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3.
Cancer Radiother ; 25(2): 119-125, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676829

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife® (CK) for the treatment of primary or recurring thymic tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients (16 tumour lesions) with primary or recurring thymic tumours who were treated with CK between March 2008 and October 2017. Their data was stored in prospectively collected database. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival curves. RESULTS: Five patients (41.7%), who had inoperable disease or refused surgery, were treated with CK initially, and 7 patients (58.3%) were treated with CK when they had recurrence diseases. The disease sites treated with CK were primary tumour site (5), regional lymph nodes (4), tumour bed (3), chest wall (2), pleura (1), and bone (1). The median target volume was 43.8 cm3 (range, 13.1-302.5cm3) for the 16 tumour lesions. The median follow-up time was 69.3 months (range, 9.7-124.8 months). The median survival time was 48.2 months, and the 5-year and 10-year OS rates were 68.2% and 45.5%, respectively. A high response rate for the tumour lesions irradiated with CK was obtained. Only one patient (8%) experienced in-field recurrence, and the 5-year local recurrence free survival was 90.9%. A case indicated that CK may induce the abscopal effect, which provides the potential to combine CK and immunotherapy. No severe radiation related toxicities were observed, and no treatment related death occurred. CONCLUSION: CK treatment resulted in good outcomes, particularly local control, with minimal side effects, in highly selected patients with primary and recurring thymic tumours. More studies with larger sample are needed.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Timoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias do Timo/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Irradiação Linfática , Masculino , Neoplasias do Mediastino/radioterapia , Neoplasias do Mediastino/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Segurança , Taxa de Sobrevida , Timoma/mortalidade , Timoma/patologia , Timoma/secundário , Neoplasias do Timo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Timo/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 159: 103242, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the role of SBRTdrug combination in patients affected by mRCC and associated oncologic outcomes and toxicity profiles. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a critical review of the Pubmed, Medline, and Embase databases from January 1, 2000 through April 30, 2020 according to the Preferred Reporting Items and Meta-Analyses statement. To assess the overall quality of the literature reviewed, we used a modified Delphi tool. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of 6 studies were included, corresponding to a cohort of 216 patients. Tyrosine Kinases Inhibitors were the most widely used drugs in combination with SBRT, being administered in 93% patients. No study reported an increase of radiation-induced toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: SBRT resulted to be safe, without increase in terms of drugs-related adverse events in this setting. Moreover, this approach showed promising clinical outcomes in terms of LC and OS.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Radiocirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos
5.
N Z Med J ; 134(1529): 45-56, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582707

