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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5901-5907, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To assess predictors of local control (LC) for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SAbR) in pulmonary oligometastatic disease (OMD) from gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with pulmonary OMD treated with SAbR from January 2016 to December 2018 were included in this observational analysis. Primary endpoint was LC. Uni- and multivariate analyses to assess variable correlations were conducted. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients and 59 lung metastases were evaluated. The delivered dose was 30-60 Gy in 3-8 fractions. After a median follow-up of 23.0 months (range=6.3-50.4 months), LC rate at 1/2 years was 89.7%/85.0%, and increased to 96.0%/91.0% for lesions treated with a biologically effective dose (BED10) ≥100 Gy (p=0.03). RECIST response at 6 months was predictive for LC (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: SAbR is an effective option for pulmonary OMD from GI malignancies. A BED10 ≥100 Gy and radiological response at 6 months can affect LC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/radioterapia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiocirurgia/métodos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21637, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756218

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Bevacizumab has shown good efficacy in radiation necrosis (RN) following gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and associated peritumoral edema. However, few studies have reported bevacizumab failure. Moreover, the pathologic transformation of benign meningioma following GKRS has never been reported. PATIENTS CONCERNS: A 41-year-old man was admitted with focal seizure on the right arm. DIAGNOSES: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a 4.7 cm-sized convexity meningioma involving left motor cortex. INTERVENTIONS: Subtotally resected tumor was confirmed as a meningothelial meningioma and subsequently treated by GKRS. During 4-year follow-up after GKRS, seizure and hemiparesis had persisted with progressively worsened peritumoral edema regardless of steroid and bevacizumab treatment. Radical debulking of tumor was achieved and immunohistopathological examination revealed angiomatous meningioma with necrotic core presenting scanty VEGF expression. OUTCOMES: A follow-up MRI at 4 months after debulking surgery showed a marked reduction of peritumoral edema with improvement of symptoms. LESSONS: This is the first report of pathologically confirmed angiomatous transformation following GKRS. Although the pathogenesis is not fully understood, this rare pathologic transformation may be closely related to RN. Also, if bevacizumab is resistant, debulking surgery for reducing tumor burden could be an effective treatment option to control the RN.


Assuntos
Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Meníngeas/patologia , Meningioma/patologia , Lesões por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/terapia , Meningioma/terapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21561, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769898

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).This retrospective study evaluated 139 patients with BCLC stage C HCC who underwent CyberKnife SBRT between January 2009 and September 2017. All patients had BCLC-C, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score A-B. In-field control, overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), and prognostic factors were evaluated.An objective response rate was achieved in 81.5% patients (complete response, 36.2%, partial response, 45.3%). The median survival was 15.44 months, and the 1-, 3-, 5-year OS rates were 56%, 28%, and 20%, respectively. The median PFS was 6 months, the PFS rate at 1-, 3-, and 5-year were 35%, 14%, and 10%, respectively. In-field control of 1 to 2 years was achieved in 85.1% of patients. The major pattern of failure was out-field intrahepatic failure which comprised 42.9% of patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that the Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, macrovascular invasion, advance stage (III-IV), and tumor response rate were independent predictors of OS.The result of our study shows that SBRT is a safe and effective therapeutic option for BCLC stage C HCC lesions that are unsuitable for standard loco-regional therapies, Moreover, SBRT has acceptable local control rates and low-treatment toxicity.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/mortalidade , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21715, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) superseded conventional radiotherapy (CRT) for the treatment of patients with inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) over a decade ago. However, the direct comparisons of the outcomes of SBRT and CRT remain controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to compare the survival and safety of SBRT and CRT in patients with inoperable stage I NSCLC. METHODS: We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Google Scholar for relevant articles. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS), local control rate (LCR) and adverse effects (AEs) were the primary outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 11,110 articles, 17 of which were eventually included in this study; these 17 articles had 17,973 patients (SBRT: 7395; CRT: 10,578). Compared to CRT for the treatment of inoperable stage I NSCLC, SBRT had superior survival in terms of OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.70, P < .00001), LCSS (HR: 0.42 [0.35-0.50], P < .00001), and PFS (HR: 0.34 [0.25-0.48], P < .00001). The 4-year OS rate (OSR); 4-year LCSS rate (LCSSR); 3-year local control rate (LCR); 5-year PFS rate (PFSR) with SBRT were all higher than those with CRT. With regard to all-grade AEs, the SBRT group had a significantly lower rate of dyspnea, esophagitis and radiation pneumonitis; no significant difference was found in grade 3-5 AEs (risk ratio [RR]: 0.68 [0.30-1.53], P = .35). CONCLUSIONS: With better survival and a lower rate of dyspnea, esophagitis and radiation pneumonitis than CRT, SBRT appears to be more suitable for patients with inoperable stage I NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Fatores Etários , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(3): 399-411, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600541

