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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17650, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626151

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Perioperative anesthetic management in cases of severe airway obstruction with positional symptoms can be associated with difficulties in ventilation or intubation, with a risk of acute respiratory decompensation at every stage of anesthesia. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here we describe the anesthetic management of a 67-year-old man with a massive intrathoracic goiter causing severe tracheal obstruction with positional symptoms. The patient presented with progressive dyspnea that was aggravated in the supine position and was scheduled for total thyroidectomy. DIAGNOSIS: Preoperative computed tomography showed a large goiter extending into the thoracic cavity, with diffuse segmental tracheal narrowing for 6 cm. The diameter at the narrowest portion of the trachea was 4.29 mm. INTERVENTIONS: Before the induction of general anesthesia, we applied extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in preparation for potential difficulties in securing the airway during general anesthesia. Subsequently, anesthesia was successfully induced and maintained. OUTCOMES: After the surgical procedure, fiberoptic bronchoscopy and chest radiography showed resolution of the tracheal narrowing. ECMO was weaned 2 hours after the surgery, and the patient was extubated on the first postoperative day. He was discharged without any complication. CONCLUSION: The findings from this case suggest that the use of ECMO before the induction of general anesthesia is a safe method for maintaining oxygenation in patients with severe tracheal obstruction.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Bócio Subesternal/cirurgia , Posicionamento do Paciente , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Estenose Traqueal/cirurgia , Idoso , Broncoscopia/métodos , Bócio Subesternal/complicações , Bócio Subesternal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Masculino , Radiografia Torácica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estenose Traqueal/complicações
6.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1222-1225, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484879

RESUMO

Bradycardia is a common complication at the early postoperative period after heart transplantation (HT). The heart rate (HR) usually recovers within a few weeks; however, several patients need a temporary pacemaker or chronotropic agents to stabilize their hemodynamics. Here, we report the first case of transient bradycardia associated with hemodynamic deterioration following HT, which was successfully treated with cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase-3-inhibiting agent. A 59-year-old man received HT for advanced heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. General fatigue persisted even after the HT. His HR was around 60 beats per minute (bpm) with sinus rhythm. Echocardiography showed no abnormal findings. Right heart catheterization showed that the cardiac index (CI) was 1.9 L/minute/m2. Continuous intravenous infusion of isoproterenol (0.003 µg/kg/minute) increased the HR to 80 bpm and CI to 2.7 L/minute/m2 and improved his symptoms. Isoproterenol was switched to oral administration of cilostazol (100 mg, twice a day), which maintained the HR at around 80 bpm and CI of 2.5 L/minute/m2. The patient's HR gradually recovered and cilostazol could be discontinued three months after the HT. Oral administration of cilostazol can be a therapeutic option for patients with sinus bradycardia following HT, who need positive chronotropic support.


Assuntos
Bradicardia/tratamento farmacológico , Cilostazol/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Bradicardia/diagnóstico por imagem , Bradicardia/etiologia , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Edema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 43(5): 805-810, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate a prototype, ultrahigh-resolution computed tomography offering higher reconstruction matrix (1024 × 1024) and spatial resolution (0.15 mm) for chest imaging. METHODS: Higher (1024) matrix reconstruction enabled by ultrahigh-resolution computed tomography scanner (128-detector rows; detector width, 0.25 mm; spatial resolution, 0.15 mm) was compared with conventional (512) reconstruction with image quality grading on a Likert scale (1, excellent; 5, nondiagnostic) for image noise, artifacts, contrast, small detail, lesion conspicuity, image sharpness, and diagnostic confidence. Image noise and signal-to-noise ratio were quantified. RESULTS: Diagnostic image quality was achieved for all scans on 101 patients. The 1024 reconstruction demonstrated increased image noise (20.2 ± 4.0 vs 17.2 ± 3.8, P < 0.001) and a worse noise rating (1.98 ± 0.63 vs 1.75 ± 0.61, P < 0.001) but performed significantly better than conventional 512 matrix with fewer artifacts (1.37 ± 0.43 vs 1.50 ± 0.48, P < 0.001), better contrast (1.50 ± 0.56 vs 1.62 ± 0.57, P < 0.001), small detail detection (1.06 ± 0.19 vs 2.02 ± 0.22, P < 0.001), lesion conspicuity (1.08 ± 0.23 vs 2.02 ± 0.24, P < 0.001), sharpness (1.09 ± 0.24 vs 2.02 ± 0.28, P < 0.001), and overall diagnostic confidence (1.09 ± 0.25 vs 1.18 ± 0.34, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrahigh-resolution computed tomography enabled a higher reconstruction matrix and improved image quality compared with conventional matrix reconstruction, with a minor increase in noise.


