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3.
J Vasc Surg ; 74(2S): 21S-28S, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303455

RESUMO

Physician compensation varies by specialty, gender, race, years in practice, type of practice, location, and individual productivity. We reviewed the disparities in compensation regarding the variation between medical and surgical specialties, between academic and private practice, between gender, race, and rank, and by practice location. The physician personal debt perspective was also considered to quantify the effect of disparities in compensation. Strategies toward eliminating the pay gap include salary transparency, pay equity audit, paid parental leave, mentoring, sponsorship, leadership, and promotion pathways. Pay parity is important because paying women less than men contributes to the gender pay gap, lowers pension contributions, and results in higher relative poverty in retirement. Pay parity will also affect motivation and relationships at work, ultimately contributing to a diverse workforce and business success. Rewarding all employees fairly is the right thing to do. As surgeons and leaders in medicine, establishing pay equity is a matter of ethical principle and integrity to further elevate our profession.


Assuntos
Equidade de Gênero , Seleção de Pessoal/economia , Médicas/economia , Racismo/economia , Salários e Benefícios , Sexismo/economia , Cirurgiões/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/economia , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(17): 9284-9291, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291335

RESUMO

Prior work finds a diversity paradox: Diversity breeds innovation, yet underrepresented groups that diversify organizations have less successful careers within them. Does the diversity paradox hold for scientists as well? We study this by utilizing a near-complete population of ∼1.2 million US doctoral recipients from 1977 to 2015 and following their careers into publishing and faculty positions. We use text analysis and machine learning to answer a series of questions: How do we detect scientific innovations? Are underrepresented groups more likely to generate scientific innovations? And are the innovations of underrepresented groups adopted and rewarded? Our analyses show that underrepresented groups produce higher rates of scientific novelty. However, their novel contributions are devalued and discounted: For example, novel contributions by gender and racial minorities are taken up by other scholars at lower rates than novel contributions by gender and racial majorities, and equally impactful contributions of gender and racial minorities are less likely to result in successful scientific careers than for majority groups. These results suggest there may be unwarranted reproduction of stratification in academic careers that discounts diversity's role in innovation and partly explains the underrepresentation of some groups in academia.


Assuntos
Invenções/tendências , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/educação , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Diversidade Cultural , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/economia , Racismo/psicologia , Ciência , Comportamento Social
11.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226938, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978050

RESUMO

Recent protests by athletes focused on raising awareness of social issues and injustices, such as the Black Lives Matter protests led by Colin Kaepernick of the National Football League's San Francisco 49ers, have generated a great deal of attention and debate within society. Notably, the protests conducted by these players before games in the 2016 and 2017 seasons became such a sensational topic, that extraordinary amounts of attention was paid to it by the media, consumers, and even politicians who often denounced the players as being unpatriotic. Against this backdrop, the current research examines whether fluctuations in attendance at National Football League games are associated with explicit attitudes towards race, implicit racial prejudice, and racial animus within a population. Specifically, using multiple measures of racial attitudes as part of an econometric model estimating attendance at games, the results suggest that having a higher level of implicit bias in a market leads to a decline in consumer interest in attending games. Additionally, using interaction effects, it is found that while protests generally reduced the negative effects of implicit bias on attendance, markets with lower levels of implicit bias actually had greater declines of attendance during the protests. From this, the current study advances the understanding of racial attitudes and racial animus, and its impact on consumer behavior at the regional level. That is, this research highlights that racial sentiments in a local market were able to predict changes in market behaviors, suggesting that race relations can have wide reaching impacts.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano/economia , Relações Raciais/psicologia , Racismo/economia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Atitude , Participação da Comunidade , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Humanos , Ativismo Político , Estados Unidos
12.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(9): 1951-1960, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Discrimination is associated with several negative social, economic, and health consequences. Past research focuses on the impact of discrimination while less is known about both the type and correlates of discrimination, particularly among older adults. METHODS: Using the National Survey of American Life, we used latent class analysis to identify discrimination typologies (frequency and type) among African Americans aged 55 and older. We then used multinomial logistic regression to identify demographic correlates of discrimination types, including a statistical interaction between gender and educational attainment. RESULTS: We identified three discrimination typologies. Increasing age was associated with lower probability of belonging to the high discrimination and disrespect and condescension subtypes. Men and non-Southern residents were most likely to belong in the high discrimination subtype. Higher levels of education increased the probability of belonging in the high discrimination and disrespect and condescension subtypes for older men, but not women. DISCUSSION: Older African American men, particularly those with more education, are vulnerable to both high-frequency discrimination and discrimination characterized by disrespect and condescension. This finding suggests that, for men with more years of education, increased exposure to discrimination reflects efforts to maintain social hierarchies (male target hypothesis).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Escolaridade , Estresse Financeiro , Hierarquia Social , Qualidade de Vida , Racismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Estresse Financeiro/etnologia , Estresse Financeiro/psicologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Racismo/economia , Racismo/etnologia , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia
14.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 199: 129-135, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to characterize the associations of racial and socioeconomic discrimination with timing of alcohol initiation and progression from initiation to problem drinking in Black youth. METHODS: Data were drawn from a high-risk family study of alcohol use disorder. Mothers and their offspring (N = 806; Mage = 17.87, SDage = 3.91; 50% female) were assessed via telephone interview. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine associations between discrimination and timing of first drink and progression from first drink to problem drinking in two separate models. Predictor variables were considered in a step-wise fashion, starting with offspring racial and socioeconomic discrimination, then adding (2) maternal racial and/or socioeconomic discrimination experiences; (3) religious service attendance and social support as potential moderators; and (4) psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors and other substance use. RESULTS: Offspring racial discrimination (HR: 2.01, CI: 1.17-3.46 ≤ age 13) and maternal experiences of discrimination (HR: 0.79, CI: 0.67-0.93) were associated with timing of initiation in the unadjusted model only; offspring socioeconomic discrimination predicted timing of initiation among female offspring, even after adjusting for all covariates (HR: 1.49, CI: 1.14-1.93). Socioeconomic discrimination predicted a quicker transition from first use to problem drinking exclusively in the unadjusted model (HR: 1.70, CI: 1.12-2.58 ≤ age 18). No moderating effects of religious service attendance or social support were observed for either alcohol outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest socioeconomic discrimination is a robust risk factor for initiating alcohol use in young Black female youth and should be considered in the development of targeted prevention programs.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Alcoolismo/economia , Racismo/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/etnologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/etnologia , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 33(2): 108-115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021935

