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1.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(3): 604-611, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014151

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Steep dose falloff outside of tumors is a hallmark of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and radiation therapy (SRT). Dose gradient index (DGI) quantifies the dose drop off. Tables of DGIs versus target volumes have been published for body sites, but none is available for brain. This study recommends guidelines for DGIs for brain SRS/SRT treatments based on clinical CyberKnife (CK) cases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four hundred ninety-five plans for patients with central nervous system tumors treated with CK at our institution between March 2015 and May 2018 were analyzed. The CK treatment planning system MultiPlan was used for planning. SRS/SRT plans were stratified into 6 groups by tumor size (Group I [0-1 cm3], II [1.0-3.0 cm3], III [3.0-5.0 cm3], IV [5.0-10.0 cm3], V [10.0-15.0 cm3], and VI [15.0-40.0 cm3]). Ideal and minimally acceptable DGIs were determined for each size group. To evaluate the effect of target shape on DGI criteria, the plans were divided into 4 target shape groups: (1) homogeneous shape (circular), (2) adjacent to radiosensitive organs at risk (adjacent), (3) irregularly shaped (irregular), and (4) multiple target plans (multilesion). The mean for each target size group was defined as the ideal DGI. Minimally acceptable DGI criteria are specified to reject the lowest 10% of cases. RESULTS: The minimal acceptable DGIs were 83 (Group I), 72 (II), 65 (III), 58 (IV), 52 (V), and 35 (VI). The ideal DGI is designated to evaluate SRS/SRT plans for homogeneous circular lesions, whereas minimal DGI is chosen to assess the plans for irregular, adjacent to organs at risk, and multilesions. SRS/SRT plans with higher DGI values are correlated with lower irradiated normal tissue volumes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a table of DGIs for brain SRS/SRT treatments as a tool for assessing the quality of intracranial SRS/SRT plans. DGI guidelines support SRS/SRT planning that results in lower risk of radionecrosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Órgãos em Risco/diagnóstico por imagem , Tolerância a Radiação , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Espalhamento de Radiação
2.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(3): 612-620, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738948

