb ions. NHAP increased the rhizosphere soil pH by 0.03 to 0.17, which promoted the conversion of Pb to non-utilizable bioavailability. The total Pb mass balance indicated only a very small proportion Pb transferred to the shoots through ryegrass roots. The formation of pyromorphite by Pband NHAP in soil was accordingly to interpret the dominant mechanism for Pb immobilization.


Assuntos
Durapatita/química , Chumbo/análise , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanoestruturas/química , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adsorção , Disponibilidade Biológica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Chumbo/metabolismo , Lolium/metabolismo , Minerais/química , Modelos Teóricos , Fosfatos/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Tartaratos/metabolismo
11.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(6): 534-539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155558

RESUMO

One triterpene and five triterpene glycosides, including four new compounds, have been identified in the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza bucharica, which was shown to be closely related to Glycyrrhizin-producing Glycyrrhiza species, G. uralensis, G. glabra and G. inflata, based on their chloroplast rbcL sequences. Two known compounds were identified squasapogenol and macedonoside C. The structures of four new compounds, bucharosides A, B, C, and D, were determined to be 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl squasapogenol, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-D-glucuronopyranosyl-macedonic acid, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-D-glucuronopyranosyl-squasapogenol, and 22-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl squasapogenol, respectively. Contents of these triterpene glycosides were less than 0.5% of dry weight, and no main saponin, like glycyrrhizin or macedonoside C found in other Glycyrrhiza species, was found in the underground parts of G. bucharica.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tadjiquistão , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2562, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189898

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice grain poses a serious threat to human health. While several transport systems have been reported, the complicity of rice Cd transport and accumulation indicates the necessity of identifying additional genes, especially those that are responsible for Cd accumulation divergence between indica and japonica rice subspecies. Here, we show that a gene, OsCd1, belonging to the major facilitator superfamily is involved in root Cd uptake and contributes to grain accumulation in rice. Natural variation in OsCd1 with a missense mutation Val449Asp is responsible for the divergence of rice grain Cd accumulation between indica and japonica. Near-isogenic line tests confirm that the indica variety carrying the japonica allele OsCd1V449 can reduce the grain Cd accumulation. Thus, the japonica allele OsCd1V449 may be useful for reducing grain Cd accumulation of indica rice cultivars through breeding.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Alelos , Asparagina/genética , Cádmio/análise , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Valina/genética
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 225, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal root zone temperature (RZT) causes a remarkable reduction in growth of horticultural crops during winter cultivation under greenhouse production. However, limited information is available on the effects of suboptimal RZT on nitrogen (N) metabolism in cucumber seedlings. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR) on nitrate and ammonium flux rate, N metabolism, and transcript levels of NRT1 family genes under suboptimal RZT in cucumber seedlings. RESULTS: Suboptimal RZT (LT) negatively affected on cucumber growth and proportionately decreased EBR contents, bleeding rate, root activity, enzyme activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT), nitrate (NO3-) influx rate, ammonium (NH4+) efflux rate, and transcript levels of nitrate transporter (NRT1) encoding genes. However, exogenous EBR reduced the harmful effects of suboptimal RZT and increased endogenous EBR contents, bleeding rate, root activity, enzyme activities of NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT, NH4+ and NO3- flux rates and contents, and N accumulation. EBR-treated seedlings also upregulated the transcript levels of nitrate transporters CsNRT1.1, CsNRT1.2A, CsNRT1.2B, CsNRT1.2C, CsNRT1.3, CsNRT1.4A, CsNRT1.5B, CsNRT1.5C, CsNRT1.9, and CsNRT1.10, and downregulated CsNRT1.5A and CsNRT1.8. LT treatment upregulated the expression level of CsNRT1.5A, while exogenous BZR application downregulated the expression level of NRT1 genes. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that exogenous application of EBR alleviated the harmful effects of suboptimal RZT through changes in N metabolism, NH4+ and NO3- flux rates, and NRT1 gene expression, leading to improved cucumber seedlings growth. Our study provides the first evidence of the role of EBR in the response to suboptimal RZT in cucumber, and can be used to improve vegetable production.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/genética , Nitratos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 232, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with white-fleshed sweetpotato (WFSP), purple-fleshed sweetpotato (PFSP) is a desirable resource for functional food development because of the abundant anthocyanin accumulation in its tuberous roots. Some studies have shown that the expression regulation mediated by miRNA plays an important role in anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. However, few miRNAs and their corresponding functions related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in tuberous roots of sweetpotato have been known. RESULTS: In this study, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome libraries from the tuberous roots of WFSP (Xushu-18) and PFSP (Xuzishu-3) were constructed, respectively. Totally, 191 known and 33 novel miRNAs were identified by sRNA sequencing, and 180 target genes cleaved by 115 known ib-miRNAs and 5 novel ib-miRNAs were identified by degradome sequencing. Of these, 121 miRNAs were differently expressed between Xushu-18 and Xuzishu-3. Integrated analysis of sRNA, degradome sequencing, GO, KEGG and qRT-PCR revealed that 26 differentially expressed miRNAs and 36 corresponding targets were potentially involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Of which, an inverse correlation between the expression of ib-miR156 and its target ibSPL in WFSP and PFSP was revealed by both qRT-PCR and sRNA sequencing. Subsequently, ib-miR156 was over-expressed in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the ib-miR156 over-expressing plants showed suppressed abundance of SPL and a purplish phenotype. Concomitantly, upregulated expression of four anthocyanin pathway genes was detected in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Finally, a putative ib-miRNA-target model involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in sweetpotato was proposed. CONCLUSIONS: The results represented a comprehensive expression profiling of miRNAs related to anthocyanin accumulation in sweetpotato and provided important clues for understanding the regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis mediated by miRNA in tuberous crops.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 930-937, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234259

