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1.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(6): 575-579, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225434

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the factors influencing radiation-induced liver injury after receiving Cyberknife stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: 278 cases with primary hepatocellular carcinoma from July 2016 to April 2019 were prospectively enrolled. Stereotactic radiosurgery with a prescription dose of 48-55gy/5-8 times were given. Liver function, coagulation function, Child-Pugh score, and liver imaging changes were dynamically observed before and after treatment to evaluate the occurrence of radiation-induced liver injury. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors influencing radiation-induced liver injury. Results: Among 278 cases, 3 cases of tumor progression were excluded, and a total of 275 cases were included for analysis. The overall survival rate after 8 months of treatment was 100%. Among them, 22 cases were diagnosed as radiation-induced liver injury, with an incidence rate of 8%, and all cases were recovered after symptomatic treatment. Multivariate analysis result suggested that the peripheral white blood cell count was factors influencing the occurrence of radiation-induced liver injury. Conclusion: Cyberknife stereotactic radiotherapy has a low incidence of radiation-induced liver injury in patients with liver cancer, and it is a relatively safe treatment method. Patients with low peripheral white blood cell counts before treatment should be closely monitored for early detection and treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Radiocirurgia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(7): 963-965, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267037

RESUMO

The prognosis of patients with brain metastasis is very poor. Very few cases of combined treatment with nivolumab(240 mg/body, day 1, q2w, a programmed cell death-1[PD-1]inhibitor)and gamma knife radiosurgery(GKR)(27 Gy/3 Fr) for gastric cancer patients with brain metastasis have been reported. Here, we discuss the case of a 55-year-old man with HER2-positive poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with multiple bone and intra-abdominal lymph node metastases. After 25 courses of SOX(oxaliplatin 100 mg/m2, day 1, q3w plus S-1 120 mg/day, day 1-14, po, q3w)plus trastuzumab( 6 mg/kg, q3w)treatment, brain metastasis was detected. Subsequently, combined treatment with GKR and nivolumab(8 courses, anti-PD-1 monotherapy)was initiated. Both intra-abdominal and brain lesions decreased in response to this treatment, showing that combined therapy with nivolumab and GKR could be effective for treating gastric cancer patients with brain metastasis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Radiocirurgia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(24): 3630-3642, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) presents a curative treatment option in patients with early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are not eligible for resection or ablation therapy. Due to a risk of up 30% for waitlist drop-out upon tumor progression, bridging therapies are used to halt tumor growth. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and less commonly stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) or a combination of TACE and SBRT, are used as bridging therapies in LT. However, it remains unclear if one of those treatment options is superior. The analysis of explant livers after transplantation provides the unique opportunity to investigate treatment response by histopathology. AIM: To analyze histopathological response to a combination of TACE and SBRT in HCC in comparison to TACE or SBRT alone. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective study, 27 patients who received liver transplantation for HCC were analyzed. Patients received either TACE or SBRT alone, or a combination of TACE and SBRT as bridging therapy to liver transplantation. Liver explants of all patients who received at least one TACE and/or SBRT were analyzed for the presence of residual vital tumor tissue by histopathology to assess differences in treatment response to bridging therapies. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney-U tests. RESULTS: Fourteen patients received TACE only, four patients SBRT only, and nine patients a combination therapy of TACE and SBRT. There were no significant differences between groups regarding age, sex, etiology of underlying liver disease or number and size of tumor lesions. Strikingly, analysis of liver explants revealed that almost all patients in the TACE and SBRT combination group (8/9, 89%) showed no residual vital tumor tissue by histopathology, whereas TACE or SBRT alone resulted in significantly lower rates of complete histopathological response (0/14, 0% and 1/4, 25%, respectively, P value < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that a combination of TACE and SBRT increases the rate of complete histopathological response compared to TACE or SBRT alone in bridging to liver transplantation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quimioembolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Radiocirurgia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253513