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) has provided unique opportunities to test radiobiologic hypotheses. However, CBCT is less adept to localize soft tissue targets growing in a low imaging contrast environment. Three-dimensional bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides strong image contrast and thus offers an attractive solution. We introduced a novel and efficient BLT-guided conformal radiation therapy and demonstrated it in an orthotopic glioblastoma (GBM) model. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A multispectral BLT system was integrated with SARRP for radiation therapy (RT) guidance. GBM growth curve was first established by contrast CBCT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to derive equivalent sphere as approximated gross target volume (aGTV). For BLT, mice were subject to multispectral bioluminescence imaging, followed by SARRP CBCT imaging and optical reconstruction. The CBCT image was acquired to generate anatomic mesh for the reconstruction and RT planning. To ensure high accuracy of the BLT-reconstructed center of mass (CoM) for target localization, we optimized the optical absorption coefficients µa by minimizing the distance between the CoMs of BLT reconstruction and contrast CBCT/MRI-delineated GBM volume. The aGTV combined with the uncertainties of BLT CoM localization and target volume determination was used to generate estimated target volume (ETV). For conformal irradiation procedure, the GBM was first localized by the predetermined ETV centered at BLT-reconstructed CoM, followed by SARRP radiation. The irradiation accuracy was qualitatively confirmed by pathologic staining. RESULTS: Deviation between CoMs of BLT reconstruction and contrast CBCT/MRI-imaged GBM is approximately 1 mm. Our derived ETV centered at BLT-reconstructed CoM covers >95% of the tumor volume. Using the second-week GBM as an example, the ETV-based BLT-guided irradiation can cover 95.4% ± 4.7% tumor volume at prescribed dose. The pathologic staining demonstrated the BLT-guided irradiated area overlapped well with the GBM location. CONCLUSIONS: The BLT-guided RT enables 3-dimensional conformal radiation for important orthotopic tumor models, which provides investigators a new preclinical research capability.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Medições Luminescentes , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Meios de Contraste , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Medições Luminescentes/instrumentação , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Radioterapia Conformacional/instrumentação , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/instrumentação , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Carga Tumoral
3.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1107): 20190879, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Locally recurrent disease is of increasing concern in (non-)small cell lung cancer [(N)SCLC] patients. Local reirradiation with photons or particles may be of benefit to these patients. In this multicentre in silico trial performed within the Radiation Oncology Collaborative Comparison (ROCOCO) consortium, the doses to the target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were compared when using several photon and proton techniques in patients with recurrent localised lung cancer scheduled to undergo reirradiation. METHODS: 24 consecutive patients with a second primary (N)SCLC or recurrent disease after curative-intent, standard fractionated radio(chemo)therapy were included in this study. The target volumes and OARs were centrally contoured and distributed to the participating ROCOCO sites. Remaining doses to the OARs were calculated on an individual patient's basis. Treatment planning was performed by the participating site using the clinical treatment planning system and associated beam characteristics. RESULTS: Treatment plans for all modalities (five photon and two proton plans per patient) were available for 22 patients (N = 154 plans). 3D-conformal photon therapy and double-scattered proton therapy delivered significantly lower doses to the target volumes. The highly conformal techniques, i.e., intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), CyberKnife, TomoTherapy and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), reached the highest doses in the target volumes. Of these, IMPT was able to statistically significantly decrease the radiation doses to the OARs. CONCLUSION: Highly conformal photon and proton beam techniques enable high-dose reirradiation of the target volume. They, however, significantly differ in the dose deposited in the OARs. The therapeutic options, i.e., reirradiation or systemic therapy, need to be carefully weighed and discussed with the patients. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Highly conformal photon and proton beam techniques enable high-dose reirradiation of the target volume. In light of the abilities of the various highly conformal techniques to spare specific OARs, the therapeutic options need to be carefully weighed and patients included in the decision-making process.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Reirradiação/métodos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Órgãos em Risco/diagnóstico por imagem , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1107): 20190594, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647313

RESUMO

It is recognized that the use of a single plan calculated on an image acquired some time before the treatment is generally insufficient to accurately represent the daily dose to the target and to the organs at risk. This is particularly true for protons, due to the physical finite range. Although this characteristic enables the generation of steep dose gradients, which is essential for highly conformal radiotherapy, it also tightens the dependency of the delivered dose to the range accuracy. In particular, the use of an outdated patient anatomy is one of the most significant sources of range inaccuracy, thus affecting the quality of the planned dose distribution. A plan should be ideally adapted as soon as anatomical variations occur, ideally online. In this review, we describe in detail the different steps of the adaptive workflow and discuss the challenges and corresponding state-of-the art developments in particular for an online adaptive strategy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Fluxo de Trabalho , Humanos , Órgãos em Risco , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
5.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1107): 20190378, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430188

RESUMO

Radiation therapy is an essential component of treatment for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but can be technically challenging because of the proximity of lung tumors to nearby critical organs or structures. The most effective strategy for reducing radiation-induced toxicity is to reduce unnecessary exposure of normal tissues by using advanced technology; examples from photon (X-ray) therapy have included three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy versus its predecessor, two-dimensional radiation therapy, and intensity-modulated photon radiation therapy versus its predecessor, three-dimensional conformal therapy. Using particle-beam therapy rather than photons offers the potential for further advantages because of the unique depth-dose characteristics of the particles, which can be exploited to allow still higher dose escalation to tumors with greater sparing of normal tissues, with the ultimate goal of improving local tumor control and survival while preserving quality of life by reducing treatment-related toxicity. However, the costs associated with particle therapy with protons are considerably higher than the current state of the art in photon technology, and evidence of clinical benefit from protons is increasingly being demanded to justify the higher financial burden on the healthcare system. Some such evidence is available from preclinical studies, from retrospective, single-institution clinical series, from analyses of national databases, and from single-arm prospective studies in addition to several ongoing randomized comparative trials. This review summarizes the rationale for and challenges of using proton therapy to treat thoracic cancers, reviews the current clinical experience, and suggests topics for future research.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Previsões , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Terapia com Prótons/economia , Terapia com Prótons/tendências , Qualidade de Vida , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/economia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1107): 20190304, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356107

