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2.
Science ; 367(6485): 1418-1421, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217710
3.
Health Serv Res ; 54 Suppl 2: 1409-1418, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination among Latinos in the United States, which broadly contribute to their poor health outcomes. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN: Data come from a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey including 803 Latinos and a comparison group of 902 non-Hispanic white US adults, conducted January-April 2017. METHODS: We calculated the percent of Latinos reporting discrimination in several domains, including health care. We used logistic regression to compare the Latino-white difference in odds of discrimination, and among Latinos only to examine variation by socioeconomic status and country of birth. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One in five Latinos (20 percent) reported experiencing discrimination in clinical encounters, while 17 percent avoided seeking health care for themselves or family members due to anticipated discrimination. A notable share of Latinos also reported experiencing discrimination with employment (33 percent applying for jobs; 32 percent obtaining equal pay/promotions), housing (31 percent), and police interactions (27 percent). In adjusted models, Latinos had significantly higher odds than whites for reporting discrimination in health care visits (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.61, 6.26) and across several other domains. Latinos with college degrees had significantly higher odds of reporting discrimination in multiple domains than those without college degrees, with few differences between foreign-born and US-born Latinos. CONCLUSIONS: Latinos in the United States report experiencing widespread discrimination in health care and other areas of their lives, at significantly higher levels than whites. Being born in the United States and earning a college degree are not protective against discrimination, suggesting that further health and social policy efforts to eliminate discrimination are needed.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Racismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Estados Unidos
4.
Health Serv Res ; 54 Suppl 2: 1399-1408, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine experiences of racial discrimination among black adults in the United States, which broadly contribute to their poor health outcomes. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN: Data come from a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey including 802 non-Hispanic black and a comparison group of 902 non-Hispanic white US adults, conducted January-April 2017. METHODS: We calculated the percent of blacks reporting discrimination in several domains, including health care. We used logistic regression to compare the black-white difference in odds of discrimination, and among blacks only to examine variation by socioeconomic status, gender, and neighborhood racial composition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: About one-third of blacks (32 percent) reported experiencing discrimination in clinical encounters, while 22 percent avoided seeking health care for themselves or family members due to anticipated discrimination. A majority of black adults reported experiencing discrimination in employment (57 percent in obtaining equal pay/promotions; 56 percent in applying for jobs), police interactions (60 percent reported being stopped/unfairly treated by police), and hearing microaggressions (52 percent) and racial slurs (51 percent). In adjusted models, blacks had significantly higher odds than whites of reporting discrimination in every domain. Among blacks, having a college degree was associated with higher odds of experiencing overall institutional discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of reported discrimination across several areas of life suggests a broad pattern of discrimination against blacks in America, beyond isolated experiences. Black-white disparities exist on nearly all dimensions of experiences with public and private institutions, including health care and the police. Evidence of systemic discrimination suggests a need for more active institutional interventions to address racism in policy and practice.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Estados Unidos
5.
Health Serv Res ; 54 Suppl 2: 1431-1441, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine reported racial discrimination and harassment against Native Americans, which broadly contribute to poor health outcomes. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN: Data come from a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey including 342 Native American and 902 white US adults, conducted January-April 2017. METHODS: We calculated the percent of Native Americans reporting discrimination in several domains, including health care. We used logistic regression to compare the Native American-white difference in odds of discrimination and conducted exploratory analyses among Native Americans only to examine variation by socioeconomic and geographic/neighborhood characteristics. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: More than one in five Native Americans (23 percent) reported experiencing discrimination in clinical encounters, while 15 percent avoided seeking health care for themselves or family members due to anticipated discrimination. A notable share of Native Americans also reported they or family members have experienced violence (38 percent) or have been threatened or harassed (34 percent). In adjusted models, Native Americans had higher odds than whites of reporting discrimination across several domains, including health care and interactions with the police/courts. In exploratory analyses, the association between geographic/neighborhood characteristics and discrimination among Native Americans was mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination and harassment are widely reported by Native Americans across multiple domains of their lives, regardless of geographic or neighborhood context. Native Americans report major disparities compared to whites in fair treatment by institutions, particularly with health care and police/courts. Results suggest modern forms of discrimination and harassment against Native Americans are systemic and untreated problems.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Estados Unidos
6.
Health Serv Res ; 54 Suppl 2: 1419-1430, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine experiences of racial discrimination among Asian Americans, which broadly contribute to poor health outcomes. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN: Data come from a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey, including 500 Asian and a comparison group of 902 white US adults, conducted January to April 2017. METHODS: We calculated the percent of Asian Americans reporting discrimination in several domains, including health care. We used logistic regression to compare the Asian-white difference in odds of discrimination, and among Asians only to examine variation by geographic heritage group (South Asian versus East Asian) and gender. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 13 percent of Asians reported discrimination in healthcare encounters. At least one in four adults reported experiencing discrimination in employment (27 percent job applications, 25 percent equal pay/promotions); housing (25 percent); and interpersonal interactions (35 percent microaggressions, 32 percent racial slurs). In unadjusted models, East and South Asians were more likely than whites to report experiences of institutional discrimination, and South Asians were more likely than whites to report microaggressions. In adjusted models, Asians had higher odds than whites of reporting avoiding health care due to discrimination concerns and also when obtaining housing. CONCLUSIONS: Asians in the United States experience discrimination interpersonally and across many institutional settings, including housing and health care. South Asians may be especially vulnerable to forms of institutional discrimination and microaggressions. These results illustrate a need for greater investigation into the unique experiences of Asian subgroups and greater protections for groups at higher risk of discrimination, within health care and beyond.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone
7.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(10): 641-647, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566419