RESUMO

Stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) have led to a resurgence of the use of radiotherapy in the management of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These techniques provide excellent local control and palliation of metastatic sites of disease with minimal toxicity. Additionally, SBRT to the primary tumor may be efficacious and well tolerated in select patients that are not surgical candidates. Emerging data suggest that SBRT may potentiate the immune response, and current and future study will evaluate if SBRT can improve survival outcomes in patients with metastatic RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/radioterapia , Neoplasias Renais/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia
6.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg ; 98(5): 319-323, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726792

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The WHO declared 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) a public health emergency of international concern. The National and Regional Health System has been reorganized, and many oncological patients died during this period or had to interrupt their therapies. This study summarizes a single-centre experience, during the COVID-19 period in Italy, in the treatment of brain metastases with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed our series of patients with brain metastases who underwent GKRS at the Niguarda Hospital from February 24 to April 24, 2020. RESULTS: We treated 30 patients with 66 brain metastases. A total of 22 patients came from home and 8 patients were admitted to the emergency room for urgent neurological symptoms. Duration of stay was limited to 0-1 day in 17 patients. We chose to treat a cluster of 9 patients, whose greater lesion exceeded 10 cm3, with 2-stage modality GKRS to minimize tumour recurrence and radiation necrosis. CONCLUSION: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the whole world is at a critical crossroads about the use of health care resources. During the COVID-19 outbreak, the deferral of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and a work backlog in every medical specialty are the natural consequences of reservation of resources for COVID-19 patients. GKRS improved symptoms and reduced the need for open surgeries, allowing many patients to continue their therapeutic path and sparing beds in ICUs. Neurosurgeons have to take into account the availability of stereotactic radiosurgery to reduce hospital stay, conciliating safety for patients and operators with the request for health care coming from the oncological patients and their families.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg ; 98(5): 319-323, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690390

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The WHO declared 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) a public health emergency of international concern. The National and Regional Health System has been reorganized, and many oncological patients died during this period or had to interrupt their therapies. This study summarizes a single-centre experience, during the COVID-19 period in Italy, in the treatment of brain metastases with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed our series of patients with brain metastases who underwent GKRS at the Niguarda Hospital from February 24 to April 24, 2020. RESULTS: We treated 30 patients with 66 brain metastases. A total of 22 patients came from home and 8 patients were admitted to the emergency room for urgent neurological symptoms. Duration of stay was limited to 0-1 day in 17 patients. We chose to treat a cluster of 9 patients, whose greater lesion exceeded 10 cm3, with 2-stage modality GKRS to minimize tumour recurrence and radiation necrosis. CONCLUSION: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the whole world is at a critical crossroads about the use of health care resources. During the COVID-19 outbreak, the deferral of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and a work backlog in every medical specialty are the natural consequences of reservation of resources for COVID-19 patients. GKRS improved symptoms and reduced the need for open surgeries, allowing many patients to continue their therapeutic path and sparing beds in ICUs. Neurosurgeons have to take into account the availability of stereotactic radiosurgery to reduce hospital stay, conciliating safety for patients and operators with the request for health care coming from the oncological patients and their families.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3387-3393, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487635