RESUMO

Treatment planning is the process where the prescription of the radiation oncologist is translated into a deliverable treatment. With the complexity of contemporary radiotherapy, treatment planning cannot be performed without a computerized treatment planning system. Proton therapy (PT) enables highly conformal treatment plans with a minimum of dose to tissues outside the target volume, but to obtain the most optimal plan for the treatment, there are a multitude of parameters that need to be addressed. In this review areas of ongoing improvements and research in the field of PT treatment planning are identified and discussed. The main focus is on issues of immediate clinical and practical relevance to the PT community highlighting the needs for the near future but also in a longer perspective. We anticipate that the manual tasks performed by treatment planners in the future will involve a high degree of computational thinking, as many issues can be solved much better by e.g. scripting. More accurate and faster dose calculation algorithms are needed, automation for contouring and planning is required and practical tools to handle the variable biological efficiency in PT is urgently demanded just to mention a few of the expected improvements over the coming 10 years.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Previsões , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Automação , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Órgãos em Risco/diagnóstico por imagem , Terapia com Prótons/tendências , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/tendências , Radioterapia Conformacional/tendências , Eficiência Biológica Relativa , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(6): 1105-1112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808397

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the treatment outcomes of a cohort of prostate cancer patients treated with conventional schedule using IMRT or 3DRT technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2010-2017, 485 men with localized prostate cancer were treated with conventional radiotherapy schedule with a total dose ≥74Gy using IMRT (231) or 3DCRT (254). Late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity were retrospectively evaluated according to modifi ed RTOG criteria. The biochemical control was defi ned by the Phoenix criteria (nadir + 2ng/mL). The comparison between the groups included biochemical recurrence free survival (bRFS), overall survival (OS) and late toxicity. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 51 months (IMRT=49 and 3DRT=51 months), the maximal late GU for ≥ grade- 2 during the entire period of follow-up was 13.1% in the IMRT and 15.4% in the 3DRT (p=0.85). The maximal late GI ≥ grade- 2 in the IMRT was 10% and in the 3DRT 24% (p=0.0001). The 5-year bRFS for all risk groups with IMRT and 3D-CRT was 87.5% vs. 87.2% (p=0.415). Considering the risk-groups no signifi cant difference for low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups between IMRT (low-95.3%, intermediate-86.2% and high-73%) and 3D-CRT (low-96.4%, intermediate-88.2% and high-76.6%, p=0.448) was observed. No signifi cant differences for OS and DMFS were observed comparing treatment groups. CONCLUSION: IMRT reduces signifi cantly the risk of late GI severe complication compared with 3D-CRT using conventional fractionation with a total dose ≥74Gy without any differences for bRFS and OS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Lesões por Radiação , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Sistema Urogenital/efeitos da radiação
8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6787-6798, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to develop a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for trismus in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective measurements of maximum inter-incisal opening (MIO) were performed at baseline and 6 months after definitive RT in 132 HNC patients. The primary endpoint of this study was defined when a patient fulfilled both of the following criteria: 1) MIO at 6 months after RT ≤35 mm and 2) MIO at 6 months after RT ≤80% of baseline MIO. Eleven clinical factors and a wide range of dosimetric factors (mean dose, maximum dose, V5, V10, V20, and V40) in twelve organs at risk (OARs) were chosen as candidate prognostic variables. RESULTS: Thirty out of 132 patients (23%) developed the primary endpoint. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the mean dose to the contralateral mandible joint (p=0.001) and baseline MIO (p=0.027) were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: A multivariable NTCP model for trismus in HNC patients treated with RT was established including the mean dose to contralateral mandible joint and baseline MIO.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Trismo/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimiorradioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Articulação Temporomandibular/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Tempo , Trismo/diagnóstico
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17549, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to evaluate and compare the dosimetric parameters of incidental irradiation to internal mammary node (IMN) from inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy (I-IMRT) and field-in-field IMRT (F-IMRT), and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients after breast-conservation surgery (BCS). METHODS: Eighty-four patients with BCS were selected. The breast, tumor bed, and IMN, including intercostal spaces (ICS) 1 to 3, were contoured. Three plans were generated. The prescription doses for the breast and tumor bed were 50.4 Gy/28 F and 60.2 Gy/28 F, respectively. If there was no tumor bed boost, patient was treated with 50 Gy/25 F for the whole breast only. The IMN was not included in planning target volume. RESULTS: The median mean dose (Dmean) of the IMNtotal (ICS 1-3) was 2740.2 cGy, 2973.9 cGy, and 2951.4 cGy for I-IMRT, F-IMRT, and 3D-CRT, respectively. Differences were not detected between any of the plans. After separating ICS 1 to 3 for further analysis, neither of the Dmean of ICS 1 to 2 was significantly different between the plans. However, for ICS 3, the median Dmean was highest for I-IMRT, and those for 3D-CRT and F-IMRT were not significantly different. After separating the 3 techniques for further analysis, the median Dmean was highest in ICS 3 and lowest in ICS 1 for all the 3 techniques. CONCLUSION: All 3 techniques failed to attain an adequate dose to cure subclinical disease, and there were no significant differences among the 3 techniques. It is risky to avoid IMN irradiation (IMNI) using any of the 3 techniques during whole-breast radiotherapy in women with indications for elective IMNI. However, in era of systematic therapy, whether the incidental dose could meet clinical acquirements needs further follow-up.