RESUMO

The treatment of local recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is challenging, and the role of reirradiation is controversial regarding the high risk for severe toxicity. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a high-precision radiation technique that can spare surrounding normal tissues. Studies have demonstrated the high activity and low toxicity of both SBRT and anti-programmed-cell-death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors for head and neck cancers. There has been preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting synergy between radiotherapy and checkpoint inhibitors. We report two patients with locally recurrent unresectable rT4 NPC both involving the retro-orbital areas. They received the same treatment with low-dose SBRT (28 Gy in 5 fractions) and pembrolizumab, and showed a remarkable tumour response without untoward radiation toxicity. SBRT plus an immune checkpoint inhibitor may provide a new treatment option for locally recurrent NPC. We propose further investigation with a formal clinical trial.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Terapia de Salvação
6.
J Neurosurg ; 135(1): 126-135, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The object of this study was to ascertain outcomes of cochlear implantation (CI) following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS). METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of adult patients with VS treated with SRS who underwent CI between 1990 and 2019 at a single tertiary care referral center. Patient demographics, tumor features, treatment parameters, and pre- and postimplantation audiometric and clinical outcomes are presented. RESULTS: Seventeen patients (18 ears) underwent SRS and ipsilateral CI during the study period. Thirteen patients (76%) had neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Median age at SRS and CI were 44 and 48 years, respectively. Median time from SRS to CI was 60 days, but notably, 4 patients underwent SRS and CI within 1 day and 5 patients underwent CI more than 7 years after SRS. Median marginal dose was 13 Gy. Median treatment volume at the time of SRS was 1400 mm3 (range 84-6080 mm3, n = 15 patients). Median post-CI PTA was 28 dB HL, improved from 101 dB HL preoperatively (p < 0.001). Overall, 11 patients (12 ears) exhibited open-set speech understanding. Sentence testing was performed at a median of 10 months (range 1-143 months) post-CI. The median AzBio sentence score for patients with open-set speech understanding was 76% (range 19%-95%, n = 10 ears). Two ears exhibited Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentence scores of 49% and 95%, respectively. Four patients achieved environmental sound awareness without open-set speech recognition. Two had no detectable auditory percepts. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients who underwent CI following SRS for VS enjoyed access to sound at near-normal levels, with the majority achieving good open-set speech understanding. Implantation can be performed immediately following SRS or in a delayed fashion, depending on hearing status as well as other factors. This strategy may be applied to cases of sporadic or NF2-associated VS. ABBREVIATIONS: AAO-HNS = American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery; ABI = auditory brainstem implant; CI = cochlear implantation; CN = cranial nerve; CNC = consonant-nucleus-consonant; CPA = cerebellopontine angle; EPS = electrical promontory stimulation; ESA = environmental sound awareness; HINT = Hearing in Noise Test; IAC = internal auditory canal; NF2 = neurofibromatosis type 2; OSP = open-set speech perception; PTA = pure tone average; SRS = stereotactic radiosurgery; VS = vestibular schwannoma; WRS = word recognition score.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/reabilitação , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/reabilitação , Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Síndrome CREST/complicações , Nervo Coclear/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Coclear/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/etiologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/etiologia , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurofibromatose 2/complicações , Neuroma Acústico/complicações , Neuroma Acústico/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroma Acústico/reabilitação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Percepção da Fala , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(2): 184-189, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227865

