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1.
Br J Radiol ; 95(1129): 20210570, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is seen as a serious delayed complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The aim of this study was to describe the most common imaging features of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A retrospective review was made of the medical records and radiological imaging studies of 47 children (26 male, 21 female) in the age range of 25 months-15 years who were diagnosed with MIS-C between August 2020 and March 2021. Chest radiographs were available for all 47 patients, thorax ultrasound for 6, chest CT for 4, abdominal ultrasound for 42, abdomen CT for 9, neck ultrasound for 4, neck CT for 2, brain CT for 1, and brain MRI for 3. RESULTS: The most common finding on chest radiographs was perihilar-peribronchial thickening (46%). The most common findings on abdominal ultrasonography were mesenteric inflammation (42%), and hepatosplenomegaly (38%, 28%). Lymphadenopathy was determined in four patients who underwent neck ultrasound, one of whom had deep neck infection on CT. One patient had restricted diffusion and T2 hyperintensity involving the corpus callosum splenium on brain MRI, and one patient had epididymitis related with MIS-C. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary manifestations are uncommon in MIS-C. In the abdominal imaging, mesenteric inflammation, hepatosplenomegaly, periportal edema, ascites and bowel wall thickening are the most common findings. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The imaging findings of MIS-C are non-specific and can mimic many other pathologies. Radiologists should be aware that these findings may indicate the correct diagnosis of MIS-C.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem , Radiografia Abdominal , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
3.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 59(6): 987-1002, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689882

RESUMO

Organ segmentation, chest radiograph classification, and lung and liver nodule detections are some of the popular artificial intelligence (AI) tasks in chest and abdominal radiology due to the wide availability of public datasets. AI algorithms have achieved performance comparable to humans in less time for several organ segmentation tasks, and some lesion detection and classification tasks. This article introduces the current published articles of AI applied to chest and abdominal radiology, including organ segmentation, lesion detection, classification, and predicting prognosis.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Doenças Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
4.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(238): 585-588, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508400

RESUMO

Body packing is the process of smuggling illicit drugs in the form of packages concealed within the gastrointestinal tract via ingestion or inserting into body orifices. These individuals are described as "body packers", "stuffers", "mules" or "swallowers" and resort to carrying drugs like heroin, cocaine and cannabis. They present to the hospital following the development of complications or brought dead due to the rupture of packets or directly from detention for further investigations. This case illustrates a suspected case detained from the airport who was found to be carrying 93 pellets of an illicit drug, heroin, weighing 900 grams, one of the highest quantity carried by any body packer in the country till date. This case further sheds light on the fact that a meticulous history, detailed clinical examination and radiographic investigations like abdominal radiograph and imaging are the keys to diagnose body packers in a resource limited setting.


Assuntos
Transporte Intracorporal de Contrabando , Tráfico de Drogas , Corpos Estranhos , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Radiografia Abdominal
5.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Foreign bodies such as a surgical gauze can be retained in the body after surgery and in some cases cannot be detected by postoperative radiography. The aim of this study was to develop an object detection model capable of postsurgical detection of retained gauze in the body. The object detection model used deep learning using abdominal radiographs, and a phantom study was performed to evaluate the ability of the model to automatically detect retained surgical gauze. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The object detection model was constructed using a Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) 300. In total, 268 abdominal phantom images were used: 180 gauze images were used as training data, 20 gauze images were used as validation data, and an additional 34 gauze images and 34 nongauze images were used as test data. To evaluate the performance of the object detection model, a confusion matrix was created and the accuracy and sensitivity were calculated. RESULT: True-positive (TP) rate, true-negative (TN) rate, false-positive (FP) rate, and false-negative (FN) rate were 0.92, 1.00, 0.00, and 0.08, respectively. Accuracy was 0.96, and sensitivity was 0.92. CONCLUSION: The object detection model could detect surgical gauze on abdominal phantom images with a high accuracy and sensitivity.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Corpos Estranhos , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Radiografia , Radiografia Abdominal
6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(746): 1357-1359, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397180