Assuntos
Mama/cirurgia , Radiometria/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Mama/patologia , Mama/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Mastectomia Segmentar/métodos , Mediastino/patologia , Mediastino/efeitos da radiação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Parede Torácica/efeitos da radiação
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(37): 5604-5618, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the main causes of human death. It is usually already in middle or advanced stage when diagnosed due to its hidden symptoms in early stage. Therefore, patients have already lost the best surgical timing when diagnosed. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are standard treatment methods for ESCC clinically, but the efficacy and prognosis of patients from them are still unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is of great clinical significance to seek for biomarkers that can predict the radiotherapy and chemotherapy response and prognosis of ESCC patients. AIM: To explore the clinical value of plasma miR-21 and miR-93 in ESCC. METHODS: A total of 128 ESCC patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhenzhou University were enrolled as a study group and treated with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and other 45 healthy people during the same period were enrolled as a control group. The expression of plasma miR-21 and miR-93 was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the correlation of expression of plasma miR-21 and miR-93 with clinical pathological parameters about the patients was analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was adopted to assess the diagnostic value of plasma miR-21 and miR-93 for clinical pathological features of ESCC patients, the Logistic regression analysis adopted to analyze the risk factors for radiotherapy and chemotherapy efficacy in ESCC patients, and the Cox regression analysis to identify the prognostic factors for ESCC patients. RESULTS: The study group showed significantly higher relative expression of plasma miR-21 and miR-93 than the control group (P < 0.01). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of plasma miR-21 for diagnosing T stage, N stage, M stage, and pathological differentiation of ESCC was 0.819, 0.758, 0.824, and 0.725, respectively, and that of plasma miR-93 for diagnosing T stage, N stage, and M stage of ESCC was 0.827, 0.815, and 0.814, respectively. The AUC of combined plasma miR-21 and miR-93 for predicting radiotherapy and chemotherapy efficacy before radiotherapy and chemotherapy was 0.894, and the AUCs of them for predicting the 3-year overall survival (OS) were 0.861 and 0.807, respectively. T stage (P < 0.05), M stage (P < 0.05), miR-21(P < 0.01), and miR-93 (P < 0.05) were independent risk factors for radiotherapy and chemotherapy efficacy, and T stage (P < 0.01), N stage (P < 0.05), M stage (P < 0.01), miR-21 (P < 0.01), and miR-93 (P < 0.01) were independent prognostic factors for ESCC patients. CONCLUSION: MiR-21 and miR-93 can be adopted as effective biomarkers for predicting radiotherapy and chemotherapy efficacy in ESCC and the 3-year OS of ESCC patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/terapia , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 701-707, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501024

