Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 383
Filtrar
1.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 243-255, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although researchers, policymakers, and practitioners recognize the importance of the public's perceptions of police, few studies have examined developmental trends in adolescents and young adults' views of police. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1: Perceptions of police legitimacy would exhibit a U-shaped curve, declining in adolescence before improving in young adulthood. Hypothesis 2: At all ages, Black youth would report more negative perceptions of police legitimacy than Latino youth, who would report more negative perceptions than White youth. Hypothesis 3: Perceptions of police bias would be consistently associated with worse perceptions of police legitimacy. METHOD: Utilizing longitudinal data from the Crossroads Study, this study examined within-person trends in males' perceptions of police legitimacy from ages 13 to 22, as well as whether perceptions of police bias were associated with perceptions of police legitimacy. RESULTS: Perceptions of police legitimacy followed a U-shaped curve that declined during adolescence, reached its lowest point around age 18, and improved during the transition to young adulthood. Compared with White youth, Latino and Black youth had shallower curves in perceptions of police legitimacy that exhibited less improvement during the transition to adulthood. Further, perceptions of police bias were consistently associated with more negative perceptions of police legitimacy across races and ages. CONCLUSIONS: While perceptions of police legitimacy may decline during adolescence before improving during the transition to adulthood, perceptions of police bias are consistently negatively related to youth and young adults' perceptions of police legitimacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Percepção , Polícia , Racismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462353

RESUMO

Mounting reports in the media suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified prejudice and discrimination against racial/ethnic minorities, especially Asians. Existing research has focused on discrimination against Asians and is primarily based on self-reported incidents or nonrepresentative samples. We investigate the extent to which COVID-19 has fueled prejudice and discrimination against multiple racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States by examining nationally representative survey data with an embedded vignette experiment about roommate selection (collected in August 2020; n = 5,000). We find that priming COVID-19 salience has an immediate, statistically significant impact: compared to the control group, respondents in the treatment group exhibited increased prejudice and discriminatory intent against East Asian, South Asian, and Hispanic hypothetical room-seekers. The treatment effect is more pronounced in increasing extreme negative attitudes toward the three minority groups than decreasing extreme positive attitudes toward them. This is partly due to the treatment increasing the proportion of respondents who perceive these minority groups as extremely culturally incompatible (Asians and Hispanics) and extremely irresponsible (Asians). Sociopolitical factors did not moderate the treatment effects on attitudes toward Asians, but prior social contact with Hispanics mitigated prejudices against them. These findings suggest that COVID-19-fueled prejudice and discrimination have not been limited to East Asians but are part of a broader phenomenon that has affected Asians generally and Hispanics as well.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Preconceito , Atitude , COVID-19/etnologia , Humanos , Intenção , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pandemias , Preconceito/etnologia , Racismo/etnologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estados Unidos
3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(8): 1455-1458, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233916