RESUMO

While there is a growing body of research on how individuals evaluate interracial exclusion in offline settings, much less is known about evaluations of interracial exclusion in online settings. This study aimed to address this gap by examining evaluations by male adolescents and young adults (N = 151; Mage = 17.59, standard deviation = 0.50) of interracial exclusion in both online and offline settings to understand these evaluations in concert. Furthermore, participants completed measures of offline and online intergroup contact, providing new evidence that intergroup contact in online settings is an important context for learning about others. The findings indicate that participants' online and offline intergroup contacts were related. In terms of evaluations of exclusion, participants were much more likely to attribute exclusion to nonrace-based reasons in online and offline settings than to race-based reasons. Additionally, participants with higher rates of intergroup contact were more likely to perceive race-based exclusion as wrong than those with low rates of contact. The novel findings document that young men's online and offline intergroup contact shape their evaluations of interracial exclusion in online settings.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Internet , Racismo/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Health Serv Res ; 54 Suppl 2: 1467-1471, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize findings from this Special Issue, which examine reported experiences of discrimination among six underrepresented groups in public opinion research-blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, Asian Americans, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) adults, and women. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN: Data come from a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey of 3453 US adults, conducted January-April 2017. METHODS: We calculated the percent of adults reporting discrimination in several domains, including health care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In health care encounters, 32 percent of black adults reported discrimination, as did 23 percent of Native Americans, 20 percent of Latinos, 18 percent of women, 16 percent of LGBTQ adults, and 13 percent of Asian Americans. Significant shares also reported experiencing racial, gender, or LGBTQ identity-based violence against themselves or family members, including 51 percent of LGBTQ adults, 42 percent of blacks, 38 percent of Native Americans, and 21 percent of women. At least one in seven blacks (22 percent), LGBTQ adults (18 percent), Latinos (17 percent), and Native Americans (15 percent) reported avoiding health care for themselves or family members over concerns of anticipated discrimination or unfair treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this polling effort illustrates the significant and widespread level of discrimination against many groups in America today, as well as the complex manifestation of these experiences across different groups and different areas of life. While it is beyond the scope of these results to make specific recommendations for how to end discrimination in each area of life we studied, this Special Issue provides important evidence that more research and practice on discrimination are sorely needed in health services research.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Racismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Estados Unidos
9.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 27(1): 1571324, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533562