RESUMO

Perinatal and neonatal nurses have a critical role to play in effectively addressing the disproportionate prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes experienced by black childbearing families. Upstream inequities in maternal health must be better understood and addressed to achieve this goal. The importance of maternal health before, during, and after pregnancy is illustrated with the growing and inequitable prevalence of 2 common illnesses, pregestational diabetes and chronic hypertension, and 2 common conditions during and after pregnancy, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. New care models are needed and must be structured on appropriate ethical principles for serving black families in partnership with nurses. The overarching purpose of this article is to describe the ethics of perinatal care for black women; to discuss how social determinants of health, health disparities, and health inequities affecting women contribute to poor outcomes among their children; and to provide tools to dismantle structural racism specific to "mother blame" narratives." Finally, strategies are presented to enhance the provision of ethical perinatal care for black women by nurses.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Saúde Materna , Assistência Perinatal/ética , Racismo/etnologia , Feminino , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Terapia Narrativa , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Enfermagem Neonatal/organização & administração , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Cuidado Pós-Natal/ética , Gravidez , Racismo/economia , Estados Unidos
16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 33(3): 291-297, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrimination in health care settings is associated with poor health outcomes and may be especially harmful to individuals with chronic conditions, who need ongoing clinical care. Although efforts to reduce discrimination are growing, little is known about national trends in discrimination in health care settings. METHODS: For Black, White, and Hispanic respondents with chronic disease in the 2008-2014 Health and Retirement Study (N = 13,897 individuals and 21,078 reports), we evaluated trends in patient-reported discrimination, defined based on frequency of receiving poorer service or treatment than other people from doctors or hospitals ("never" vs. all other). Respondents also reported the perceived reason for the discrimination. In addition, we evaluated whether wealth predicted lower prevalence of discrimination for Blacks or Whites. We used generalized estimating equation models to account for dependency of repeated measures on individuals and wave-specific weights to represent the US non-institutionalized population aged 54+ . RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of experiencing discrimination in health care among Blacks with a major chronic condition was 27% (95% CI: 23, 30) in 2008 and declined to 20% (95% CI: 17, 22) in 2014. Reports of receiving poorer service or treatment were stable for Whites (17%, 95% CI: 16, 19 in 2014). The Black-White difference in reporting any health care discrimination declined from 8.2% (95% CI: 4.5, 12.0) in 2008 to 2.5% (95% CI: -1.1, 6.0) in 2014. There was no clear trend for Hispanics. Blacks reported race and Whites reported age as the most common reason for discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest national declines in patient-reported discrimination in health care among Blacks with chronic conditions from 2008 to 2014, although reports of discrimination remain common for all racial/ethnic groups. Our results highlight the critical importance of monitoring trends in reports of discrimination in health care to advance equity in health care.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Racismo/etnologia , Racismo/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Racismo/economia
17.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 85(5): 397-408, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26460700

RESUMO

Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Racismo/economia , Racismo/psicologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Narração , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nurs Res ; 62(3): 169-77, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23478597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally educated registered nurses comprise 5.4% of the U.S. nursing workforce. These nurses perceive unequal treatment in the workplace. However, studies comparing their wages to U.S.-educated registered nurses are limited and inconclusive. It is unclear whether there is a wage differential in the U.S. labor market. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine if there is a difference in the wages of internationally and U.S.-educated nurses and to determine the extent to which the wage gap relates to differences in the human capital, employment, and demographic characteristics of the two groups. METHODS: The 2008 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses data were used for this secondary data analysis study. The sample included 988 internationally educated nurses and 21,715 U.S.-educated nurses. Multiple regression and Oaxaca decomposition were used to find predictors of log hourly wages. RESULTS: Internationally educated nurses earned 5% higher log hourly wages, controlling for human capital, employment, and demographic characteristics. Male gender, working in a metropolitan area, hospital job, union representation, higher nursing experience, and higher education exerted significant positive effects on hourly wages. Oaxaca decomposition showed that 67% of the wage differential was because of the differences in the characteristics of two groups. DISCUSSION: If there is any form of discrimination against internationally educated nurses in the United States, it does not translate into wage inequality. Predictors of economic success should be explored in future research.


Assuntos
Pessoal Profissional Estrangeiro/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/economia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/economia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Salários e Benefícios/economia , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
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