RESUMO

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, Asian Americans have been subjected to rising overt discrimination and violent hate crimes, highlighting the health implications of racism toward Asian Americans. As Asian Americans are the only group for whom cancer is the leading cause of death, these manifestations of anti-Asian racism provoke the question of the impact of racism across the cancer continuum for Asian Americans. In this Commentary, we describe how the myth of the "model minority" overlooks the diversity of Asian Americans. Ignoring such diversity in sociocultural trends, immigration patterns, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and barriers to care masks disparities in cancer risk, access to care, and outcomes across Asian American populations. We recommend cancer epidemiologists, population science researchers, and oncology providers direct attention toward: (i) studying the impacts of structural and personally mediated racism on cancer risk and outcomes; (ii) ensuring studies reflect the uniqueness of individual ethnic groups, including intersectionality, and uncover underlying disparities; and (iii) applying a critical race theory approach that considers the unique lived experiences of each group. A more nuanced understanding of cancer health disparities, and how drivers of these disparities are associated with race and differ across Asian American ethnicities, may elucidate means through which these disparities can be alleviated.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ética em Pesquisa/educação , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Neoplasias/terapia , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Racismo/etnologia , Racismo/psicologia , Classe Social
4.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 121(9): 1679-1694, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A steep rise in food insecurity is among the most pressing US public health problems that has resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) describe how food-insecure emerging adults are adapting their eating and child-feeding behaviors during COVID-19 and (2) identify barriers and opportunities to improve local food access and access to food assistance. DESIGN: The COVID-19 Eating and Activity Over Time study collected survey data from emerging adults during April to October 2020 and completed interviews with a diverse subset of food-insecure respondents. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: A total of 720 emerging adults (mean age: 24.7 ± 2.0 years; 62% female; 90% living in Minnesota) completed an online survey, and a predominately female subsample (n = 33) completed an interview by telephone or videoconference. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survey measures included the short-form of the US Household Food Security Survey Module and 2 items to assess food insufficiency. Interviews assessed eating and feeding behaviors along with barriers to healthy food access. ANALYSES PERFORMED: Descriptive statistics and a hybrid deductive and inductive content analysis. RESULTS: Nearly one-third of survey respondents had experienced food insecurity in the past year. Interviews with food-insecure participants identified 6 themes with regard to changes in eating and feeding behavior (eg, more processed food, sporadic eating), 5 themes regarding local food access barriers (eg, limited enforcement of COVID-19 safety practices, experiencing discrimination), and 4 themes regarding barriers to accessing food assistance (eg, lack of eligibility, difficulty in locating pantries). Identified recommendations include (1) expanding the distribution of information about food pantries and meal distribution sites, and (2) increasing fresh fruit and vegetable offerings at these sites. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions of specific relevance to COVID-19 (eg, stronger implementation of safety practices) and expanded food assistance services are needed to improve the accessibility of healthy food for emerging adults.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dieta/normas , Assistência Alimentar/normas , Insegurança Alimentar , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Racismo/etnologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Anthropol Med ; 28(2): 172-187, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180281