RESUMO

Lung cancer treatment is a heavy workload for radiation oncologist and that field showed many evolutions over the last two decades. The issue about target volume was raised when treatment delivery became more precise with the development of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Initially based upon surgical series, numerous retrospective and prospective studies aimed to evaluate the risk of elective nodal failure of involved-field radiotherapy compared to standard large field elective nodal irradiation. In every setting, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, localized non-small cell lung cancer, localized small cell lung cancer, exclusive chemoradiation or postoperative radiotherapy, most of the studies showed no significant difference between involved-field radiotherapy or elective nodal irradiation with elective nodal failure rate under 5% at 2 years, provided staging had been done with modern imaging and diagnostic techniques (positron emission tomography scan, endoscopy, etc.). Moreover, if reducing irradiated volumes are safe regarding recurrences, involved-field radiotherapy allowed dose escalation while reducing acute and late oesophageal, cardiac and pulmonary toxicities. Consequently, major clinical trials involving radiotherapy initiated in the last two decades and international clinical guidelines recommended omission of elective nodal irradiation in favour of in-field radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/radioterapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radioterapia/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Toracoscopia
12.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 682-687, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492540

RESUMO

Despite representing a 1% of diagnosed cancer cases in the USA and up to 5% in eastern Asia and Africa, oesophageal cancer still holds numerous questions concerning the best therapeutic management. For squamous cell carcinoma, while radiochemotherapy has proven itself to be the gold standard as part of the trimodality or alone as a definitive treatment, radiotherapy modalities are still debated especially regarding lymph node irradiation. Involved nodes irradiation was developed with the aim of maintaining clinical outcomes and enhancing quality of life but lacks grade 1 evidence. In this article, we aim to summarize the state of art regarding lymph node irradiation, discuss the impact of target definition, delivery techniques, concomitant treatment and the perspectives. Being highly connected to the lymph vessels, lymphatic metastases are frequent and can locate from the neck to the coeliac area with each node having a different prognostic significance. Regarding the comparison between elective nodal irradiation and involved nodes irradiation, evidence-based medicine mostly relies on retrospective studies. Pooled, it suggests similar clinical outcomes with lower acute toxicities in favour of involved nodes irradiation. However, delivery techniques, doses and concomitant treatment were not consensual. Studies are ongoing evaluating the impact of radiation delivery techniques and the choice of concomitant treatment, i.e. immunotherapy. Modern techniques of imaging, radiation therapy progressing each day and alternative treatment modalities being tested, the need of randomized controlled trials has never been so high. Elective nodal irradiation should remain the standard of care while phase 3 trials explore the safety of involved nodal irradiation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Esôfago/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Linfonodos/anatomia & histologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos
13.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 135, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370876