RESUMO

Roma health mediators are part of a government funded, community-led health intervention. One of the programme's central aims is to improve access to reproductive care for Roma women, often said to be one of the most disadvantaged population groups in Europe. This paper is a critical analysis of mediation in Romania, focusing on how social determinants shape access to family planning and how mediators are employed to address inequalities. It is based on ethnographic observations of mediators at work, as well as in-depth interviews with community members, health professionals, and mediators. Health professionals tended to see Roma families as wanting and having an unreasonably large number of children and tried to curtail this through the promotion of contraception. This contrasted with the perspective of community members, who appeared not to choose having many children but who instead struggled to access contraception for financial reasons. Roma health mediators generally seemed aware of multiple and intersecting pressures that women were facing, but ultimately tended to frame family planning as a matter of choice, culture, and knowledge. I set these perspectives against the background of anti-Roma racism and eugenic sentiments, reflected in popular discourses about Roma reproduction. I explore how an intervention that nominally aims to promote the emancipation of Roma communities, in fact entrenches some of the racially fused assumptions that are connected to inequalities of access to reproductive health care in the first place. The discussion has implications for Roma reproductive health interventions across Europe, and for participatory interventions more globally.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Características da Família/etnologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Racismo/psicologia , Roma/psicologia , Antropologia Cultural , Anticoncepção , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Negociação , Romênia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1271, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpersonal discrimination experience has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Limited research has evaluated this relationship within multicultural contexts outside the United States where the nature and salience of discrimination experiences may differ. Such research is important in order to help identify protective and risk factors that may mediate the relationship between discrimination experience and adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: Evaluated the relationship between perceived discrimination, as measured in pregnancy, with birth weight and gestation length among Maori, Pacific, and Asian women from Aotearoa New Zealand (N = 1653). RESULTS: Thirty percent of the sample reported some type of unfair treatment that they attributed to their ethnicity. For Maori women specifically, unfair treatment at work (ß = - 243 g) and in acquiring housing (ß = - 146 g) were associated with lower birth weight when compared to Maori women not experiencing these types of discrimination, while an ethnically motivated physical attack (ß = - 1.06 week), and unfair treatment in the workplace (ß = - 0.95 week), in the criminal justice system (ß = - 0.55 week), or in banking (ß = - 0.73 week) were associated with significantly shorter gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high prevalence of discrimination experience among women from all ethnic groups, discrimination experience was a strong predictor of lower birth weight and shorter gestation length among indigenous Maori women only. Additional research is needed to better understand the risk and protective factors that may moderate the relationship between discrimination experience and adverse birth outcomes among women from different ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 2023-2037, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541372

RESUMO

Drawing from Race-Based Traumatic Stress theory, the present study examined whether traumatic stress and depressive symptoms differentially help explain the relation between racial/ethnic discrimination and suicidal ideation across gender and racial/ethnic groups. A racially/ethnically diverse group of emerging adults (N = 1344; Mage = 19.88, SD = 2.25; 72% female; 46% Hispanic) completed a battery of self-report measures. A cross-sectional design was employed with a series of hierarchical linear regression models and bootstrapping procedures to examine the direct and indirect relation between racial/ethnic discrimination and suicidal ideation through traumatic stress and depressive symptoms across gender and race/ethnicity. The findings suggest an indirect relation through depressive symptoms, but not traumatic stress, and a serial indirect relation through traumatic stress to depressive symptoms in young women and young men, the latter of which was stronger in young women. The indirect relations did not vary by racial/ethnic group. Cumulative experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may impact suicide-related risk via increases in psychiatric symptomology (i.e., traumatic stress and depressive symptoms), particularly in young women. Racial/ethnic discrimination experiences should be accounted for as a potential source of psychological distress in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of suicidal thoughts and behavior, especially among young women endorsing traumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Further research is warranted to better understand the gender difference in the relation between racial/ethnic discrimination and suicide-related risk.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547132