RESUMO

AIM: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) involves the delivery of high doses of precisely targeted radiation in a shorter time period than conventional radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of lung-based SABR in a New Zealand cohort to the global literature. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who received lung-based SABR between May 2015 and September 2019 at Waikato Hospital, New Zealand. The study included both early stage lung cancer and lung oligometastases that measured less than 5cm. RESULTS: 102 patients received SABR to 116 lesions. Median follow-up was 19 months. The three-year rate of local control in the primary and metastatic cohorts was 85% and 82%, respectively. This reflects the three-year local control rate of 86% for primary lung cancer in the SPACE trial and the two-year local control rate of 81% for pulmonary oligometastases in a German study. Central primary lung cancer was associated with a higher risk of local recurrence (HR6.4 (1.3-31.5) p=0.02). The three-year progression-free survival rate in patients with early stage lung cancer and oligometastases was 56% and 26%, respectively. Maori patients with primary lung cancer had a significantly worse progression free survival (HR2.4 (1.1-5.1) p=0.03). There were no reported grade three toxicities. CONCLUSION: The use of lung-based SABR in a typical radiotherapy setting in New Zealand mirrors global outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(4): 736-743, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To report on our primary experience with the placement of a hydrogel spacer following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients and assess its impact on dosimetry as well as acute toxicity. METHODS: A total of 70 patients treated with SBRT (total dose of 36.25 Gy) in 5 fractions were included. Hydrogel spacers were inserted in 53 patients along with gold fiducial markers. For dosimetry, we trisected the rectum on the sagittal image of magnetic resonance imaging and defined it as the upper rectum (UR), middle rectum (MR), and lower rectum (LR). We compared the dose to each part of the rectum with and without hydrogel spacer using dose volume histograms. Genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity assessments were conducted until 6 months of follow-up visits. RESULTS: The median volume of the hydrogel spacer was 12.3 mL. Overall, the hydrogel spacer could significantly reduce the rectal dose in the middle-to-high-dose region (V20-V35). The rectum doses at the UR and MR were significantly lower in the spacer group in the middle to high dose region (V20-V35); the dose at the LR was significantly lower in the spacer group in the high-dose region (V30-V35). There was no grade ≥ 3 toxicity observed, but grade 2 toxicity of GU and GI occurred in 17.1% and 1.4% of the patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hydrogel spacers could contribute to rectal dose reduction, especially in high dose regions, by creating a prostate-rectum distance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Japão , Masculino , Órgãos em Risco , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Reto
7.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(1): 98-106, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is increasingly being used to treat oligometastatic cancers, but high-level evidence to provide a basis for policy making is scarce. Additional evidence from a real-world setting is required. We present the results of a national study of patients with extracranial oligometastases undergoing SABR, representing the largest dataset, to our knowledge, on outcomes in this population so far. METHODS: In 2015, National Health Service (NHS) England launched a Commissioning through Evaluation scheme that funded a prospective, registry-based, single-arm, observational, evaluation study of patients with solid cancer and extracranial oligometastases treated with SABR. Prescribed doses ranged from 24-60 Gy administered in three to eight fractions. The study was done at 17 NHS radiotherapy centres in England. Patients were eligible for the scheme if aged 18 years or older with confirmed primary carcinoma (excluding haematological malignancies), one to three extracranial metastatic lesions, a disease-free interval from primary tumour development to metastases of longer than 6 months (with the exception of synchronous colorectal liver metastases), a WHO performance status of 2 or lower, and a life expectancy of at least 6 months. The primary outcome was overall survival at 1 year and 2 years from the start of SABR treatment. The study is now completed. FINDINGS: Between June 15, 2015, and Jan 30, 2019, 1422 patients were recruited from 17 hospitals in England. The median age of the patients was 69 years (IQR 62-76), and the most common primary tumour was prostate cancer (406 [28·6%] patients). Median follow-up was 13 months (IQR 6-23). Overall survival was 92·3% (95% CI 90·5-93·9) at 1 year and 79·2% (76·0-82·1) at 2 years. The most common grade 3 adverse event was fatigue (28 [2·0%] of 1422 patients) and the most common serious (grade 4) event was increased liver enzymes (nine [0·6%]). Notreatment-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with extracranial oligometastatic cancer, use of SABR was associated with high overall survival and low toxicity. 'The study findings complement existing evidence from a randomised, phase 2 trial, and represent high-level, real-world evidence supporting the use of SABR in this patient cohort, with a phase 3 randomised, controlled trial to confirm these findings underway. Based on the selection criteria in this study, SABR was commissioned by NHS England in March, 2020, as a treatment option for patients with oligometastatic disease. FUNDING: NHS England Commissioning through Evaluation scheme.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma/secundário , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radiocirurgia/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Medicina Estatal , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408109

RESUMO

An 85-year-old man with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis secondary to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis presented to casualty with four days of painless haematochezia with dark blood without haemodynamic compromise. This was in the setting of receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as treatment for his hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).He was found to have haemorrhagic radiation colitis which was treated with argon plasma coagulation (APC). Our case demonstrates the importance of considering radiation induced colitis as a cause for painless lower gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with a background of radiation therapy for HCC. Earlier review of the imaging and consideration of this differential could have prevented the need for repeat hospitalisations and would have led to prompt colonoscopy and diagnosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Colite/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Coagulação com Plasma de Argônio , Biópsia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Colite/etiologia , Colite/patologia , Colite/cirurgia , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo/patologia , Colo/efeitos da radiação , Colo/cirurgia , Colonoscopia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(2): 140-149, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478860