RESUMO

Chest x-ray and plain abdominal radiography are widely used in the daily practice of the emergency physician. The concept of « Choosing Wisely ¼ implies a more efficient medicine that encourages, among other things, the avoidance of investigations that do not have a significant impact on the therapeutic management of patient. In this context, indications for these two imaging examinations were reviewed, whether in the context of a consultation in the emergency department, a hospital admission or a preoperative check-up.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Exame Físico , Radiografia , Radiografia Abdominal
7.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1123): 20201357, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to conduct objective and subjective comparisons of image quality among abdominal computed tomography (CT) reconstructions with deep learning reconstruction (DLR) algorithms, model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), and filtered back projection (FBP). METHODS: Datasets from consecutive patients who underwent low-dose liver CT were retrospectively identified. Images were reconstructed using DLR, MBIR, and FBP. Mean image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated, and noise, artifacts, sharpness, and overall image quality were subjectively assessed. Dunnett's test was used for statistical comparisons. RESULTS: Ninety patients (67 ± 12.7 years; 63 males; mean body mass index [BMI], 25.5 kg/m2) were included. The mean noise in the abdominal aorta and hepatic parenchyma of DLR was lower than that in FBP and MBIR (p < .001). For FBP and MBIR, image noise was significantly higher for obese patients than for those with normal BMI. The CNR for the abdominal aorta and hepatic parenchyma was higher for DLR than for FBP and MBIR (p < .001). MBIR images were subjectively rated as superior to FBP images in terms of noise, artifacts, sharpness, and overall quality (p < .001). DLR images were rated as superior to MBIR images in terms of noise (p < .001) and overall quality (p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Based on objective and subjective comparisons, the image quality of DLR was found to be superior to that of MBIR and FBP on low-dose abdominal CT. DLR was the only method for which image noise was not higher for obese patients than for those with a normal BMI. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study provides previously unavailable information on the properties of DLR systems and their clinical utility.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artefatos , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 46(10): 5021-5036, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075469

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT) scout images, also known as CT localizer radiographs, topograms, or scanograms, are an important, albeit often overlooked part of the CT examination. Scout images may contain important findings outside of the scanned field of view on CT examinations of the abdomen and pelvis, such as unsuspected lung cancer at the lung bases. Alternatively, scout images can provide complementary information to findings within the scanned field of view, such as characterization of retained surgical foreign bodies. Assessment of scout images adds value and provides a complementary "opportunistic" review for interpretation of abdominopelvic CT examinations. Scout image review is a useful modern application of conventional abdominal radiograph interpretation that can help establish a diagnosis or narrow a differential diagnosis. This review discusses the primary purpose and intent of the CT scout images, addresses standard of care and bias related to scout image review, and presents a general systematic approach to assessing scout images with multiple illustrative examples, including potential pitfalls in interpreting scout images.


Assuntos
Radiografia Abdominal , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pulmão
10.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 18(9): 1324-1331, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess current practice patterns with respect to protocols used for incidental pancreatic cyst follow-up, management guidelines, and template reporting. METHODS: The Society of Abdominal Radiology Disease Focused Panel on intraductal pancreatic neoplasms distributed an anonymous 14-question survey to its members in June 2018 that focused on current utilization of incidental pancreatic cyst guidelines, protocols, and template reporting. RESULTS: Among the 1,390 email invitations, 323 responded, and 94.7% (306 of 323) completed all questions. Respondents were mainly radiologists (93.8%, 303 of 323) from academic institutions (74.7%, 227 of 304) in North America (93.7%, 286 of 305). Of respondents, 42.5% (136 of 320) preferred 2017 ACR recommendations, 17.8% (57 of 320) homegrown systems, 15.0% (48 of 320) Fukuoka guidelines, and 7.8% (25 of 320) American Gastroenterological Association guidelines. The majority (68.7%, 222 of 323) agreed or strongly agreed that developing a single international consensus recommendation for management was important, and most radiologists preferred to include them in reports (231 of 322, 71.7%); yet only half included recommendations in >75% of reports (161 of 321). MR cholangiopancreatography was the modality of choice for follow-up of <2.5 cm cysts. Intravenous contrast was routinely used by 69.7% (212 of 304). Standardized reporting templates were rarely used in practice (12.8% 39 of 306). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 7 of 10 radiologists desire a unified international consensus recommendation for management of incidental cystic pancreatic lesions; ACR 2017 recommendations are most commonly used, followed by homegrown systems and Fukuoka guidelines. The majority of radiologists routinely use MR cholangiopancreatography with intravenous contrast for follow-up of incidental cystic lesions, but template reporting is rarely used.


Assuntos
Cisto Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Radiologia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisto Pancreático/terapia , Radiografia Abdominal , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 46(12): 5489-5499, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999282

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To initiate a peer learning conference for our abdominal radiology division across multiple geographically separated sites and different time zones, and to determine radiologist preference for peer learning versus traditional score-based peer review. METHODS: We implemented a monthly peer learning videoconference for our abdominal radiology division. Surveys regarding radiologist opinion regarding traditional peer review and the new peer learning conferences were conducted before and after 6 months of conferences. RESULTS: Peer learning conferences were well attended across our multiple sites, with an average of 43 participants per conference. Radiologist opinion regarding peer review was poor, with survey radiologists responding positively to only 1 out of 12 process questions. Opinion regarding peer learning was extremely favorable, with radiologists responding positively to 12 out of the same 12 process questions. After 6 months of peer learning conferences, 87.9% of surveyed radiologists wished to continue them in some fashion, and no one preferred to return to score-based peer review alone. CONCLUSION: We successfully implemented a peer learning conference for our abdominal radiology division spread out over multiple geographic sites. Our radiologists strongly preferred peer learning conferences over our traditional peer review system for quality control.