RESUMO

AIM: To retrospectively assess toxicity and survival in 15 selected Glioblastoma patients treated with a sequential fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) boost after chemo-radiotherapy (CHT-RT) and compare their survival outcomes with a control group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Toxicity was assessed with the CTCAE 3.0 scale. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to design survival curves, log-rank test for bivariate analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression model for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 16 months (range=5-60). One case of headache and one of radionecrosis (RN) occurred. Median overall survival (OS) was 25 months in the boost group vs. 14 in the no-boost group (p=0.004). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 15 months in the boost group versus 8 in the no-boost group (p=0.046). At multivariate analysis FSRT boost resulted significantly associated with OS and PFS. CONCLUSION: In our series a sequential FSRT boost resulted in safe outcomes and significantly associated with survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3499-3504, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Seizures represent a major problem for patients with brain metastases. This study evaluated the role of seizures in patients receiving single-fraction radiosurgery (SRS) or multi-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 195 patients receiving SRS (n=164) or FSRT (n=31) alone for one to three brain metastases. The prevalence of pre-SRS/FSRT seizures and correlations with pre-treatment factors were investigated. These factors plus pre-SRS/FSRT seizures were assessed in regard to survival. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients had pre-SRS/FSRT seizures (prevalence=16.9%). Seizures were significantly correlated with age ≤61 years. Trends were observed for seizures being more frequent in those with NSCLC and those without extra-cranial metastatic spread. On multivariate analysis, significant associations with improved survival were found for Karnofsky performance score ≥80%, breast cancer, and an interval from diagnosis of malignant disease to SRS/FSRT ≥21 months. CONCLUSION: Younger age, NSCLC and absence of extra-cranial spread appeared to be risk factors for seizures prior to SRS/FSRT. Having seizures prior to SRS/FSRT showed no association with survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(5): 379-387, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534799

RESUMO

The increasing use of stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung tumours comes along with new post-therapeutic imaging findings that should be known by physicians involved in patient follow-up. Radiation-induced lung injury is much more frequent than after conventional radiation therapy, it can also be delayed and has a different radiological presentation. Radiation-induced lung injury after stereotactic body radiation therapy involves the lung parenchyma surrounding the target tumour and appears as a dynamic process continuing for years after completion of the treatment. Thus, the radiological pattern and the severity of radiation-induced lung injury are prone to changes during follow-up, which can make it difficult to differentiate from local recurrence. Contrary to radiation-induced lung injury, local recurrence after stereotactic body radiation therapy is rare. Other complications mainly depend on tumour location and include airway complications, rib fractures and organizing pneumonia. The aim of this article is to provide a wide overview of radiological changes occurring after SBRT for lung tumours. Awareness of changes following stereotactic body radiation therapy should help avoiding unnecessary interventions for pseudo tumoral presentations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Pneumonite por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(7): 573-581, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In A Randomized trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA), randomisation was halted at a mean follow-up of 33·3 months after a prespecified interim analysis showed that medical management alone was superior to the combination of medical management and interventional therapy in preventing symptomatic stroke or death. We aimed to study whether these differences persisted through 5-years' follow-up. METHODS: ARUBA was a non-blinded, randomised trial done at 39 clinical centres in nine countries. Adults (age ≥18 years) diagnosed with an unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation, who had never undergone interventional therapy, and were considered by participating clinical centres to be suitable for intervention to eradicate the lesion, were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a web-based data collection system, stratified by clinical centre in a random permuted block design with block sizes of two, four, and six, to medical management alone or with interventional therapy (neurosurgery, embolisation, or stereotactic radiotherapy, alone or in any combination, sequence, or number). Although patients and investigators at a given centre were not masked to treatment assignment, investigators at other centres and those in the clinical coordinating centre were not informed of assignment or outcomes at any of the centres. The primary outcome was time to death or symptomatic stroke confirmed by imaging, assessed by a neurologist at each centre not involved in the management of participants' care, and monitored by an independent committee using an adaptive approach with interim analyses. Enrolment began on April 4, 2007, and was halted on April 15, 2013, after which follow-up continued until July 15, 2015. All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00389181. FINDINGS: Of 1740 patients screened, 226 were randomly assigned to medical management alone (n=110) or medical management plus interventional therapy (n=116). During a mean follow-up of 50·4 months (SD 22·9), the incidence of death or symptomatic stroke was lower with medical management alone (15 of 110, 3·39 per 100 patient-years) than with medical management with interventional therapy (41 of 116, 12·32 per 100 patient-years; hazard ratio 0·31, 95% CI 0·17 to 0·56). Two patients in the medical management group and four in the interventional therapy group (two attributed to intervention) died during follow-up. Adverse events were observed less often in patients allocated to medical management compared with interventional therapy (283 vs 369; 58·97 vs 78·73 per 100 patient-years; risk difference -19·76, 95% CI -30·33 to -9·19). INTERPRETATION: After extended follow-up, ARUBA showed that medical management alone remained superior to interventional therapy for the prevention of death or symptomatic stroke in patients with an unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation. The data concerning the disparity in outcomes should affect standard specialist practice and the information presented to patients. The even longer-term risks and differences between the two therapeutic approaches remains uncertain. FUNDING: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke for the randomisation phase and Vital Projects Fund for the follow-up phase.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa/tratamento farmacológico , Fístula Arteriovenosa/cirurgia , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/tratamento farmacológico , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/cirurgia , Adulto , Fístula Arteriovenosa/mortalidade , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(9): 2289-2297, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524292