RESUMO

The Long-Term Care Insurance Law provides support to older Israelis who wish to remain in their home. The present study evaluated the experience of perceived discrimination and stigma in the context of the law among Arab older adults, their family members, and their paid home care workers. For triangulation purposes, we interviewed 15 National Insurance Institute workers (NII; responsible for implementing the law; 47% Arab), 31 older adults (81% Arab), 31 family members (87% Arab), and six paid home care workers (83% Arab) in the north of Israel. Respondents were queried about their home care experience and their encounter with the NII. Thematic analysis was conducted. Four main themes emerged: (a) a strong sense of perceived discrimination among Arab interviewees, (b) reports suggesting the internalization of stigma and the adoption of negative views regarding the Arab population by some Arab respondents, (c) implicit stigma manifested in claims concerning the Arab population (primarily) as "cheating" the system, and (d) the negation of discrimination of Arabs as reported by Jewish interviewees and NII workers. The findings show that a sense of perceived discrimination is common and colors the experience of service seeking among Arabs. On the other hand, the Jewish interviewees in this study completely negated any discrimination or stigma directed toward Arabs. The findings point to the importance of group affiliation (e.g., minority vs. majority) in interpreting the existence of discrimination. The findings likely have major implications for both service providers and policy-makers and legislators.


Assuntos
Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estigma Social , Árabes , Família/psicologia , Visitadores Domiciliares/psicologia , Visitadores Domiciliares/estatística & dados numéricos , Israel , Judeus , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 142, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination is acknowledged as a central social determinant of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) health, although quantitative empirical literature on the impacts of racism on Aboriginal children remains sparse. We use a novel, longitudinal dataset to explore the relationship between caregiver-perceived racism exposure and a range of mental health and related behavioural and physiological outcomes in childhood. METHOD: The study cohort comprised 1759 Aboriginal children aged 4-12 years from waves 2-8 (2009-2015) of the Footprints in Time: The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) dataset. We examined exposure to caregiver-perceived racism between 4 and 11 years as a predictor for mental health and related outcomes at ages 7-12 and substance use at 10-12 years. Unadjusted models and models adjusted for remoteness, community-level and family-level socio-economic status, child age and gender were used in analysis. Multilevel logistic regression was used in all analysis. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, perceived exposure to racism at ages 4-11 was associated with twice the risk of negative mental health (95% CI: 1.3-3.0), sleep difficulties (95% CI: 1.4-3.0), and behaviour issues at school (95% CI: 1.2-2.9), 1.7 times the risk of obesity (95% CI: 1.1-2.5), and nearly 7 times the risk of trying cigarettes (95% CI: 1.1-43.9). Increased risks were also found for being underweight and trying alcohol though estimates did not reach statistical significance. There was no evidence that racism was associated with poorer general health. CONCLUSION: Exposure to racial discrimination in Aboriginal children increased the risk for a spectrum of interrelated psychological, behavioural and physiological factors linked to negative mental health. Our results further affirm the importance of interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of racial discrimination for the benefits of population health and health inequalities. The services and institutions which aim to support the mental health and wellbeing of Aboriginal children should also support interventions to reduce racism and implement accountable policies which prioritise this goal.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(6): 520-528, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414850