RESUMO

Heavy metal stress in soil accelerates the plant root exudation of organic ligands. The degradation of exudate ligands can be fundamental to controlling the complexation of heavy metals. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between the transformation of glycine, a representative amino acid exudate, and cadmium/lead mobility in soils. Two 48-h incubation experiments were conducted after glycine addition to the soils. Parameters related to glycine distribution and degradation, Cd/Pb mobility, and the formation of glycine-Cd complex were analyzed. Glycine addition gradually decreased the Cd and Pb mobility throughout the 48-h incubation. By the end of the experiment, the CaCl2-extracted Cd and Pb concentrations decreased by 63.5% and 43.6%, respectively. The glycine mineralization was strong in the first 6 h, as indicated by a sharp decrease in CO2 efflux rates from 10.04 ±â€¯0.62 to 3.51 ±â€¯0.07 mg C-CO2 kg-1 soil h-1. The mineralization rates notably decreased after 6 h. The comparisons of dissolved organic carbon and hydrolyzable amino acid contents indicated that glycine mineralization in solution (95.6%) was much stronger than that in soil solids (49.3%). At the end of incubation, 0.22 mmol kg-1 glycine remained in soil solids. The remaining glycine provided sufficient sorption sites for Cd2+ and Pb2+, resulting in enhanced metal fixation via complexation. Comparisons of zeta potentials supported the formation of the glycine-Cd complex. The Cd and Pb immobilization processes could be attributed to metal-glycine complex formation, sorption re-equilibrium, and glycine degradation. These findings emphasize that the biogeochemical processes of glycine, derived from root exudates or protein degradation products, increased the sorption of heavy metals to soils and thus reduced their toxicity to plants.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Glicina/química , Chumbo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(24): 6736-6747, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184154

RESUMO

Nitrogen is essential for plant growth and crop productivity; however, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) decreases with increasing N supply, resulting in a waste of resources. Molecular mechanisms underlying low-nitrogen (LN)-mediated enhancement of NUE are not clear. We used high-NUE Brassica napus genotype H (Xiangyou 15), low-NUE B. napus genotype L (814), and Arabidopsis mutant aux1 to elucidate the mechanism underlying the changes in NUE under different rates of N fertilizer application. NUE of B. napus increased under LN, which enhanced N uptake ability by regulating root system architecture and plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity; AUX1 was involved in this process. Additionally, BnNRT1.5 was upregulated and BnNRT1.8 was downregulated under LN, whereby more N was transferred to the shoot through enhanced N transport. Observed changes in photosynthesis under LN were associated with N assimilation efficiency. Our study provides new insights into the mechanisms of plant adaptation to the environment.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Transporte Biológico , Brassica napus/genética , Fertilizantes/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Nitrogênio/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
17.
Plant Sci ; 285: 110-121, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203875

RESUMO

In agricultural soil, the bioavailability of iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) is often below the plant's requirement causing nutritional deficiency in crops. Under P-limiting conditions, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) activates mechanisms that promote P solubility in the soil through morphological, physiological and molecular adaptations. Similar changes occur also in Fe-deficient white lupin roots; however, no information is available on the molecular bases of the response. In the present work, responses to Fe and P deficiency and their reciprocal interactions were studied. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that white lupin roots upregulated Fe-responsive genes ascribable to Strategy-I response, this behaviour was mainly evident in cluster roots. The upregulation of some components of Fe-acquisition mechanism occurred also in P-deficient cluster roots. Concerning P acquisition, some P-responsive genes (as phosphate transporters and transcription factors) were upregulated by P deficiency as well by Fe deficiency. These data indicate a strong cross-connection between the responses activated under Fe or P deficiency in white lupin. The activation of Fe- and P-acquisition mechanisms might play a crucial role to enhance the plant's capability to mobilize both nutrients in the rhizosphere, especially P from its associated metal cations.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Lupinus/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , FMN Redutase/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Ferro/deficiência , Lupinus/genética , Lupinus/fisiologia , Fósforo/deficiência , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
18.
Environ Pollut ; 246: 980-989, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159147