Assuntos
Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radiografia Torácica/instrumentação , Tomógrafos Computadorizados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artefatos , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Razão Sinal-Ruído
8.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate an influence of post-processing scatter correction in portable abdominal radiography using a low ratio anti-scatter grid (grid). METHODS: To assess tube voltage on portable abdominal radiography, a burger phantom was used to measure for inverse of image quality figure (IQFinv). For evaluation of the influence on using or not the grid, IQFinv were measured. Abdominal phantom radiographies were assessed subjectively, in random order, by six radiologic technologists. The radiographies were performed without scatter correction [IG (-)] and with scatter correction at equivalent for grid ratio 6 [IG (6)] and 8 [IG (8)]. RESULTS: There was no significant decrease in IQFinv with 75 and 80 kV in comparison of 70 kV. Even processing scatter correction, IQFinv with using the grid was significantly higher than that without using the grid. The ability to detect nasogastric tube and stomach gas were significantly better in the scatter correction. Deviation index for IG (6) and IG (8) were significantly lower than that of IG (-). DISCUSSION: Portable abdominal radiographies will be improved image quality by utilizing scatter correction, although, it is necessary to consider the scatter correction processing as this may significant decrease deviation index in the practical situation. CONCLUSION: The post-processing scatter correction should be useful for detection nasogastric tube and stomach gas in portable abdominal radiography.


Assuntos
Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica , Radiografia Abdominal , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos , Radiografia Torácica , Distribuição Aleatória , Espalhamento de Radiação
9.
Orv Hetil ; 160(35): 1387-1394, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448645

RESUMO

Introduction and aim: In case of imaging modalities using ionizing radiation, radiation exposure of the patients is a vital issue. It is important to survey the various dose-reducing techniques to achieve optimal radiation protection while keeping image quality on an optimal level. Method: We reprocessed 105 patients' data prospectively between February and April 2017. The determination of the radiation dose was based on the effective dose, calculated by multiplying the dose-length product (DLP) and dose-conversation coefficient. In case of image quality we used signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) based on manual segmentation of region of interest (ROI). For statistical analysis, one sample t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used. Results: Using iterative reconstruction, the effective dose was significantly lower (p<0.001) in both native and contrast-enhanced abdominal, contrast-enhanced chest CT scans and in the case of the total effective dose. At native and contrast-enhanced abdominal CT scans, the noise content of the images showed significantly lower (p<0.001) values for iterative reconstruction images. At contrast-enhanced chest CT scans there was no significant difference between the noise content of the images (p>0.05). Conclusion: Using iterative reconstruction, it was possible to achieve significant dose reduction. Since the noise content of the images was not significantly higher using the iterative reconstruction compared to the filtered back projection, further dose reduction can be achievable while preserving the optimal quality of the images. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(35): 1387-1394.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Doses de Radiação , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Algoritmos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16247, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277142

