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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544875

RESUMO

On May 25, 2020, George Floyd, an unarmed Black American male, was killed by a White police officer. Footage of the murder was widely shared. We examined the psychological impact of Floyd's death using two population surveys that collected data before and after his death; one from Gallup (117,568 responses from n = 47,355) and one from the US Census (409,652 responses from n = 319,471). According to the Gallup data, in the week following Floyd's death, anger and sadness increased to unprecedented levels in the US population. During this period, more than a third of the US population reported these emotions. These increases were more pronounced for Black Americans, nearly half of whom reported these emotions. According to the US Census Household Pulse data, in the week following Floyd's death, depression and anxiety severity increased among Black Americans at significantly higher rates than that of White Americans. Our estimates suggest that this increase corresponds to an additional 900,000 Black Americans who would have screened positive for depression, associated with a burden of roughly 2.7 million to 6.3 million mentally unhealthy days.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Ira/fisiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 627-642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410739

RESUMO

Anti-Asian racism has spiked since the outbreak of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, creating compounded threats to Asian Americans' psychological wellbeing on top of other pandemic stressors (e.g., fears of infection, financial insecurity, or quarantine isolation). COVID-19 anti-Asian racism signifies the relevance of race and racism during public health crises and highlights the importance of examining the psychological impacts of racialized stress and avenues for resilience during a pandemic. This article describes a conceptual model that emphasizes the importance of rechanneling the experience of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism toward resilience. Specifically, the proposed model identifies a tripartite process of collective psychosocial resilience, comprised of (a) critical consciousness of discrimination as a common fate, (b) critical consciousness-informed racial/ethnic identity, and (c) advocacy, for empowering Asian Americans and protecting them against the harmful effects of COVID-19 anti-Asian racism during and beyond the pandemic. Theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the proposed tripartite process for cultivating resilience against COVID-19 anti-Asian racism are delineated. Practice implications and future research directions, as informed and revealed by the conceptual model, are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , COVID-19 , Pandemias , Racismo , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Racismo/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 643-657, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410740

RESUMO

This study examines adjustment patterns among a group neglected in developmental science-Asian American students in high-achieving schools. National reports have declared such schools to connote risk for elevated problems among teens. Asian American students are commonly referred to as model minorities, but little is known about adjustment issues within academically competitive settings, specifically. Guided by past research on culturally salient issues, multiple U.S. high schools were examined to (a) determine areas of relative strength versus weakness in adjustment of Asian Americans compared with Whites, and (b) more importantly, to illuminate salient within-group processes related to Asian Americans' well-being. Risk modifiers examined were perceptions of ethnic discrimination, parent perfectionism, internalized achievement pressure, authenticity in self-presentation, and closeness to school adults. Outcome variables included depression, anxiety, and isolation at school. Results demonstrated that Asian Americans fared better than Whites on anxiety and school isolation, but with low effect sizes. By contrast, they fared more poorly on almost all risk modifiers, with a large effect size on discrimination. Regression results showed that among Asian Americans the most consistent associations, across cohorts and outcomes, were for discrimination and authenticity. Findings underscore the need for greater recognition that discrimination could be inimical for students not typically thought of as vulnerable-Asian Americans in high-achieving schools; these issues are especially pressing in light of increased racism following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results also suggest that feelings of inauthenticity could be a marker of generalized vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Implications for future theory and interventions are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , COVID-19 , Racismo , Resiliência Psicológica , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Racismo/psicologia , Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 192, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research indicates the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, and discrimination inflamed by the COVID-19 pandemic, a type of social exclusion, could affect the well-being of the Chinese diaspora. We analyzed the relationship and pathways of perceived discrimination's effect on health among the Chinese diaspora in the context of the pandemic to contribute to the literature on discrimination in this population under the global public health crisis. METHODS: We analyzed data from 705 individuals of Chinese descent residing in countries outside of China who participated in a cross-sectional online survey between April 22 and May 9, 2020. This study utilized a structural equation model (SEM) to evaluate both direct and indirect effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH) and to assess the mediating roles of psychological distress (namely, anxiety and depression) and social support from family and friends. RESULTS: This online sample comprised predominantly young adults and those of relatively high socioeconomic status. This study confirmed the total and direct effect of recently perceived discrimination on SRH and found the indirect effect was mainly mediated by depression. Mediating roles of anxiety and social support on the discrimination-health relationship were found insignificant in this SEM. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest discrimination negatively affected the well-being of the Chinese diaspora, and depression acted as a major mediator between the discrimination-health relationship. Therefore, interventions for reducing discrimination to preserve the well-being of the Chinese diaspora are necessary. Prompt intervention to address depression may partially relieve the disease burden caused by the surge of discrimination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Pandemias , Racismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Racismo/psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 325-334, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423994