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 16-year old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital because of polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss of 2 months' duration. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Hematologic and biochemical examination results were within respective reference ranges except for moderately high pancreas-specific lipase concentration. Ultrasonographic and cytologic evaluation revealed a hepatic mass with findings consistent with mild cholestasis and inflammation and a pancreatic mass that was initially identified as a neuroendocrine tumor. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: The cat underwent additional CT assessment and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 3 fractions of 8 Gy, administered every other day) for treatment of the pancreatic tumor. Follow-up ultrasonographic and CT examinations indicated a partial response to SBRT, with a maximum CT-measured size reduction from 3.6 × 4.8 × 4.0 cm at the time of treatment planning to 2.0 × 2.0 × 1.9 cm 8 months later. Increased pancreatic tumor size and signs of carcinomatosis were detected 15 months after SBRT treatment; the initial cytologic diagnosis was changed to exocrine pancreatic carcinoma on reevaluation of the slides by another veterinary pathologist. Carboplatin treatment was elected, and signs of carcinomatosis resolved. The cat was euthanized without further testing because of weakness 589 days after SBRT was started. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of SBRT for suspected exocrine pancreatic carcinoma in a cat. Further investigation is needed to determine optimal fractionation schedules for SBRT of pancreatic tumors and utility of SBRT of exocrine pancreatic carcinoma in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Radiocirurgia , Animais , Gatos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Hospitais Veterinários , Hospitais de Ensino , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/veterinária , Radiocirurgia/veterinária
8.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 46(6): 615-619, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare 2 dynamic conformal arc plans based on the high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) beams, and to evaluate the dosimetric differences. METHODS: A total of 20 patients with early peripheral non-small cell lung cancer were selected, and 2 dynamic conformal arc plans were designed in the Eclipse 10.0 treatment planning system (TPS). One of them was based on tumor-center (T-DCA), and the other was based on iso-center (Iso-DCA). Both plans were created by using the Truebeam linear accelerator, based on 6 MV FFF photons with a dose rate at 1 400 monitor unit (MU)/min. All patients received the prescribed dose of 4 800 cGy in 4 fractions (1 200 cGy/fraction). Target coverage and organ at risk limits were planned and designed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Criteria, and were compared between the T-DCA and the Iso-DCA plans. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the target coverage between the T-DCA and Iso-DCA plans (P>0.05). Conformal index and homogeneity index had no significant differences (both P>0.05), but the percentage of the maximum dose in any direction 2 cm away from the planned target area (D2 cm) and the ratio of the volume wrapped by the isodose line of 50% prescription dose to the volume of the planned target area (R50%) showed significant differences (both P<0.05). The MU of the Iso-DCA plan was increased by 21% compared with that of the T-DCA plan. Except the maximum dose of spinal cord and esophagus, there was no significant difference in the other dosimetric parameters of the organs at risk between the T-DCA and the Iso-DCA plans (all P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The dose fall-off of Iso-DCA plan is better than T-DCA plan, but the T-DCA plan is consistently superior in sparing dose to spinal cord and esophagus, and the T-DCA plan has fewer MU.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radiocirurgia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26352, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The best therapeutic option for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) patients is disputed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of obliteration and complications of patients with unruptured bAVMs after various treatments. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and so on to identify studies fulfilling predefined inclusion criteria. Baseline, treatment, and outcomes data were extracted for statistical analysis. RESULTS: We identified 28 eligible studies totaling 5852 patients. The obliteration rates were 98% in microsurgery group (95% confidence interval (CI): 96%-99%, I2 = 74.5%), 97% in surgery group (95%CI: 95%-99%, I2 = 18.3%), 87% in endovascular treatment group (95%CI: 80%-93%, I2 = 0.0%), and 68% in radiosurgery group (95%CI: 66%-69%, I2 = 92.0%). The stroke or death rates were 1% in microsurgery group (95%CI: 0%-2%, I2 = 0.0%), 0% in surgery group (95%CI: 0%-1%, I2 = 0.0%), 4% in endovascular treatment group (95%CI: 0%-8%, I2 = 85.8%), and 3% in radiosurgery group (95%CI: 3%-4%, I2 = 82.9%). In addition, the proportions of hemorrhage were 2% in microsurgery group (95%CI: 1%-4%, I2 = 0.0%), 23% in endovascular treatment group (95%CI: 7%-39%), and 12% in radiosurgery group (95%CI: 12%-13%, I2 = 99.2%). As to neurological deficit, the occurrence was 9% in microsurgery group (95%CI: 6%-11%, I2 = 94.1%), 20% in surgery group (95%CI: 13%-27%, I2 = 0.0%), 14% in endovascular treatment group (95%CI: 10%-18%, I2 = 64.0%), and 8% in radiosurgery group (95%CI: 7%-9%, I2 = 66.6%). CONCLUSIONS: We found that microsurgery might provide lasting clinical benefits in some unruptured bAVMs patients for its high obliteration rates and low hemorrhage. These findings are helpful to provide a reference basis for neurosurgeons to choose the treatment of patients with unruptured bAVMs.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/cirurgia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/mortalidade , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Microcirurgia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26390, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160420