RESUMO

In Brazil, Black women are disproportionately denied access to timely care and are made vulnerable to death by avoidable obstetric causes. However, they have not been at the center of recent initiatives to improve maternal health. This paper contends that the effectiveness of Brazilian maternal and infant health policy is limited by failures to robustly address racial health inequities. Multi-sited ethnographic research on the implementation of the Rede Cegonha program in Bahia, Brazil between 2012 and 2017 reveals how anti-Blackness structures iatrogenic harms for Black women as well as their kin in maternal healthcare. Building on the work of Black Brazilian feminists, the paper shows how Afro-Brazilian women experience anti-Black racism in obstetric care, which the paper argues can be better understood through Dána-Ain Davis' concept of obstetric racism. The paper suggests that such forms of violence reveal the necropolitical facets of reproductive governance and that the framing of obstetric violence broadens the scales and temporalities of iatrogenesis.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Doença Iatrogênica/etnologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Racismo/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Antropologia Médica , Brasil/etnologia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Parto/etnologia , Gravidez
7.
Nurs Res ; 70(5S Suppl 1): S21-S30, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among Black Americans, interpersonal racial discrimination is common. Stress, including following discrimination, contributes to pregnancy complications. In this secondary analysis, we provide data on associations among discrimination, stress, and their interaction across the life course and inflammation, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. METHODS: During the early third trimester, Black American women (n = 93) completed the Experiences of Discrimination Scale, the Stress and Adversity Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Inventory. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-ß levels were quantified. Associations were examined by linear regression, controlling for demographic, behavioral, and clinical covariates. RESULTS: Associations among racial discrimination and plasma IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-ß levels depended upon average ratings of life course stress. When stress was low, discrimination in the mid tertile was associated with the highest levels of IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-ß. Subscale analyses suggested that findings related to IL-8 were driven by chronic stress whereas findings related to TNF-α and IL-ß were driven by acute stress. When examined together, greater discrimination but not greater life course stress was associated with higher prenatal perceived stress. In subscale analyses, the association between discrimination and prenatal perceived stress depended upon average ratings of life course acute stress. When acute stress was low, discrimination in the midtertile was associated with the highest levels of prenatal perceived stress. When acute stress was high, discrimination in the high tertile was associated with the highest levels of prenatal perceived stress. There were also direct associations among greater life course chronic stress, prenatal perceived stress, and prenatal depressive symptoms. Associations were attenuated when discrimination was included as a covariate. CONCLUSIONS: The current analyses suggest that, among Black Americans, prenatal inflammation, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms may be shaped by racial discrimination and stress across the life course. In many cases, associations among discrimination and prenatal parameters depended upon how stressful exposures to life course stressors had been rated. The data suggest the potential for adaptive plasticity under some stress and highlight the deleterious nature of compounding stress.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/classificação , Inflamação/etnologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/etnologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
8.
Nurs Res ; 70(5S Suppl 1): S43-S52, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racism is a significant source of toxic stress and a root cause of health inequities. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to vicarious racism (i.e., racism experienced by a caregiver) is associated with poor child health and development, but associations with biological indicators of toxic stress have not been well studied. It is also unknown whether two-generation interventions, such as early home visiting programs, may help to mitigate the harmful effects of vicarious racism. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child indicators of toxic stress and to test whether relationships are moderated by prior participation in Minding the Baby (MTB), an attachment-based early home visiting intervention. METHODS: Ninety-seven maternal-child dyads (n = 43 intervention dyads, n = 54 control dyads) enrolled in the MTB Early School Age follow-up study. Mothers reported on racial discrimination using the Experiences of Discrimination Scale. Child indicators of toxic stress included salivary biomarkers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein, panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines), body mass index, and maternally reported child behavioral problems. We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child indicators of toxic stress and included an interaction term between experiences of discrimination and MTB group assignment (intervention vs. control) to test moderating effects of the MTB intervention. RESULTS: Mothers identified as Black/African American (33%) and Hispanic/Latina (64%). In adjusted models, maternal experiences of racial discrimination were associated with elevated salivary interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in children, but not child body mass index or behavior. Prior participation in the MTB intervention moderated the relationship between maternal experiences of discrimination and child interleukin-6 levels. DISCUSSION: Results of this study suggest that racism may contribute to the biological embedding of early adversity through influences on inflammation, but additional research with serum markers is needed to better understand this relationship. Improved understanding of the relationships among vicarious racism, protective factors, and childhood toxic stress is necessary to inform family and systemic-level intervention.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Visita Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Racismo/etnologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Saliva , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
10.
Mol Cell ; 81(9): 1855-1856, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961771

RESUMO

We talk to Sigourney Bell and Henry J. Henderson about what motivated them to found Black in Cancer, the importance of community and representation, as well as the resources the organization provides, future directions, and how we and our readers can provide support.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Oncologia/história , Neoplasias/história , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/história , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/etnologia , Fatores Raciais , Racismo/etnologia , Racismo/história
17.
Radiology ; 299(1): 27-35, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560191