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Childhood brucellosis is a significant community health problem. It may imitate other conditions and may be misdiagnosed. Pulmonary involvement is a rare complication of childhood brucellosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 23-month-old child was referred to our hospital with a 3-week history of fevers and cough. He was initially diagnosed with pneumonia. DIAGNOSES AND INTERVENTIONS: Conventional antibiotic treatment was ineffectual. Total leukocyte count was 10,300/mm, hemoglobin was 8.5 g/dL, and platelet count was 250,000/mm. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and procaicltonin were 25 mm/h and 0.12 ng/mL, respectively. Chest radiography showed pneumonic infiltrate in both lungs.The initial bacteriologic test results were negative. Ten days after admission, Brucella melitensis were isolated from the second blood culture. This child was cured with the 2-drug regimen (rifampin+trimethopicin-sulfamethoxazole) for 6 weeks. OUTCOMES: The child recovered well with no occurrence of complications. The child remained asmptomatic without any signs or symptoms at a follow-up of 1 year. LESSONS: Non-specific findings of pulmonary brucellosis in children often make diagnosis difficult. The second blood culture is essential. In endemic areas, children with fevers and cough should be included in the diagnosis in cases of pulmonary brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/complicações , Pneumonia Bacteriana/etiologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/microbiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Radiografia Torácica
12.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 43(5): 713-717, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the quantitative and qualitative effects of virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) by spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) on metal artifacts in routine examinations. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with metal artifacts (caused by pacemakers, ports, screws, or prosthetic joints) affecting muscular tissue in the chest and/or abdomen were scanned using SDCT. Attenuation values around the metallic device were compared with contralateral unaffected values, for conventional images and 80 to 200 keV VMIs. In addition, general image quality and artifact intensity were rated by 2 readers. RESULTS: The VMIs significantly decreased metal artifact intensity in all patients (P < 0.05). In 39 patients (66.1%), the attenuation values of the artifact and the unaffected area on the optimal keV level were very similar (≤5 Hounsfield unit difference). Qualitative analysis showed that high VMIs significantly improved artifact intensity, with best scores at 140 keV. CONCLUSIONS: High monoenergetic images of SDCT significantly reduce metal artifacts, with optimal assessment at 140 keV.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Metais , Próteses e Implantes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radiografia Abdominal , Radiografia Torácica
13.
Arerugi ; 68(6): 691-695, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paradoxical response (PR) is defined as a clinical or radiological worsening in patients receiving adequate anti-tuberculosis treatment, with the exclusion of documented relapse or of other disease presentations. Although most patients with PR show spontaneous improvement, some cases presenting with diffuse alveolar damage have also been reported. METHODS: Retrospective clinical and laboratory data were collected on 89 patients of pulmonary tuberculosis who were treated at our hospital between April 2013 and January 2019. RESULTS: PR occurred in 21 patients (24%), and the median onset time after anti-tuberculosis treatment was 22 days. The time to onset of PR was shorter in diffuse pulmonary infiltrates group than in local pulmonary infiltrates group or in pleural effusion group. Low serum albumin, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), high Creactive protein (CRP) and chest radiographic appearance exceeding one-lung area were associated with PR incidence. There was no difference in sputum smear grading and pulmonary cavitation. Six out of the ten patients died, developing PR with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. CONCLUSION: Low albumin and chest radiographic appearance exceeding one-lung area were risk factors for developing PR. Diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in early phase of anti-tuberculosis treatment was related with Inhospital mortality.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Radiografia , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica Humana/análise , Escarro , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(2): 86-91, jul. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015004

RESUMO

Bronchiectasis is a suppurative lung disease with heterogeneous phenotypic characteristics. It is defined as abnormal dilation of the bronchi, losing the existing relationship between bronchial sizes and accompanying artery. According to their form, they can be cylindrical, varicose, saccular or cystic. According to its location, they could be diffuse or localized. The diagnosis of bronchiectasis is usually suspected in patients with chronic cough, mucopurulent bronchorrea, and recurrent respiratory infections. The etiology can be varied, being able to classify in cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, when there is cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene mutation and not cystic fibrosis, being post infectious the most frequent. Its relationship with childhood is unknown. Severe respiratory infections can predispose in a susceptible subject the so-called theory of the "vicious circle" and the development of these. Persistent bacterial bronchitis in children has been described as a probable cause of not cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in adults. The treatment is based on the management of symptoms and the prevention of exacerbations. The evidence is poor and many treatments are extrapolated from cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. We are going to describe the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in adults.