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic transformed the context and delivery of early childhood education, yet little is known about its impact on exclusionary discipline (e.g., suspension, expulsion), which nationally representative evidence has shown disproportionately impacts Black boys. Using one experiment, we test how preschool providers respond to three hypothetical vignettes about a Black boy's behaviors. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to read vignettes set in either distance learning or in-person classroom contexts. Then, participants completed measures about discipline and COVID-19. Results indicated there was an interaction between context and the sequence of vignettes on providers' troubled feelings and endorsements of discipline. Providers showed heightened troubled feelings and endorsements of discipline severity in the distance learning context, as compared to an in-person context, as vignettes progressed. Additionally, the more providers feared COVID-19, the more they felt troubled over the course of the vignettes across conditions. Practitioners can use this research to inform consultative interventions that mitigate discipline by directly addressing providers' pandemic fears and classroom contexts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Educação à Distância , Racismo/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Interação Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462353

RESUMO

Mounting reports in the media suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified prejudice and discrimination against racial/ethnic minorities, especially Asians. Existing research has focused on discrimination against Asians and is primarily based on self-reported incidents or nonrepresentative samples. We investigate the extent to which COVID-19 has fueled prejudice and discrimination against multiple racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States by examining nationally representative survey data with an embedded vignette experiment about roommate selection (collected in August 2020; n = 5,000). We find that priming COVID-19 salience has an immediate, statistically significant impact: compared to the control group, respondents in the treatment group exhibited increased prejudice and discriminatory intent against East Asian, South Asian, and Hispanic hypothetical room-seekers. The treatment effect is more pronounced in increasing extreme negative attitudes toward the three minority groups than decreasing extreme positive attitudes toward them. This is partly due to the treatment increasing the proportion of respondents who perceive these minority groups as extremely culturally incompatible (Asians and Hispanics) and extremely irresponsible (Asians). Sociopolitical factors did not moderate the treatment effects on attitudes toward Asians, but prior social contact with Hispanics mitigated prejudices against them. These findings suggest that COVID-19-fueled prejudice and discrimination have not been limited to East Asians but are part of a broader phenomenon that has affected Asians generally and Hispanics as well.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Preconceito , Atitude , COVID-19/etnologia , Humanos , Intenção , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pandemias , Preconceito/etnologia , Racismo/etnologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estados Unidos
12.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(5): 523-535, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination is prevalent among Black Americans, and may increase risk for alcohol use and related problems. Understanding the mediating and moderating factors in the pathways linking racial discrimination to alcohol use outcomes is important for prevention and intervention efforts. We tested depressive symptoms as a mediator and ethnic-racial identity as a moderator in the relation between racial discrimination and alcohol use outcomes among Black American young adults. METHODS: We used data from 2 independent samples of Black American young adults recruited from different regions in the United States. The first sample included 383 Black American young adults (Mage = 20.65, SD = 2.28; 81% female), and the second sample included 165 Black American young adults (Mage = 21.56, SD = 4.92; 75% female). RESULTS: Racial discrimination was associated with alcohol consumption and problems indirectly via depressive symptoms across the 2 independent samples. Moderation was evident for one sample such that high private regard levels buffered the association between racial discrimination and alcohol consumption, whereas high public regard levels exacerbated the association between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Racial discrimination experiences put Black American young adults at risk for alcohol use and related problems through increased depressive symptoms. Ethnic-racial identity may buffer or exacerbate these associations depending on the specific dimension. The findings imply the need to target depressive symptoms and alcohol use simultaneously to promote health and well-being among Black Americans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Depressão , Racismo , Identificação Social , Estudantes , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 215-228, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study integrates several distinct lines of jury decision-making research by examining how the racial identities of the defendant and an informant witness interact in a federal drug conspiracy trial scenario and by assessing whether jurors' individual racial identity and jury group racial composition influence their judgments. HYPOTHESES: We predicted that jurors would be biased against the Black defendant and would be more likely to convict after exposure to a White informant, among other hypotheses. METHOD: We recruited 822 nonstudent jury-eligible participants assigned to 144 jury groups. Each group was assigned to one of four onditions where defendant race (Black or White) and informant race (Black or White) was manipulated. Each group watched a realistic audio-visual trial presentation, then deliberated as a group to render a verdict. RESULTS: Contrary to expectations, the conditions depicting a Black defendant yielded lower conviction rates compared to those with a White defendant-at both the predeliberation individual (odds ratio [OR] = 1.54) and postdeliberation group level (OR = 2.91)-while the informant race did not influence verdict outcomes. We also found that jurors rated the government witnesses as more credible when the defendant was White compared to when he was Black. Credibility ratings and verdict outcomes were also predicted by jurors' own race, although juror race did not interact with the race conditions when predicting verdicts. CONCLUSIONS: Jurors are sensitive to defendant race, and this sensitivity appears to strengthen after deliberation-but in a direction opposite to what was expected. One potential implication of our findings is that juries may operate as a check on system bias by applying greater scrutiny to law enforcement-derived evidence when the defendant is Black. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Tráfico de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Julgamento , Função Jurisdicional , Fatores Raciais , Racismo/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Direito Penal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 596-610, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410737