Assuntos
Radiologia , Humanos , Revisão por Pares , Radiografia Abdominal , Radiologistas , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Clin Radiol ; 76(7): 550.e1-550.e7, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820640

RESUMO

AIM: To study the diagnostic accuracy and utility of triphasic abdominal computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and grading of oesophageal varices (OVs) as an alternative to endoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective analysis was undertaken of retrospective data from cirrhotic patients who underwent oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (OGD) and a triphasic abdominal CT from January to December 2019. Endoscopists and radiologists provided their respective independent assessment of OV grading after being blinded to the clinical details. Performance of CT grading of OVs was compared with the reference standard endoscopic grading using weighted kappa (k). Non-invasive scores such, as aspartate transaminase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) Index, platelet: spleen (PS) ratio were correlated between the two techniques. RESULTS: OV grading between endoscopists and radiologists showed 81.73% agreement (85 out of 104 patients) in the comparative analysis of 104 cirrhotic patients, of which no varices (57.1%, n=4), small (85.1%, n=23), medium (72.2%%, n=26), and large varices (94.1%, n=32) with a weighted k score of 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.82-0.94). Overall, the sensitivity of CT in the diagnosis of no, small, medium, and large OVs was 66.6%, 79.3%, 89.6%, and 94.1%, respectively, with an area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) score of 0.775, 0.887, 0.839, and 0.914. Performance of APRI, FIB-4, and PS ratio correlated well with the severity of OVs with no difference between OGD and CT grading. CONCLUSION: Triphasic abdominal CT can be an invaluable tool in the diagnosis and grading of OVs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Radiol ; 76(9): 710.e15-710.e24, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879322

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the use of deep-learning-based image reconstruction (DLIR) algorithms in dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen, and to compare the image quality and lesion conspicuity among the reconstruction strength levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 59 patients with 373 hepatic lesions who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen. All images were reconstructed using four reconstruction algorithms, including 40% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-Veo (ASiR-V) and DLIR at low, medium, and high-strength levels (DLIR-L, DLIR-M, and DLIR-H, respectively). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the abdominal aorta, portal vein, liver, pancreas, and spleen and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated and compared among the four reconstruction algorithms. The diagnostic acceptability was qualitatively assessed and compared among the four reconstruction algorithms and the conspicuity of hepatic lesions was compared between <5 and ≥5 mm lesions. RESULTS: The SNR of each anatomical structure (p<0.0001) and CNR (p<0.0001) were significantly higher in DLIR-H than the other reconstruction algorithms. Diagnostic acceptability was significantly better in DLIR-M than the other reconstruction algorithms (p<0.0001). The conspicuity of hepatic lesions was highest when using 40% ASiR-V and tended to lessen as the reconstruction strength level was getting higher in DLIR, especially in <5 mm lesions; however, all hepatic lesions could be detected. CONCLUSIONS: DLIR improved the SNR, CNR, and image quality compared with 40% ASiR-V, while making it possible to decrease lesion conspicuity using higher reconstruction strength.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Aprendizado Profundo , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos
19.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1122): 20201407, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Small bowel obstruction is a common surgical emergency which can lead to bowel necrosis, perforation and death. Plain abdominal X-rays are frequently used as a first-line test but the availability of immediate expert radiological review is variable. The aim was to investigate the feasibility of using a deep learning model for automated identification of small bowel obstruction. METHODS: A total of 990 plain abdominal radiographs were collected, 445 with normal findings and 445 demonstrating small bowel obstruction. The images were labelled using the radiology reports, subsequent CT scans, surgical operation notes and enhanced radiological review. The data were used to develop a predictive model comprising an ensemble of five convolutional neural networks trained using transfer learning. RESULTS: The performance of the model was excellent with an area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) of 0.961, corresponding to sensitivity and specificity of 91 and 93% respectively. CONCLUSION: Deep learning can be used to identify small bowel obstruction on plain radiographs with a high degree of accuracy. A system such as this could be used to alert clinicians to the presence of urgent findings with the potential for expedited clinical review and improved patient outcomes. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This paper describes a novel labelling method using composite clinical follow-up and demonstrates that ensemble models can be used effectively in medical imaging tasks. It also provides evidence that deep learning methods can be used to identify small bowel obstruction with high accuracy.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Intestino Delgado , Radiografia Abdominal , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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