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated alcohol-related problems among Asian American college students, perhaps because of the model minority myth, or the false stereotype that Asian Americans are academically and economically successful and thus do not experience significant physical or mental health problems. However, drinking patterns among Asian Americans are complex and there is evidence that alcohol use may be increasing among Asian American college students. One potential risk factor for alcohol-related problems among Asian American college students is racial discrimination. Although past research has revealed a link between experiences of racial discrimination and alcohol use, few studies have examined the psychological processes underlying this association. Furthermore, only a few studies have examined the association between discrimination and alcohol-related problems using longitudinal designs. The present study longitudinally examined the direct and indirect effect of discrimination on alcohol-related problems through the frequency in which they engaged in drinking to cope within a sample of 311 underage Asian American college students. Controlling for alcohol use and baseline alcohol-related problems, Wave 2 drinking-to-cope motives were directly associated with Wave 3 (1 year later) alcohol-related problems. Wave 1 discrimination was indirectly associated with Wave 3 alcohol-related problems through drinking to cope. These findings have important implications for the prevention of alcohol-related problems among an understudied group, Asian American college students. They highlight the necessity of considering how sociocultural factors such as racism contribute to alcohol-related problems as well as examining how psychological processes such as drinking to cope put certain students at increased risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/etnologia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Motivação , Fatores de Risco , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 132, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racism is a pervasive experience in the life of Aboriginal Australians that begins in childhood. As a psychosocial stressor, racism compromises wellbeing and impacts developmental trajectories. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the effect of racism on indicators of Australian Aboriginal child socio-emotional wellbeing (SEWB) at one to two years after exposure. Age-related differences in the onset of symptoms were explored. METHODS: Data from the B- and K-cohorts of the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were used (aged 6 to 12 years). Racism, confounding variables, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (a measure of SEWB) were collected by questionnaires and guided interviews with each child's main caregiver. Adjusted Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RRa) effects of racism on SEWB for both cohorts separately. RRa were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Exposure to racism was associated with an adjusted point estimate indicating a 41% increased risk for total emotional and behavioural difficulties, although the confidence intervals were wide (pooled RRa 1.41, 95% CI 0.75, 2.07). Analyses by cohort showed younger children had higher RRa for total difficulties (RRa 1.72, 95% CI 1.16, 2.54), whilst older children had higher RRa for hyperactive behaviour (RRa 1.66, 95% CI 1.01, 2.73). CONCLUSIONS: The effects observed contributes to our understanding of the impact of racism on Aboriginal Australian children. Support for emotional and behavioural difficulties, and hyperactive behaviour, for Aboriginal children might help counteract the effects of racism. Future longitudinal research and policies aimed at reducing racism in Australian society are necessary.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Emoções , Saúde Mental , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Austrália , Cuidadores , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 445-463, maio-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1010273

RESUMO

Neste trabalho, analisamos as narrativas de mulheres negras sobre seus cabelos, nos cuidados e apresentação dos mesmos, que trazem suas experiências e reflexões sobre como essas (trans)formaram suas identidades. As falas analisadas foram recolhidas de blogs e portais de notícias, disponíveis na Internet, em textos dedicados a discutir relações raciais, racismo, estética negra e feminismos negros. Para a análise, tomamos como referencial teórico os trabalhos de autoras/es que discutem questões raciais e processos de produção da identidade. Na análise do material foi possível pensar, a partir dos olhares dessas mulheres, seus processos de subjetivação desde a infância, na relação com as gerações mais velhas e o cuidado estético cotidiano. Em suas narrativas, dialogadas com referências teóricas que discutem processos de produção de identidade, bem como relações étnico-raciais, emergem experiências atravessadas por episódios explícitos e sutis de racismo. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de uma maior interlocução da Psicologia com referenciais feministas e anti-racistas na teorização de processos de subjetivação de mulheres negras.(AU)


In this work, we analyze the narratives of black women on their hair, selfcare practices and appearence, which bring their experiences and reflections on how these (trans)formed their identities. The speeches analyzed were collected from blogs and news portals, available on the Internet, in texts dedicated to discuss racial relations, racism, black aesthetics and black feminisms. For the analysis, we take as theoretical referent the work of authors that discuss racial issues and processes of identity production. In the analysis of the material it was possible to think, from the perspective of these women, their processes of subjectivation since childhood, the relation with the older generations, and the daily aesthetic selfcare. In their narratives, dialogued with theoretical references that discuss processes of production of identity, as well as ethnic-racial relations, emerge experiences crossed by explicit and subtle episodes of racism. The results point to the need for a greater interlocution of Psychology with feminists and anti-racists references to theorize the processes of subjectivation of black women.(AU)


En este trabajo, analizamos las narrativas de mujeres negras sobre sus cabellos, en los cuidados y presentación de los mismos, que traen sus experiencias y reflexiones sobre cómo estas (trans) formaron sus identidades. Las palabras analizadas fueron recogidas de blogs y portales de noticias, disponibles en Internet, en textos dedicados a discutir relaciones raciales, racismo, estética negra y feminismos negros. Para el análisis, tomamos como referencias teóricas los trabajos de autoras/es que discuten cuestiones raciales y procesos de producción de la identidad. En el análisis del material fue posible pensar, a partir de las miradas de esas mujeres, sus procesos de subjetivación desde la infancia, en la relación con las generaciones más viejas, y el cuidado estético cotidiano. En sus narrativas, dialogadas con referencias teóricas que discuten procesos de producción de identidad, así como relaciones étnico-raciales, emergen experiencias atravesadas por episodios explícitos y sutiles de racismo. Los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de una mayor interlocución de la Psicología con referencias feministas y antirracistas en la teorización de procesos de subjetivación de mujeres negras.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Racismo/psicologia , Cabelo , Mulheres/psicologia , Feminismo
19.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(5): 576, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282690