RESUMO

Ventricular tachycardia has a significant recurrence rate after ablation for several reasons, including inaccessible substrate. A non-invasive technique to ablate any defined areas of myocardium involved in arrhythmogenesis would be a potentially important therapeutic improvement if shown to be safe and effective. Early feasibility studies of single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy have demonstrated encouraging results, but rigorous evaluation and follow-up are required. In this document, the basic concepts of stereotactic body radiotherapy are summarized, before focusing on stereotactic arrhythmia radioablation. We describe the effect of radioablation on cardiac tissue and its interaction with intracardiac devices, depending on the dose. The different clinical studies on ventricular tachycardia radioablation are analysed, with a focus on target identification, which is the key feature of this approach. Our document ends with the indications and requirements for practicing this type of procedure in 2020. Finally, because of the limited number of patients treated so far, we encourage multicentre registries with long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos da radiação , Radiocirurgia , Taquicardia Ventricular/radioterapia , Potenciais de Ação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 44(3): 126-130, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly used for patients with recurrent and or metastatic tumors. Sarcomas are generally considered not sensitive to radiotherapy and SBRT may allow for increased biological effectiveness. We report intermediate outcomes and toxicity for pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patients treated with SBRT to sites of recurrent and or metastatic sarcoma. PROCEDURE: We queried an Institutional Review Board-approved registry of patients treated with SBRT for metastases from pediatric sarcomas. Patients age 29 and below were assessed for local control, survival, and toxicity. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients with a total of 88 lesions met eligibility criteria. Median patient age was 17.9 years at treatment. Sixteen patients were treated with SBRT to >1 site of disease. The median dose was 30 Gy in 5 fractions. The median follow-up time was 7.4 months (range: 0.2 to 31.4 mo). Patients were heavily pretreated with systemic therapy. In 57 lesions with >3 months of radiographic follow-up, the 6-month and 12-month local control rates were 88.3%±4.5% and 83.4%±5.5%, respectively. Radiographic local failures were rare (6/57 in-field, 4/57 marginal). Only 1/88 treated lesions was associated with a radiation-related high-grade toxicity; late grade 3 intestinal obstruction in a re-irradiated field while on concurrent therapy (gemcitabine and docetaxel). No acute grade ≥3 toxicity was observed. CONCLUSIONS: SBRT was well tolerated in the majority of patients with favorable local control outcomes. Additional studies will be required to determine the optimal SBRT dose and fractionation, treatment volume, and appropriate concurrent therapies.