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) involving the inferior vena cava rarely occurs, but its prognosis is extremely poor, with no established treatment to date. This study aimed to analyze the clinical outcome and toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) targeting inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (IVCTT) in HCC patients.From November 2011 to July 2020, medical record of 19 HCC patients who were treated with RT for IVCTT was retrospectively reviewed. RT was delivered using 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, and stereotactic body radiation therapy. The median radiation dose was 50 Gy (range, 45-55.8 Gy) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Stereotactic body radiation therapy was performed in 5 patients, for a total of 32 Gy in 4 fractions.The median follow-up duration was 8.1 months (range, 3.3-26.5 months). The median overall survival was 9.4 months (range, 3.7-26.5 months), and the 1-year overall survival rate was 37.1%. Eight of 19 patients (42.1%) had extrahepatic metastasis at the start of RT. Six of 11 patients (54.5%) who did not have extrahepatic metastasis at the start of RT showed extrahepatic metastasis after RT. The major cause of death was progression of extrahepatic metastasis (11 patients, 57.9%). The overall response rate of IVCTT for RT was 84.2%, and the local control rate at the time of the last follow-up was 89.4%. After RT, the most common first progression site was the lungs (9 patients, 47.4%). Most toxicities were grade 1 to 2 gastrointestinal (26.3%) and liver enzyme elevation (68.4%). Three patients occurred pulmonary embolism after RT later than 5 months after.RT is a feasible and safe local therapy for IVCTT, with favorable tumor control and acceptable toxicity. Extrahepatic metastasis is the major progression pattern and a leading cause of death in patients treated with RT. The combination of effective systemic therapy with RT may have to be considered.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Veia Cava Inferior/patologia , Trombose Venosa/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/patologia
11.
Phys Med ; 87: 1-10, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091196

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to use GATE/Geant4 simulation code to evaluate the performance of dose calculations with Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) in the context of lung SBRT for complex treatments considering images of patients. METHODS: Four cases of non-small cell lung cancer treated with SBRT were selected for this study. Irradiation plans were created with AAA and recalculated end to end using Monte Carlo (MC) method maintaining field configurations identical to the original plans. Each treatment plan was evaluated in terms of PTV and organs at risk (OARs) using dose-volume histograms (DVH). Dosimetric parameters obtained from DVHs were used to compare AAA and MC. RESULTS: The comparison between the AAA and MC DVH using gamma analysis with the passing criteria of 3%/3% showed an average passing rate of more than 90% for the PTV structure and 97% for the OARs. Tightening the criteria to 2%/2% showed a reduction in the average passing rate of the PTV to 86%. The agreement between the AAA and MC dose calculations for PTV dosimetric parameters (V100; V90; Homogeneity index; maximum, minimum and mean dose; CIPaddick and D2cm) was within 18.4%. For OARs, the biggest differences were observed in the spinal cord and the great vessels. CONCLUSIONS: In general, we did not find significant differences between AAA and MC. The results indicate that AAA could be used in complex SBRT cases that involve a larger number of small treatment fields in the presence of tissue heterogeneities.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radiocirurgia , Algoritmos , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Método de Monte Carlo , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
12.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 128: 1-5, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of combined management of large vestibular schwannomas (VS) with initial subtotal resection (STR) followed by adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), with a particular emphasis on the timing and regimen of irradiation. METHODS: Seventeen patients underwent STR of a VS followed by SRS, whereas five others were observed after STR. Early SRS (<6 months after surgery) and late SRS (>6 months after surgery) were done in 8 and 9 patients, respectively. Single- and multisession SRS treatments were administered in 10 and 7 patients, respectively. The mean follow-up durations after surgery and SRS were 40 and 28 months, respectively. RESULTS: The rates of radiological and oncological tumor control after SRS were 82% and 100%, respectively. The tumor volume at the last follow-up and its relative changes after SRS did not differ significantly on the basis of the irradiation timing (early versus late) or on the basis of the irradiation regimen (single-session versus multisession). In no patient who was observed after STR of a VS was tumor regrowth noted during a mean follow-up period of 49 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor function of the ipsilateral facial nerve corresponded to House-Brackmann grades I, II, III, and IV in 16 patients (73%), 3 patients (14%), 1 patient (5%), and 2 patients (9%), respectively. Facial nerve function at the last follow-up did not differ significantly on the basis of the irradiation timing (early versus late) or on the basis of the irradiation regimen (single-session versus multisession). CONCLUSION: The combination of initial STR followed by adjuvant SRS is an effective treatment strategy for patients with a large VS. Although the optimal timing and regimen of postoperative irradiation of the residual lesion should be defined further, our preliminary data suggest that either early or late SRS after surgery may provide good tumor control and optimal functional results.