RESUMO

Asian Americans (AAs) are a diverse group who come from many different cultures, backgrounds, immigration histories, geographic regions, and experiences. Unfortunately, AAs are commonly stereotyped as a model minority, used as an intermediary minority, and consequently have been marginalized and left out of dialogues of racism and discrimination. Internalized racism (IR), defined as the internalization of bias and oppression toward one's group, is an especially insidious form of divisive racism that remains largely misunderstood and unaddressed in AAs. In addition to devaluing oneself, IR creates division in communities and reinforces systems of oppression. This paper reviews the extant literature on IR among AAs and discusses the importance of addressing this deleterious issue and its consequences on individual, family, and community mental health. Moreover, I discuss and elucidate how stereotypes about AAs (e.g., model minority, perpetual foreigner, gendered stereotypes, and conceptions of beauty) directly promote and reinforce different types of internalized oppression (e.g., intraracial hierarchies, intraethnic othering, gendered emasculation, and hypersexualization, colorism and Western standards of beauty). Clinical and community recommendations are provided through a multilevel preventive intervention framework. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Beleza , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Estereotipagem
16.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 689-692, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410743

RESUMO

For decades, Asian Americans have had to deal with stereotypes, misunderstandings of their status in society, and prejudice and discrimination. Because of their small population in the U.S. and prevailing model minority stereotypes, they have not received the attention or aid necessary for research and policy advocacy to counter the misunderstandings. It is argued that Asian Americans are diverse group on many dimensions but they share experiences involving stereotypes and racism. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Racismo , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Racismo/psicologia , Marginalização Social
17.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 26(3): 265-266, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240554

RESUMO

We explore racial inequality in relation to Black children and young people (CYP) and Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). We argue that the experience of racism should be universally considered an Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE). We argue that racism and the vicarious trauma arising from exposure to frequent media reports of racially motivated violence against persons of Black ethnicity can all predispose Black CYP to increased risk of mental health problems. We make recommendations to improve Black CYP's early access to CAMHS, and to reduce their overrepresentation in psychiatric in-patient settings in the UK. This would require making CAMHS more welcoming to Black CYP and consideration of the impact of racism and trauma in the diagnostic and treatment formulation for Black CYP. This should include: the impact of racism in staff training, improving the cultural competence of CAMHS staff, and supporting Black CYP to articulate their experiences of racism and related traumas whilst facilitating their development of coping strategies to manage these experiences.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Racismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , COVID-19 , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Pandemias , Reino Unido
20.
J Vasc Surg ; 74(2S): 101S-110S, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303449

RESUMO

Implicit bias, microaggressions, and macroaggressions have a negative impact on physician and trainee wellness. In this article, we describe how structural racism, misogyny, and other social constructs have shaped the medical landscape. Increasing awareness in medical education, patient care, and research can help to dismantle the effects.


Assuntos
Agressão , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Diversidade Cultural , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Mental , Médicos/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Sexismo , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Feminino , Equidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Médico-Paciente , Médicas/psicologia , Fatores Raciais , Fatores Sexuais
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