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are rare malignancies arising from biliary system. Systemic therapy is the cornerstone for stage IV disease, with poor overall survival (OS). Evidence is lacking about safety and efficacy of local ablative treatments, such as surgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the context of metastatic BTC (mBTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes for a cohort of mBTC patients treated with SBRT for oligometastatic disease. Inclusion criteria were 1-5 distant metastases; SBRT with a dose/fraction of a least 5 Gy to a biological effective dose (BED) of at least 40 Gy considering an α/ß of 10 Gy. Analyzed outcomes included local control (LC), distant progression-free survival (DPFS), PFS, and OS. RESULTS: 51 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. Primary tumor sites were intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (35%), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (31%), ampullary adenocarcinoma (20%), gallbladder adenocarcinoma (14%). 21 patients were treated on liver lesions, 17 on nodal metastasis, 5 patients on lung lesions, 4 patients on recurrence along the extrahepatic bile duct. After a median follow-up of 14 months median OS was 13.7 months, 1- and 2-year OS were 58% and 41%, respectively. Node and lung as metastatic sites were associated with a longer OS (p < 0.001). Median LC was 26.8 months, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was associated with longer LC (p = 0.036). Median DPFS was 11 months, with 1- and 2-year DPFS of 48% and 27.8%, respectively. Ten patients reported grade 1-2 toxicity and 2 cases of acute G3 biliary obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is feasible in the context of mBTC. OS and PFS results are promising, considering that our patients were heavily pre-treated with systemic therapy. Patients with nodal or lung relapse have better prognosis. Distant relapses remain the main pattern of failure, but treatment of all metastatic sites seems to improve DMFS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/efeitos da radiação , Colangiocarcinoma/radioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(9): 2311-2317, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583236