Assuntos
Neuroma Acústico , Radiocirurgia , Nervo Facial , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neuroma Acústico/radioterapia , Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
13.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 128: 7-13, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated outcomes after preplanned partial surgical removal of a large vestibular schwannoma (VS) followed by low-dose Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). METHODS: Between January 2000 and May 2015, 47 patients with a unilateral VS (median maximum diameter 32 mm) underwent preplanned partial tumor removal at our clinic. GKS for a residual lesion was done within a median time interval of 3 months. The median prescription dose was 12 Gy. The median length of subsequent follow-up was 74 months. RESULTS: The actuarial tumor growth control rates without a need for additional management at 3, 5, and 15 years after GKS were 92%, 86%, and 86%, respectively. At the time of the last follow-up, the function of the ipsilateral facial nerve corresponded to House-Brackmann grade I in 92% of patients. Significant improvement of ipsilateral hearing was noted in two patients after partial tumor removal and in one after GKS. Among 16 patients who presented with ipsilateral serviceable hearing, it was preserved immediately after surgery in 81% of cases and at the time of the last follow-up in 44%. Salvage surgical treatment was required in 9% of patients. CONCLUSION: Preplanned partial surgical removal followed by low-dose GKS provides a high level of functional preservation in patients with a large VS.


Assuntos
Neuroma Acústico , Radiocirurgia , Nervo Facial , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 128: 15-27, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Experience with management of craniopharyngiomas (CPH) was evaluated retrospectively. METHODS: Between 1981 and 2012, 100 patients underwent removal of a CPH (the main surgical group), and an original tumor grading system was applied to these cases. The mean length of follow-up was 121 months. Additionally, 17 patients underwent removal of a CPH between 2012 and 2017 (the supplementary surgical group), and in 6 of them, CyberKnife radiosurgery was performed on a residual tumor (in 5 cases) or at the time of recurrence (in 1 case). RESULTS: In the main surgical group, the gross total resection (GTR) rate was 81%. The early and late disease-specific postoperative mortality rates were 0% and 2%, respectively. Tumor recurrence was never noted after GTR. There was a statistically significant increase in the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score after surgery. The tumor surgical grade was inversely associated with both the pre- and postoperative KPS scores, and was lower in cases operated on via the transnasal transsphenoidal approach, but was unrelated to the GTR rate. In the supplementary surgical group, the GTR rate was 65%. CyberKnife radiosurgery consistently resulted in tumor shrinkage. CONCLUSION: GTR is the preferred management option for CPH. The original surgical grading system developed at Tokyo Women's Medical University may be helpful for clinical decision-making. CyberKnife radiosurgery for residual and recurrent CPH is associated with high tumor response rates.


Assuntos
Craniofaringioma , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Radiocirurgia , Craniofaringioma/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 128: 29-41, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191059

RESUMO

Total surgical removal of a pituitary adenoma (PA) invading the cavernous sinus (CS) is challenging and carries a significant risk of postoperative complications. As an alternative treatment strategy, after incomplete resection, such tumors may undergo stereotactic radiosurgery-in particular, Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). Treatment planning based on advanced neuroimaging (e.g., thin-slice 3-dimensional postcontrast constructive interference in steady state (CISS) images) allows clear visualization of the target microanatomy, which results in highly conformal and selective radiation delivery to the lesion with preservation of adjacent functionally important neurovascular structures. In the Tokyo Women's Medical University experience of GKS for 43 nonfunctioning and 46 hormone-secreting PA invading the CS, with a minimum follow-up period of 5 years (mean 76 months, range 60-118 months), the tumor control rate has reached 97%, and a significant volume reduction (≥50%) has been seen in 24% of lesions. In cases of hormone-secreting neoplasms, normalization (in 18 patients; 39%) or improvement (in 22 patients; 48%) of endocrinological function has been noted. Importantly, such effects have been sufficiently durable. Complications have been extremely rare and limited to transient cranial nerve palsy (in 2% of cases). Notably, no patient in our series has had a new pituitary hormone deficit after irradiation. Thus, subtotal resection followed by GKS may be considered a valuable alternative to aggressive surgery for a PA invading the CS.