Assuntos
Radiocirurgia/métodos , Sarcoma/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Reirradiação , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/radioterapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1117): 20200848, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the current analysis was to explore the hypothetical advantages using rectal spacer during 1.5T MR-guided and daily adapted prostate cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) compared to a no-rectal spacer hydrogel cohort of patients. METHODS: The SBRT-protocol consisted of a 35 Gy schedule delivered in 5 fractions. Herein, we present a dosimetric analysis between spacer and no-spacer patients. Furthermore, treatment tolerability and feasibility were preliminarily assessed according to clinicians-reported outcomes at the end of treatment and patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) in both arms. Toxicity and quality of life were assessed at baseline and after treatment using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v. 5.0, International Prostatic Symptoms Score, ICIQ-SF, IIEF-5, and EORTC-QLQ-C30 and PR-25 questionnaires. RESULTS: 120 plans (pre- and daily adaptive SBRT planning) were analyzed in 20 patients (10 patients in spacer group and 10 patients in no-spacer group) treated using 1.5T MR-guided adaptive SBRT. Statistically significant dosimetric advantages were observed in favor of the spacer insertion, improving the planning target volume coverage in terms of V33.2Gy >95% and planning target volume 37.5 Gy <2% mainly during daily-adapted SBRT. Also, rectum V32, V28 and V18Gy and bladder V35Gy <1 cc were significantly reduced in the spacer cohort. Concerning the PROMS, all questionnaires showed no difference between the pre- and post-SBRT evaluation in both arms, excepting the physical functioning item of EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire that was declined in the no-spacer group. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results strongly suggest the adoption of perirectal spacer due to dosimetric advantages not only for rectal sparing but also for target coverage. Longer follow-up is required to validate the clinical impact in terms of clinicians-reported toxicity and PROMs. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This the first experience reporting preliminary data concerning the potential dosimetric impact of rectal hydrogel spacer on MR-guided SBRT for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Reto/efeitos da radiação , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiologia Intervencionista/métodos , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
13.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1117): 20200696, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Using moderate or ultra-hypofractionation, which is also known as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of localized prostate cancer patients has been increased. We present our preliminary results on the clinical utilization of MRI-guided adaptive radiotherapy (MRgRT) for prostate cancer patients with the workflow, dosimetric parameters, toxicities and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response. METHODS: 50 prostate cancer patients treated with ultra-hypofractionation were included in the study. Treatment was performed with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (step and shoot) technique and daily plan adaptation using MRgRT. The SBRT consisted of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions with a 7.25 Gy fraction size. The time for workflow steps was documented. Patients were followed for the acute and late toxicities and PSA response. RESULTS: The median follow-up for our cohort was 10 months (range between 3 and 29 months). The median age was 73.5 years (range between 50 and 84 years). MRgRT was well tolerated by all patients. Acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity rate of Grade 1 and Grade 2 was 28 and 36%, respectively. Only 6% of patients had acute Grade 1 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and there was no Grade ≥ 2 GI toxicity. To date, late Grade 1 GU toxicity was experienced by 24% of patients, 2% of patients experienced Grade 2 GU toxicity and 6% of patients reported Grade 2 GI toxicity. Due to the short follow-up, PSA nadir has not been reached yet in our cohort. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, MRgRT represents a new method for delivering SBRT with markerless soft tissue visualization, online adaptive planning and real-time tracking. Our study suggests that ultra-hypofractionation has an acceptable acute and very low late toxicity profile. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: MRgRT represents a new markerless method for delivering SBRT for localized prostate cancer providing online adaptive planning and real-time tracking and acute and late toxicity profile is acceptable.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiologia Intervencionista/métodos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos
14.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1526-1536, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gamma knife radiosurgery is regarded as the gold-standard stereotactic radiosurgery modality for the treatment of intracranial tumours, and its use has been expanded for the treatment of intraocular malignancies. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the efficacy, outcomes, and complications of gamma knife radiosurgery for uveal melanomas and metastases. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to aggregate the clinical outcomes of patients with uveal melanomas or intraocular metastases treated primarily with gamma knife radiosurgery. We searched MEDLINE and Embase for studies published between Sept 1, 1960, and Feb 1, 2020, reporting the use of gamma knife radiosurgery as primary treatment for uveal melanoma or uveal metastases. The search was restricted to clinical studies and relevant grey literature published in English. Studies reporting treatment of benign tumours, extraocular tumours, or other forms of stereotactic radiosurgery were excluded to reduce heterogeneity. No restrictions were placed on participant criteria. Local tumour control and tumour regression were extracted as the primary outcomes and analysed via a random-effects meta-analysis of proportions using the DerSimonian and Laird method with a Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42019148165. FINDINGS: Our search returned 454 studies, of which 109 were assessed for full-text eligibility. 52 studies, reporting on 1010 patients with uveal melanoma and 34 intraocular metastases, were eligible for systematic review. 28 studies were included in the meta-analysis. 840 of 898 patients (0·96, 95% CI 0·94-0·97; I2=16%) from 19 studies had local control, and 378 of 478 patients (0·81, 0·70-0·90; I2=83%) from 16 studies experienced tumour regression. INTERPRETATION: Gamma knife radiosurgery is an efficacious primary method of treating uveal melanomas and intraocular metastases, with reliable tumour control rates. Randomised controlled trials should further evaluate the safety and efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery in this setting. FUNDING: The Rhodes Trust and the Howard Brain Sciences Foundation.