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We herein present the results of the first Italian Association of Radiotherapy and Clinical Oncology (AIRO) survey regarding salvage external beam re-irradiation of local prostate cancer relapse named PROLAPSE. METHODS: A questionnaire with 12 items was administered to the 775 Italian radiation oncologist members of the AIRO. RESULTS: One hundred of the members completed the survey. The survey highlighted that 59% of the participants are currently performing prostate re-EBRT, while nearly two-thirds (65%) affirmed that they are taking into consideration the procedure in case of intraprostatic relapse. Regarding the clinical target volume (CTV), only a minority (16%) declared to always prefer the partial prostate re-irradiation, while a consistent portion (nearly two-thirds) relied on clinical considerations of the choice towards partial or whole gland irradiation. The main techniques used for re-irradiation resulted to be intensity-modulated RT (IMRT)/volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and SBRT, having received approximately 40% of responses each. Regarding the criteria for patients' selection, more than 75% of responders agreed on the use of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-choline to exclude distant metastases and of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) to detect intraprostatic recurrence. A sufficient timeframe (> 3 years) between primary RT and reirradiation was indicated by more than half of participants as an important driver in decision-making, while histological confirmation of the relapse was considered not essential by more than two-thirds. For the use of concomitant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), most AIRO members (79%) agreed that the prescription should be based on a case-by-case analysis. Extreme hypofractionation (> 5 Gy/fraction) was preferred by the majority (52%) of the AIRO members. In most centers (more than 74%), the planning dose-volume constraints were generally extrapolated from the published data. In half of the cases, the interviewed responders affirmed that no major gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were registered in the follow-up of their re-EBRT patients. Bladder complications represented the most commonly observed form of toxicity, with an incidence of 67%. CONCLUSION: This first AIRO survey about salvage prostate re-EBRT provides an interesting snapshot and suggests increasing interest in re-EBRT patients in Italy. Consensus about some aspects of patients' selection, the necessity of biopsy, fractionation, and highly selective techniques seems feasible, but other key points such as irradiated volume, dosimetry parameters, and hormonal treatment association need to be clarified.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Idoso , Biópsia/métodos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Oncologia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Prolapso , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Reirradiação/métodos , Recidiva , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(5): 2419-2428, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Management strategies such as surgery and systemic therapy (androgen-deprivation therapy and chemotherapy) are considered a standard of care for patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer and have shown some positive results in many patients. However, they are often accompanied by side-effects that can negatively affect patients. The aim of this study is to review the potential of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the management of oligometastatic prostate cancer and to compare treatment outcomes with SBRT to those under standard of care management regarding progression-free survival (PFS), androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT)-free survival and local control rate (LCR) as well as a comparison of toxicity profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched to identify prospective randomised controlled trials as well as retrospective studies investigating SBRT and standard of care management for oligometastatic prostate cancer. Data on treatment outcomes and toxicity profiles were extracted. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies were included: 14 reported on the use of SBRT and four reported on the use of standard of care management. For SBRT, median PFS was 7.36-24 months. Median ADT-free survival was 12.3-39.7 months. The LCR varied, with some reports of 100% at 6 months and others of 92% at 5 years. No significant grade 3 toxicity was reported, with only five grade 3 events reported in two studies. For standard of care management, most of the studies reported 3-year PFS of 46.9-58.6%, with one study reporting a median PFS of 38.6 months. No standard of care study reported on LCR and ADT-free survival. Although different toxicity grading systems were used depending on the treatment modality, there were some reports of grade 3 events using standard of care management. CONCLUSION: SBRT appears to be a safe and effective modality for treating oligometastatic prostate cancer, having the potential to defer palliative ADT. Although LCR is excellent compared to conventional therapies, the PFS rate is reportedly inferior to standard of care therapies. No significant grade 3 toxicity was observed with SBRT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(9): 2351-2358, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356176