RESUMO

Reports an error in "Development and evaluation of the Internalized Racism in Asian Americans Scale (IRAAS)" by Andrew Young Choi, Tania Israel and Hotaka Maeda (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2017[Jan], Vol 64[1], 52-64). In this erratum, the first sentence under the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Short Form (CES-D-10) subheading in the Measures section, "(0 = rarely or none of the time to 4 = all of the time)" should be "(0 = rarely or none of the time to 3 = all of the time)" to reflect the appropriate Likert metric. In the first sentence under the Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) subheading in the Procedure section, "rotation" should be excluded as this technique is only applicable in the EFA context. In the last sentence under the CFA subheading in the Cross-validation section, "statically" should be "statistically." And in the third sentence of the third paragraph of the Discussion section, "interethnic" should be "intraracial" to appropriately represent within-race discrimination (rather than between ethnicity). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-00131-004.) This article presents the development and psychometric evaluation of the Internalized Racism in Asian Americans Scale (IRAAS), which was designed to measure the degree to which Asian Americans internalized hostile attitudes and negative messages targeted toward their racial identity. Items were developed on basis of prior literature, vetted through expert feedback and cognitive interviews, and administered to 655 Asian American participants through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Exploratory factor analysis with a random subsample (n = 324) yielded a psychometrically robust preliminary measurement model consisting of 3 factors: Self-Negativity, Weakness Stereotypes, and Appearance Bias. Confirmatory factor analysis with a separate subsample (n = 331) indicated that the proposed correlated factors model was strongly consistent with the observed data. Factor determinacies were high and demonstrated that the specified items adequately measured their intended factors. Bifactor modeling further indicated that this multidimensionality could be univocally represented for the purpose of measurement, including the use of a mean total score representing a single continuum of internalized racism on which individuals vary. The IRAAS statistically predicted depressive symptoms, and demonstrated statistically significant correlations in theoretically expected directions with four dimensions of collective self-esteem. These results provide initial validity evidence supporting the use of the IRAAS to measure aspects of internalized racism in this population. Limitations and research implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Hostilidade , Racismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Mecanismos de Defesa , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/etnologia , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Health Psychol ; 38(11): 1010-1013, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the role of depressive symptoms in mediating the relationship between early life experiences of racial discrimination and accelerated aging in adulthood for African Americans (i.e., prediction over a 19-year period, from ages 10 to 29) after adjusting for gender and health behaviors. METHOD: Longitudinal self-report data over 7 waves of data collection from the Family and Community Health Study were utilized. The sample included 368 African Americans with usable gene expression data to compute accelerated aging, as well as complete data on all self-report variables including racial discrimination (Schedule of Racist Events) and depression (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version 4). Blood was collected by antecubital blood draws from participants at age 29. The proposed model was tested by path analysis. RESULTS: Findings revealed that high discrimination at ages 10-15 was associated with depression at ages 20-29 (ß = .19, p = .001), controlling for depression at ages 10-15, which, in turn, was related to accelerated cellular-level aging (ß = .11, p = .048) after controlling for gender, alcohol consumption, and cigarette use. The indirect effect of racial discrimination on aging through depression at ages 20-29 was significant (ß = .021, 95% confidence interval [.001, .057]), accounting for 32.3% of the total variance. CONCLUSION: These findings support research conceptualizations that early life stress due to racial discrimination lead to sustained negative affective states continuing into young adulthood that confer risk for accelerated aging and possibly premature disease and mortality in African Americans. These findings advance knowledge of potential underlying mechanisms that influence racial health disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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