Assuntos
Melanoma/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Neoplasias Uveais/cirurgia , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/radioterapia , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Uveais/patologia , Neoplasias Uveais/radioterapia
15.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1323-1326, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018232

RESUMO

Despite recent advances in cancer treatment, the prognosis of patients diagnosed with brain metastasis is still poor. The median survival is limited to months even for patients undergoing treatment. Radiation therapy is a main component of treatment for brain metastasis. However, radiotherapy cannot control local progression in up to 20% of the metastatic brain tumours. An early prediction of radiotherapy outcome for individual patients could facilitate therapy adjustments to improve its efficacy. This study investigated the potential of quantitative CT biomarkers in conjunction with machine learning methods to predict local failure after radiotherapy in brain metastasis. Volumetric CT images were acquired for radiation treatment planning from 120 patients undergoing stereotactic radiotherapy. Quantitative features characterizing the morphology and texture were extracted from different regions of each lesion. A feature reduction/selection framework was adapted to define a quantitative CT biomarker of radiotherapy outcome. Different machine learning methods were applied and evaluated to predict the local failure outcome at pre-treatment. The optimum biomarker consisting of two features in conjunction with an AdaBoost with decision tree could predict the local failure outcome with 71% accuracy on an independent test set (20 patients, 31 lesions). This study is a step forward towards prediction of radiotherapy outcome in brain metastasis using quantitative imaging and machine learning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Radiocirurgia , Encéfalo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5895-5899, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials had demonstrated local therapy, such as radiotherapy, can improve outcomes of patients with lung cancer with oligometastatic disease (OMD). However, the definition of OMD is not uniform and the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO) and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) proposed a new classification in 2020 comprising nine subtypes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of this European classification for patients with lung OMD treated with definitive radical radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified eligible patients via an in-house database. Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics, as well as outcomes, were obtained via chart review plus peer review. Overall and progression-free survival were estimated via the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used in univariate analysis and Cox regression in multivariable analyses to investigate the prognostic significance of the subtypes of OMD. RESULTS: We identified 35 eligible patients with six different OMD subtypes treated from 2011 to 2019. After a median follow-up of 23 (range=2-88) months, the median progression-free and overall survival were 11 and 38 months, respectively. The prognosis for patients with the subtype 'induced oligoprogression' was statistically worse than for those without in both univariate (p=0.02) and multivariate (adjusted hazard ratio for death=4.8, 95% confidence interval=1.4-16.2, p=0.01) analyses. CONCLUSION: We found the subtype with induced oligoprogression in the European classification to be associated with worse survival. Further studies are needed to confirm our finding.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Prognóstico , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos
17.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(9): 628-635, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Stereotactic body radiation treatment represents an intriguing therapeutic option for patients with early-stage prostate cancer. In this phase II study, stereotactic body radiation treatment was delivered by volumetric modulated arc therapy with flattening filter free beams and was gated using real-time electromagnetic transponder system to maximize precision of radiotherapy and, potentially, to reduce toxicities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients affected by histologically proven prostate adenocarcinoma and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) intermediate class of risk were enrolled in this phase II study. Beacon transponders were positioned transrectally within the prostate parenchyma 7 to 10 days before simulation computed tomography scan. The radiotherapy schedule was 38 Gy in 4 fractions delivered every other day. Toxicity assessment was performed according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), v4.0. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this study. Median initial prostate-specific antigen was 7.0 ng/mL (range: 2.3 to 14.0 ng/mL). Median nadir-prostate-specific antigen after treatment was 0.2 ng/mL (range: 0.006 to 4.8 ng/mL). A genitourinary acute toxicity was observed in 21 patients (dysuria grade [G] 1: 41.7%, G2: 16.7%). Gastrointestinal acute toxicity was found in 9 patients (proctitis G1: 19.4%, G2: 5.6%). Late toxicity was mild (genitourinary toxicity G1: 30.6%; G2: 8.3%; gastrointestinal toxicity G1: 13.9%; G2: 19.4%). At a median follow-up time of 41 months, 3 biochemical recurrences were observed (2 local recurrences, 1 distant metastasis). Three-year biochemical recurrence-free survival was 89.8% (International Society of Urologic Pathology Grade Group 2: 100%, Grade Group 3: 77.1%, P=0.042). CONCLUSION: Ultrahypofractionated radiotherapy, delivered with flattening filter free-volumetric modulated arc therapy and gated by electromagnetic transponders, is a valid option for intermediate-risk prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Idoso , Diarreia/etiologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Disuria/etiologia , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noctúria/etiologia , Proctite/etiologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23721-23729, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900949