RESUMO

PURPOSE: SBRT demonstrated to increase survival in oligometastatic patients. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the natural history of oligometastatic disease (OMD) and how SBRT may impact the transition to the polymetastatic disease (PMD). METHODS: 97 liver metastases in 61 oligometastatic patients were treated with SBRT. Twenty patients (33%) had synchronous oligometastases, 41 (67%) presented with metachronous oligometastases. Median number of treated metastases was 2 (range 1-5). RESULTS: Median follow-up was 24 months. Median tPMC was 11 months (range 4-17 months). Median overall survival (OS) was 23 months (range 16-29 months). Cancer-specific survival predictive factors were having further OMD after SBRT (21 months versus 15 months; p = 0.00), and local control of treated metastases (27 months versus 18 months; p = 0.031). Median PFS was 7 months (range 4-12 months). Patients with 1 metastasis had longer median PFS as compared to those with 2-3 and 4-5 metastases (14.7 months versus 5.3 months versus 6.5 months; p = 0.041). At the last follow-up, 50/61 patients (82%) progressed, 16 of which (26.6%) again as oligometastatic and 34 (56%) as polymetastatic. CONCLUSION: In the setting of oligometastatic disease, SBRT is able to delay the transition to the PMD. A proportion of patients relapse as oligometastatic and can be eventually evaluated for a further SBRT course. Interestingly, those patients retain a survival benefit as compared to those who had PMD. Further studies are needed to explore the role of SBRT in OMD and to identify treatment strategies able to maintain the oligometastatic state.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Prognóstico , Radiocirurgia/métodos
16.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(9): 2379-2397, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We present preliminary data of the first older cancer patients treated with Hybrid Linac for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) consisting of 1.5 T MRI-guided and daily-adapted treatment. The aim was to assess feasibility, safety and the role of G8 and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) questionnaires in predicting patients' QoL, evaluated by patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). METHODS: Two groups of patients with localized prostate cancer or abdominal-pelvic oligometastases were analyzed. SBRT schedule consisted of 35 Gy delivered in 5 fractions. The primary endpoint was to measure the impact of G8 and CCI on PROMs. Both G8 and the CCI were performed at baseline, while the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) for PROMs assessment was prospectively performed at baseline and after SBRT. RESULTS: Forty older patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range 65-85). For the entire population, the median G8 score was 15 (10-17) and the median CCI score was 6 (4-11). Concerning the PROMS, the EORTC-QLQ C30 questionnaire reported no difference between the pre- and post-SBRT evaluation in all patients, except for the fatigue item that declined after SBRT, especially in the group of patients with a G8 score < 15 and with age < 75 years (p = 0.049). No grade 3 or higher acute toxicity occurred. CONCLUSION: This is the first report documenting for older cancer patients that 1.5 T MRI-guided daily-adapted SBRT is feasible, safe and does not impact on the QoL at the end of treatment. Longer follow-up is advocated to report long-term outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Date of approval April 2019 and numbered MRI/LINAC no. 23748.


Assuntos
Abdome/patologia , Abdome/efeitos da radiação , Pelve/patologia , Pelve/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(9): 1823-1832, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350591

RESUMO

Radiotherapy can elicit abscopal effects in non-irradiated metastases, particularly under immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). We report on two elderly patients with oligometastatic melanoma treated with anti-PD-1 and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Before treatment, patient 1 showed strong tumor infiltration with exhausted CD8+ T cells and high expression of T cell-attracting chemokines. This patient rapidly mounted a complete response, now ongoing for more than 4.5 years. Patient 2 exhibited low CD8+ T cell infiltration and high expression of immunosuppressive arginase. After the first SBRT, his non-irradiated metastases did not regress and new metastases occurred although neoepitope-specific and differentiation antigen-specific CD8+ T cells were detected in the blood. A second SBRT after 10 months on anti-PD-1 induced a radiologic complete response correlating with an increase in activated PD-1-expressing CD8 T cells. Apart from a new lung lesion, which was also irradiated, this deep abscopal response lasted for more than 2.5 years. However, thereafter, his disease progressed and the activated PD-1-expressing CD8 T cells dropped. Our data suggest that oligometastatic patients, where a large proportion of the tumor mass can be irradiated, are good candidates to improve ICB responses by RT, even in the case of an unfavorable pretreatment immune signature, after progression on anti-PD-1, and despite advanced age. Besides repeated irradiation, T cell epitope-based immunotherapies (e.g., vaccination) may prolong antitumor responses even in patients with unfavorable pretreatment immune signature.