Assuntos
Seio Cavernoso , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Radiocirurgia , Seio Cavernoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Cavernoso/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tóquio , Resultado do Tratamento , Universidades
16.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 128: 43-49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191060

RESUMO

A pituitary carcinoma (PC) is a rare neoplasm, accounting for only 0.2% of pituitary tumors, and is defined by the presence of noncontiguous metastatic disease. Its management requires a multimodal approach including surgery, irradiation, and medical therapy. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) by means of the Gamma Knife or CyberKnife may be considered potentially useful in such cases. It has mainly been applied for localized metastases and symptomatic lesions, but it may also be effective in control of aggressive tumor growth at the primary site after sufficient surgical debulking of the lesion. Given the infrequency of PC and their heterogeneous nature with regard to the histopathological type, local extension, and location of metastases, large clinical series have not been compiled to date. While, in such cases, SRS is certainly not curative and does not prevent disease progression, it is quite reasonable to incorporate this treatment option into a multimodal management strategy and apply it judiciously at the treating clinician's discretion on a case-by-case basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 128: 51-55, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191061

RESUMO

Symptomatic epilepsy is frequently encountered in patients with brain metastases (BM), affecting up to 25% of them. However, it generally remains unknown whether the risk of seizures in such cases is affected by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), which involves highly conformal delivery of high-dose irradiation to the tumor with a minimal effect on adjacent brain tissue. Thus, the role of prophylactic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AED) after SRS remains controversial. A comprehensive review and analysis of the available literature reveals that according to prospective studies, the incidence of seizures after SRS for BM varies from 8% to 22%, and there is no evidence that SRS increases the incidence of symptomatic epilepsy. Therefore, routine prophylactic administration of AED prior to, during, or after SRS in the absence of a seizure history is not recommended. Nevertheless, short-course administration of an AED may be judiciously considered (on the basis of class III evidence) for selected high-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Radiocirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/prevenção & controle
18.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 128: 57-69, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191062

RESUMO

Approximately 25-35% of all cancer patients suffer from brain metastases (BM), and many of them-in particular, those with a limited number of intracranial tumors-are treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Accurate prediction of survival remains a key clinical challenge in this population. Several prognostic scales have been developed to facilitate this prognostication, including the Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) classification, the modified Recursive Partitioning Analysis (mRPA) subclassifications, the Basic Score for Brain Metastases (BS-BM), the Score Index for Radiosurgery (SIR), the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA), and the diagnosis-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (dsGPA). However, none of these scales include consideration of the cumulative intracranial tumor volume (CITV), which is defined as the sum of all intracranial tumor volumes. Since there is mounting evidence that the CITV carries significant prognostic value in SRS-treated patients with BM, this variable should be considered during survival prognostication, along with other pertinent clinical, pathological, and molecular characteristics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Radiocirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Tumoral
19.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 128: 101-106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present proof-of-principle study investigated radiobiological effects of redistributing central target dose hot spots across different treatment fractions during hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HSRS) of large intracranial tumors. METHODS: Redistribution of central target dose hot spots during HSRS was simulated, and its effects were evaluated in eight cases of brain metastases. To assess dose variations in the target across N number of treatment fractions, a generalized biologically effective dose (gBED) was formulated. The gBED enhancement ratio was defined as the ratio of gBED in the tested treatment plan (with central target dose hot spot redistributions across fractions) to gBED in the conventional treatment plan (without central target dose hot spot redistributions). RESULTS: At a median α value of 0.3/Gy, the tested treatment plans resulted in average gBED increases of 15.6 ± 3.5% and 8.3 ± 1.8% for α/ß ratios of 2 and 10 Gy, respectively. In comparison with conventional treatment plans, the differences in the Paddick conformity index and gradient index did not exceed 2%. CONCLUSION: Redistributing central target dose hot spots across different treatment fractions during HSRS may be considered promising for enhancing gBED in the target. It may be beneficial for management of large intracranial neoplasms; thus, it warrants further clinical testing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Radiocirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Humanos
20.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 128: 85-100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191064

RESUMO

Over the past 15-20 years, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become the dominant method for treating patients with brain metastases (BM). The role of surgery for management of large tumors also remains important. Combining these two treatment modalities may well achieve the best local control, safety, and symptomatic relief in cases of neoplasms for which resection is desirable. After 10 years of retrospective studies that suggested patients might do better if surgery were followed by early adjuvant SRS, a prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to compare such treatment with postoperative observation after tumor removal, and it showed significantly better local control in the former cohort, especially in smaller lesions, but no difference in overall survival. On the other hand, in the past 5 years, some groups have argued that neoadjuvant SRS before resection of BM might be superior to adjuvant SRS, while no clinical trial has yet been concluded that compares these two treatment strategies. For now, adjuvant and neoadjuvant SRS show evidence of utility in achieving better local control after surgical removal of BM in comparison with surgery alone, but no specific guidelines exist favoring one method over the other, and both should be considered beneficial in clinical care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Radiocirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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