RESUMO

Clinical studies combining radiation and immunotherapy have shown promising response rates, strengthening efforts to sensitize tumors to immune-mediated attack. Thus, there is an ongoing surge in trials using preconditioning regimens with immunotherapy. Yet, due to the scarcity of resected tumors treated in situ with radiotherapy, there has been little investigation of radiation's sole contributions to local and systemic antitumor immunity in patients. Without this access, translational studies have been limited to evaluating circulating immune subsets and systemic remodeling of peripheral T cell receptor repertoires. This constraint has left gaps in how radiation impacts intratumoral responses and whether tumor-resident T cell clones are amplified following treatment. Therefore, to interrogate the immune impact of radiation on the tumor microenvironment and test the hypothesis that radiation initiates local and systemic expansion of tumor-resident clones, we analyzed renal cell carcinomas from patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. Transcriptomic comparisons were evaluated by bulk RNA sequencing. T cell receptor sequencing monitored repertoires during treatment. Pathway analysis showed radiation-specific enrichment of immune-related processes, and T cell receptor sequencing revealed increased clonality in radiation-treated tumors. The frequency of identified, tumor-enriched clonotypes was tracked across serial blood samples. We observed increased abundance of tumor-enriched clonotypes at 2 wk postradiation compared with pretreatment levels; however, this expansion was not sustained, and levels contracted toward baseline by 4 wk posttreatment. Taken together, these results indicate robust intratumoral immune remodeling and a window of tumor-resident T cell expansion following radiation that may be leveraged for the rational design of combinatorial strategies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/radioterapia , Neoplasias Renais/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T/efeitos da radiação , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos da radiação
19.
Cancer Invest ; 38(8-9): 522-530, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870714

RESUMO

We report on clinical outcomes in patients with oligometastatic uterine cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Twenty-seven patients with 61 lesions were treated with SBRT. Median follow-up was 16.9 months. Local control was achieved in 49/61 (80.3%) lesions. One-year local-progression-free survival and overall survival were 75.9% and 65.4%. Lesions with favorable response were smaller than lesions with unfavorable response (p = .007). Liver lesions were less likely to achieve favorable response (p = .0128). There were no grade 3 or 4 events. Treatment with SBRT can provide excellent local control in oligometastatic uterine cancer with minimal toxicity.


Assuntos
Radiocirurgia/métodos , Neoplasias Uterinas/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21637, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756218

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Bevacizumab has shown good efficacy in radiation necrosis (RN) following gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and associated peritumoral edema. However, few studies have reported bevacizumab failure. Moreover, the pathologic transformation of benign meningioma following GKRS has never been reported. PATIENTS CONCERNS: A 41-year-old man was admitted with focal seizure on the right arm. DIAGNOSES: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a 4.7 cm-sized convexity meningioma involving left motor cortex. INTERVENTIONS: Subtotally resected tumor was confirmed as a meningothelial meningioma and subsequently treated by GKRS. During 4-year follow-up after GKRS, seizure and hemiparesis had persisted with progressively worsened peritumoral edema regardless of steroid and bevacizumab treatment. Radical debulking of tumor was achieved and immunohistopathological examination revealed angiomatous meningioma with necrotic core presenting scanty VEGF expression. OUTCOMES: A follow-up MRI at 4 months after debulking surgery showed a marked reduction of peritumoral edema with improvement of symptoms. LESSONS: This is the first report of pathologically confirmed angiomatous transformation following GKRS. Although the pathogenesis is not fully understood, this rare pathologic transformation may be closely related to RN. Also, if bevacizumab is resistant, debulking surgery for reducing tumor burden could be an effective treatment option to control the RN.


Assuntos
Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Meníngeas/patologia , Meningioma/patologia , Lesões por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/terapia , Meningioma/terapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos
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