La bronquiectasia es una enfermedad pulmonar supurativa con características fenotípicas heterogéneas. Se define como la dilatación anormal de los bronquios, perdiendo la relación existente entre tamaño bronquial y arteria que acompaña. Según su forma, pueden ser clasificadas en cilíndricas, varicosas, saculares o quísticas y según su etiología presentarse de forma difusa o localizada. El diagnóstico de bronquiectasias se sospecha generalmente en pacientes con tos crónica, broncorrea mucosa, mucupurulenta e infecciones respiratorias recurrentes. La etiología es variada, pudiendo clasificarse en bronquiectasias fibrosis quística, aquellas que se encuentran en el contexto de la mutación del gen regulador transmembrana de fibrosis quística (CFTR) y no fibrosis quística, de etiologías diversas, siendo post infecciosas la gran mayoría. No se conoce con certeza su relación con la infancia, es sabido que infecciones respiratorias severas pueden predisponer en un sujeto susceptible, a la llamada teoría del "circulo vicioso" y el desarrollo de estas. La bronquitis bacteriana persistente en niños se ha descrito como una causa probable del desarrollo de bronquiectasias no fibrosis quística en adultos. El tratamiento se basa en el manejo de los síntomas y la prevención de las exacerbaciones. La evidencia es escasa y la mayoría de las terapias se han investigado en las bronquiectasias tipo fibrosis quística. En este trabajo se explicará el enfrentamiento diagnóstico y terapéutico de los adultos portadores de bronquiectasias no fibrosis quística.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Adulto , Aspergilose Broncopulmonar Alérgica/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Broncopulmonar Alérgica/terapia , Bronquiectasia/fisiopatologia , Bronquiectasia/terapia , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Broncopulmonar Alérgica/diagnóstico por imagem , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/etiologia , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Radiografia Torácica , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
15.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 518-521, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344216

RESUMO

Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY in most cases) is a frequently underdiagnosed chromosomal anomaly associated with multiple comorbidities in adult life. Patients with Klinefelter syndrome have a higher risk of cancer. Specifically, these patients have a higher risk for mediastinal germ cell tumors. It is estimated that 8% of male patients with mediastinal tumors have Klinefelter. We report a 42-years-old male who suffered recurrent respiratory infections. During the study, a mediastinal mass was found, whose pathological study disclosed a type B thymoma. The patient had a history of infertility, high stature, gynecomastia, obesity with gynecoid distribution of body fat and testicular atrophy. A karyotype was requested (47, XXY), confirming the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Klinefelter/patologia , Timoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Timo/patologia , Adulto , Humanos , Síndrome de Klinefelter/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Klinefelter/genética , Masculino , Neoplasias do Mediastino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Mediastino/patologia , Radiografia Torácica , Timoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Timo/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(9): 1601-1609, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243869

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death globally. Currently, lung nodule detection and classification are performed by radiologist-assisted computer-aided diagnosis systems. However, emerged artificially intelligent techniques such as neural network, support vector machine, and HMM have improved the detection and classification process of cancer in any part of the human body. Such automated methods and their possible combinations could be used to assist radiologists at early detection of lung nodules that could reduce treatment cost, death rate. Literature reveals that classification based on voting of classifiers exhibited better performance in the detection and classification process. Accordingly, this article presents an automated approach for lung nodule detection and classification that consists of multiple steps including lesion enhancement, segmentation, and features extraction from each candidate's lesion. Moreover, multiple classifiers logistic regression, multilayer perceptron, and voted perceptron are tested for the lung nodule classification using k-fold cross-validation process. The proposed approach is evaluated on the publically available Lung Image Database Consortium benchmark data set. Based on the performance evaluation, it is observed that the proposed method performed better in the stateof the art and achieved an overall accuracy rate of 100%.


Assuntos
Automação Laboratorial/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/patologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Humanos
19.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(2): 47-49, jun. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013849

RESUMO

Resumen: Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar un modelo predictivo sobre la presencia de tuberculosis pulmonar activa utilizando datos clínico-epidemiológicos y hallazgos de radiografía simple (Rx) y tomografía computadorizada (TC) de tórax. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo y analítico, que recopiló 22 variables clínico-epidemiológicas, 11 hallazgos radiológicos en Rx de tórax y 23 en la TC, que se realizaron en pacientes con sospecha clínica de tuberculosis pulmonar durante un período de 10 años. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística multivariado a los predictores potenciales de cultivo positivo, obteniendo un modelo predictivo. Resultados: Se recogieron 1.540 pacientes con sospecha clínica de tuberculosis a los que se les realizó Rx y TC torácico. El cultivo fue positivo en 101 casos. Se utilizó un proceso de eliminación hacia atrás para obtener el mejor conjunto de variables predictivas. Se obtuvieron 24 variables que fueron significativas (6 clínicas, 5 de Rx y 13 de TC) y se les asignó una puntuación. A la suma de estas puntuaciones se restó la edad en años multiplicada por 0,03. El modelo sugiere el diagnóstico de tuberculosis pulmonar activa en pacientes con una puntuación superior a 1,845. Obtuvo una sensibilidad de 85,1%, especificidad de 83,6%, valor predictivo positivo de 26,6%, y valor predictivo negativo de 98,7%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue de 0,9163. Conclusión: Este sistema de puntuación basado en criterios clínico-epidemiológicos y hallazgos radiológicos puede ayudar a diagnosticar tuberculosis pulmonar activa en casos de sospecha diagnóstica.