Assuntos
Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/radioterapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Masculino , Melanoma/terapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos
18.
J Clin Neurosci ; 77: 237-239, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446808

RESUMO

Myxopapillary ependymomas are low grade neoplasms, which originate mostly from the medullary conus, cauda equina and the filum terminale. To date the principal treatment is surgical, total- or subtotal removal (GTR or STR), which can be associated with adjuvant radiotherapy. We report a patient with two tumor locations, one larger tumor at the L3 to S1 level and a smaller S2-S3 localized lesion. The patient was treated successfully with a combined approach of GTR of L3-S1 lesion and radiosurgical treatment of S2-S3 lesion.


Assuntos
Ependimoma/patologia , Ependimoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Radiocirurgia/métodos
19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 77: 185-190, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376156

RESUMO

Previous work at our institution treating arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with radiosurgery (RS) demonstrated superior nidus visualization and geometric accuracy with use of 3-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) compared to biplanar digital subtraction angiography. We have since adopted a unique radiosurgical protocol that utilizes 3DRA in the planning of linear accelerator (LINAC)-based RS delivered in a frameless manner. This study seeks to compare clinical outcomes between patients treated by this novel approach and those treated by our historic frame-based protocol. Clinical data were queried for all patients treated for AVM by single-fraction RS from 2003 to 2017. RICs were identified and classified as radiologic, symptomatic, or permanent. Excellent outcome was defined as nidus obliteration without intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or symptomatic RIC. Clinical predictors of study outcomes were identified through univariate and multivariate logistic regression using backwards elimination to optimize a predictive model. 131 AVMs in 124 patients were included with a median follow-up of 88 months. 59 AVMs received frame-based RS and 72 AVMs received frameless RS. Rate of obliteration was 64% for frame-based RS and 61% for frameless RS (p = 0.70). Radiologic, symptomatic, and permanent RICs rates were 68%, 17%, and 8%, respectively, for frame-based cases, versus 40% (p < 0.01), 8% (p = 0.13), and 3% (p = 0.15), respectively, for frameless cases. Excellent outcome was achieved in 49% of frame-based cases and 53% of frameless cases (p = 0.68). These results illustrate the safety and effectiveness of frameless LINAC-based AVM RS utilizing 3DRA.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/cirurgia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Angiografia Digital , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceleradores de Partículas , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radiocirurgia/instrumentação
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19838, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312006

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been traditionally thought to be radioresistant. This retrospective cohort study aims to assess the outcomes of patients with spinal metastases from RCC treated with conventionally-fractionated external beam radiation therapy (cEBRT) in our institution.Patients diagnosed with histologically or radiologically-proven RCC who received palliative cEBRT to spinal metastases, using 3-dimensional conformal technique between 2009 and 2018 were reviewed. Local progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and common terminology criteria for adverse events version 4.0-graded toxicity were assessed. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to evaluate for predictors associated with survivals.Thirty-five eligible patients with forty spinal segments were identified, with a median follow-up of 7 months (range, 0-47). The median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) was 32.5 Gy 10 (range, 12-39). Thirty-seven percent of patients underwent surgical intervention. At the time of last follow-up, all but 1 patient had died. Seven patients developed local progression, with the median time to local progression of 10.2 months. The median local PFS and OS were 3.3 and 4.8 months. There was no grade 3 or higher toxicity. A higher radiation dose (equivalent dose to 2 Gy fraction <32.5 Gy 10 vs ≥32.5Gy 10) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-3.18; P-value (P) = .68) and spinal surgery (HR, 2.35; 95% CI, 0.53-10.29; P = .26) were not significantly associated with local PFS on univariable analysis. Multivariable analysis showed that higher Tokuhashi score (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19-0.88; P = .02), lower number of spinal segments irradiated (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.37; P = .04) and use of targeted therapy (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.18-0.96; P = .04) were independent predictors for improved OS.For an unselected group of patients with RCC, there is no significant association between higher radiation dose and improved local control following cEBRT. This may be due to their short survivals. With the use of more effective systemic therapy, including targeted therapy and immunotherapy, survival will likely be prolonged. A tailored-approach is needed to identify patients with good prognosis who may still benefit from aggressive local treatments.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/complicações , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/efeitos da radiação , Resultado do Tratamento
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