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) induced phytotoxicity has become a serious environmental problem as a consequence of significant metal release through anthropogenic activity. Understanding the spatial distribution of Cu in plants such as willow is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of metal accumulation and transport in woody plants, particularly as affected by variable environment conditions such as soil flooding. Using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) techniques, the spatial distribution of Cu and other nutrient elements were investigated in roots and stems of Salix (S.) integra exposed to 450 mg kg-1 Cu under non-flooded (NF)/flooding (F) conditions for 90 d. S. integra grown in the F condition exhibited significant higher tolerance index (TI, determined by the ratio of total biomass in Cu treatments to control) (p < 0.05) than that in the NF condition, indicating soil flooding alleviated Cu toxicity to willow plants. The µ-XRF revealed that Cu was preferentially located in the root cap and meristematic zone of the root tips. Under the NF condition, the Cu intensity in the root epidermis was more highly concentrated than that of the F condition, suggesting the soil flooding significantly inhibited Cu uptake by S. integra. The pattern of the Cu spatial distribution in the S. integra stem indicated that the F condition severely reduced Cu transport via the xylem vessels as a consequence of decreasing the transpiration rate of leaves. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the in vivo Cu distribution in S. integra in a scenario of co-exposure to the Cu and the soil flooding over a long period. The finding that Cu uptake varies significantly with flooding condition is relevant to the development of strategies for plants to detoxify the metals and to maintain the nutrient homeostasis.


Assuntos
Cobre/metabolismo , Inundações , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Salix/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Síncrotrons , Raios X
19.
J Plant Physiol ; 239: 83-91, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229903

RESUMO

In higher plants ammonium (NH4+) assimilation occurs mainly through the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) pathway. Nevertheless, when plants are exposed to stress conditions, such as excess of ammonium, the contribution of alternative routes of ammonium assimilation such as glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and asparagine synthetase (AS) activities might serve as detoxification mechanisms. In this work, the in vivo functions of these pathways were studied after supplying an excess of ammonium to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Agora Hybrid F1) roots previously adapted to grow under either nitrate or ammonium nutrition. The short-term incorporation of labelled ammonium (15NH4+) into the main amino acids was determined by GC-MS in the presence or absence of methionine sulphoximine (MSX) and azaserine (AZA), inhibitors of GS and GOGAT activities, respectively. Tomato roots were able to respond rapidly to excess ammonium by enhancing ammonium assimilation regardless of the previous nutritional regime to which the plant was adapted to grow. The assimilation of 15NH4+ could take place through pathways other than GS/GOGAT, since the inhibition of GS and GOGAT did not completely impede the incorporation of the labelled nitrogen into major amino acids. The in vivo formation of Asn by AS was shown to be exclusively Gln-dependent since the root was unable to incorporate 15NH4+ directly into Asn. On the other hand, an in vivo aminating capacity was revealed for GDH, since newly labelled Glu synthesis occurred even when GS and/or GOGAT activities were inhibited. The aminating GDH activity in tomato roots responded to an excess ammonium supply independently of the previous nutritional regime to which the plant had been subjected.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Aminação , Compostos de Amônio/administração & dosagem , Fertilizantes , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia
20.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 42(4): 517-525, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176475

RESUMO

Plant roots are inhabited by a large diversity of microbes, some of which are beneficial for the growth of plants and known as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In this work, we designed a multispecies inoculum of PGPRs containing Rhizobium phaseoli, Sinorhizobium americanum and Azospirillum brasilense nitrogen-fixing strains and other plant-growth promoting bacteria such as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Methylobacterium extorquens. We evaluated the effect of this group of bacteria on the growth of one-month-old maize plants. The multispecies inoculum exerted a beneficial effect on maize plants that was greater than that obtained with single-bacteria. Using the same multispecies inoculant, acetylene reduction was recorded in 5-day-old roots indicating active nitrogen fixation by bacteria in maize. Azospirillum nitrogen fixation was lower than that obtained with the multispecies inoculum. We focused on the analysis of R. phaseoli gene expression in presence of other PGPRs. Many R. phaseoli up- regulated genes in roots in the presence of other bacteria are hypothetical, showing our poor knowledge of bacteria-bacteria interactions. Other genes indicated bacterial nutrient competition and R. phaseoli stress. Differentially expressed transcriptional regulators were identified that may be key in bacteria-bacteria interaction regulation. Additionally, gene expression was analyzed from Azospirillum but not from sinorhizobia and methylobacteria due to the low number of transcripts obtained from maize roots. The metatranscriptomic analysis from maize roots showed expression of Azospirillum nif genes in the presence of PGPR bacteria. Our hypothesis is that other bacteria stimulate Azospirillum capacity to fix nitrogen and this should be further explored.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Interações Microbianas , Fixação de Nitrogênio/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Zea mays/microbiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Microbiota , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
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