Abstract:Introduction: The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model on the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis using clinical-epidemiological data and findings of chest radiography and thoracic computed tomography (CT). Material and methods: An observational, retrospective, descriptive and analytical study was conducted, which collected 22 clinical and epidemiological variables, 11 radiological findings on chest x-ray and 23 on CT that were performed in patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis during a period of 10 years. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to the potential predictors of positive culture, obtaining a predictive model. Results: We collected 1,540 patients with clinical suspicion of tuberculosis who underwent radiography and thoracic CT. The culture was positive in 101 cases. A backward elimination process was used to obtain the best set of predictive variables. We obtained 24 variables that were significant (6 clinical, 5 of chest plain films and 13 of CT) and were assigned a score. The sum of these scores was subtracted from the age in years and multiplied by 0.03. The model suggests the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with a score higher than 1.845. The model obtained a sensitivity of 85.1%, specificity of 83.6%, positive predictive value of 26.6, and negative predictive value of 98.7%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.9163. Conclusion: This scoring system based on clinical-epidemiological criteria and radiological findings can help rule out active pulmonary tuberculosis in cases of diagnostic suspicion.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Previsões , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etiologia , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 83(2): 77-86, jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020470

RESUMO

La sarcoidosis es una enfermedad granulomatosa no caseificante, multisistémica, de causa desconocida, que compromete al pulmón y a los ganglios linfáticos mediastinales entre el 90 y el 95% de los casos. También puede afectar otros órganos, como las glándulas salivales, piel, ojos, hígado, bazo, corazón, huesos y sistema nervioso central. La sarcoidosis tiene una baja prevalencia en Latinoamérica y es subdiagnosticada debido a la alta frecuencia de otros trastornos similares, como tuberculosis, lepra y micosis profundas. El diagnóstico presuntivo se establece con hallazgos imagenológicos característicos dentro de un contexto clínico apropiado y se confirma con la evidencia histológica de granulomas no caseificantes de células epiteliales, en ausencia de otras etiologías. Los hallazgos torácicos incluyen la afectación pulmonar, ganglionar y bronquial, los cuales son detectados a través de la radiografía (Rx) y tomografía computada (TC) de tórax, siendo esa última más sensible y específica. En este artículo, resaltamos la importancia de reconocer los patrones de presentación típicos y atípicos de la sarcoidosis en Rx y TC, así como la relevancia de las imágenes torácicas como elemento clave en el algoritmo diagnóstico de esa patología. También describimos la utilidad de la resonancia magnética (RM), como método adicional para el diagnóstico en casos de afectación cardíaca y el papel de la tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET-CT) en el seguimiento terapéutico.


Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating granulomatous, multisystemic disease of unknown cause that involves the lung and mediastinal lymph nodes in 90-95% of cases. It can also affect other organs such as the salivary glands, skin, eyes, liver, spleen, heart, bones and the central nervous system. Sarcoidosis has a low prevalence in Latin America and it is underdiagnosed due to the high frequency of other similar disorders such as tuberculosis, leprosy and deep mycosis. The presumptive diagnosis is established based on characteristic imaging findings within an appropriate clinical setting and is confirmed by histological evidence of non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas, in the absence of other etiologies. Thoracic imaging findings include pulmonary, nodal and bronchial involvement, which are detected on chest radiography (CXR) and computed tomography (CT), this last one having a higher sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we highlight the importance of recognizing the typical and atypical presentation patterns of sarcoidosis on CXR and CT, as well as the relevance of thoracic images as key elements in the diagnostic algorithm of this pathology. We also describe the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an additional method for diagnosis in cases of cardiac involvement and the role of positron emission tomography (PET-CT) in therapeutic follow-up.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sarcoidose , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Radiografia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Radiografia Torácica
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