RESUMO

It may seem unlikely that the field of radiology perpetuates disparities in health care, as most radiologists never interact directly with patients, and racial bias is not an obvious factor when interpreting images. However, a closer look reveals that imaging plays an important role in the propagation of disparities. For example, many advanced and resource-intensive imaging modalities, such as MRI and PET/CT, are generally less available in the hospitals frequented by people of color, and when they are available, access is impeded due to longer travel and wait times. Furthermore, their images may be of lower quality, and their interpretations may be more error prone. The aggregate effect of these imaging acquisition and interpretation disparities in conjunction with social factors is insufficiently recognized as part of the wide variation in disease outcomes seen between races in America. Understanding the nature of disparities in radiology is important to effectively deploy the resources and expertise necessary to mitigate disparities through diversity and inclusion efforts, research, and advocacy. In this article, the authors discuss disparities in access to imaging, examine their causes, and propose solutions aimed at addressing these disparities.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Racismo/etnologia , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Estados Unidos
18.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(3): e75-e80, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this evidence-based theoretically informed article was to provide an overview of how and why the COVID-19 outbreak is particularly detrimental for the health of older Black and Latinx adults. METHODS: We draw upon current events, academic literature, and numerous data sources to illustrate how biopsychosocial factors place older adults at higher risk for COVID-19 relative to younger adults, and how structural racism magnifies these risks for black and Latinx adults across the life course. RESULTS: We identify 3 proximate mechanisms through which structural racism operates as a fundamental cause of racial/ethnic inequalities in COVID-19 burden among older adults: (a) risk of exposure, (b) weathering processes, and (c) health care access and quality. DISCUSSION: While the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented crisis, the racial/ethnic health inequalities among older adults it has exposed are longstanding and deeply rooted in structural racism within American society. This knowledge presents both challenges and opportunities for researchers and policymakers as they seek to address the needs of older adults. It is imperative that federal, state, and local governments collect and release comprehensive data on the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths by race/ethnicity and age to better gauge the impact of the outbreak across minority communities. We conclude with a discussion of incremental steps to be taken to lessen the disproportionate burden of COVID-19 among older Black and Latinx adults, as well as the need for transformative actions that address structural racism in order to achieve population health equity.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Envelhecimento/etnologia , COVID-19/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Laryngoscope ; 131(4): E1369-E1374, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of race and ethnicity on 30-day complications following pediatric endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients ≤ 18 years of age undergoing ESS from 2015 to 2017 were identified in the Pediatric National Surgical Improvement Program-Pediatric database. Patient demographics, comorbidities, surgical indication, and postoperative complications were extracted. Patient race/ethnicity included non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and other. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine if race/ethnicity was a predictor of postoperative complications after ESS. RESULTS: A total of 4,337 patients were included in the study. The median age was 10.9 (interquartile range: 14.5-6.7) years. The cohort was comprised of 68.3% non-Hispanic white, 13.9% non-Hispanic black, 9.7% Hispanic, and 2.1% other. The 30-day complication rate was 3.2%, and the mortality rate was 0.3%. The rate of reoperation was 3.8%, and readmission was 4.1%. Black and Hispanic patients had higher rates of urgent operations (P = .003 and P < .001, respectively), and black patients had a higher incidence of emergent operations (P < .001) compared to their white peers. For elective ESS cases, multivariable analysis adjusting for sex, age, comorbidities, and surgical indication indicated that children of Hispanic ethnicity had increased postoperative complications (odds ratio: 1.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.37). CONCLUSION: This analysis demonstrated that black and Hispanic children disproportionately undergo more urgent and emergent ESS. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with increased 30-day complications following elective pediatric ESS. Further studies are needed to elucidate potential causes of these disparities and identify areas for improvement. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:E1369-E1374, 2021.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais/efeitos adversos , Seios Paranasais/cirurgia , Racismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Endoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etnologia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Med Anthropol ; 40(3): 241-253, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852225

RESUMO

Drawing on ethnographic research from Albania, I examine Romani and Balkan Egyptian women's health inequities. While it has been well documented that Romani people, who constitute Europe's largest socioracial minority group, experience racism and marginalization, how these forms of social exclusion shape health outcomes in the Balkans remains limited. I argue that racism is a root cause of social and health inequities, and that Romani and Egyptian women experience unique bodily fatigue marked by extreme zor ("difficulty," "constraint"). An examination of zor can potentially provide an understanding of how racism and marginalization are embodied over time.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Racismo/etnologia , Adulto , Albânia/etnologia , Antropologia Médica , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Roma (Grupo Étnico)/etnologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...