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Along with breast-conserving surgery (BCS), adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of patients with early breast cancer plays a crucial role in the oncologic treatment concept. Conventionally, irradiation is carried out with the aid of tangentially arranged fields. However, more modern and more complex radiation techniques such as IMRT (intensity-modulated radio therapy) are used more frequently, as they improve dose conformity and homogeneity and, in some cases, achieve better protection of adjacent risk factors. The use of this technique has implications for the incidental- and thus unintended- irradiation of adjacent loco regional lymph drainage in axillary lymph node levels I-III and internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs). A comparison of a homogeneous "real-life" patient collective, treated with helical tomotherapy (TT), patients treated with 3D conformal RT conventional tangentially arranged fields (3DCRT) and deep inspiration breath hold (3DCRT-DIBH), was conducted. MATERIALS/METHODS: This study included 90 treatment plans after BCS, irradiated in our clinic from January 2012 to August 2016 with TT (n = 30) and 3D-CRT (n = 30), 3DCRT DIBH (n = 30). PTVs were contoured at different time points by different radiation oncologists (> 7). TT was performed with a total dose of 50.4 Gy and a single dose of 1.8 Gy with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to the tumor cavity (TT group). Patients irradiated with 3DCRT/3DCRT DIBH received 50 Gy à 2 Gy and a sequential boost. Contouring of lymph drainage routes was performed retrospectively according to RTOG guidelines. RESULTS: Average doses (DMean) in axillary lymph node Level I/Level II/Level III were 31.6 Gy/8.43 Gy/2.38 Gy for TT, 24.0 Gy/11.2 Gy/3.97 Gy for 3DCRT and 24.7 Gy/13.3 Gy/5.59 Gy for 3DCRT-DIBH patients. Internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs) Dmean were 27.8 Gy (TT), 13.5 Gy (3DCRT), and 18.7 Gy (3DCRT-DIBH). Comparing TT to 3DCRT-DIBH dose varied significantly in all axillary lymph node levels and the IMLNs. Comparing TT to 3DCRT significant dose difference in Level I and IMLNs was observed. CONCLUSION: Dose applied to locoregional lymph drainage pathways varies comparing tomotherapy plans to conventional tangentially arranged fields. Studies are warranted whether dose variations influence loco-regional spread and must have implications for target volume definition guidelines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Adjuvante/normas , Radioterapia Conformacional/normas , Suspensão da Respiração , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16660, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374039

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, only 10% to 20% of HCC patients are surgically resectable as most of the patients are diagnosed at advanced stages at presentation. The efficiencies of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in patients with advanced HCC have been clinically confirmed. We here report a patient with HCC accompanied by venous tumor thrombus, who was treated with the combination of these 3 therapies. The patient survived for 16 months with good quality of life. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 72-year-old male with a primary multicentric HCC accompanied by tumor thrombus in the right hepatic vein. The patient had the symptoms of abdominal distention and liver pain. He refused sorafenib treatment because of personal reason. DIAGNOSIS: Primary multicentric HCC stage IIIB cT4N0M0, accompanied by tumor thrombus in the right hepatic vein; chronic viral hepatitis B; and hepatitis B virus-related decompensated liver cirrhosis. INTERVENTIONS: TACE + HIFU + 3D-CRT. OUTCOMES: The patient had an overall survival of 16 months with good quality of life. Compared with monotherapy, the combined therapy significantly prolonged patient survival time with improved clinical benefits. CONCLUSION: The combination of TACE, HIFU, and 3D-CRT is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced HCC, which provides a possible comprehensive treatment strategy for advanced HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Tratamento por Ondas de Choque Extracorpóreas/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
15.
J Neurooncol ; 144(3): 603-610, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Children with sporadic optic pathway glioma (OPG) commonly experience a decline in visual acuity (VA). This study aimed to quantify long-term VA outcomes after definitive radiation therapy (RT). METHODS: From 1997 to 2017, 41 patients underwent RT for OPG and had baseline VA testing. All patients underwent serial VA testing every 3-6 months during the first 5 years and annually thereafter. The cumulative incidence of VA decline or improvement (per eye) was estimated using death as a competing risk. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 5 years. Most tumors (93%) involved the postchiasmatic optic tracts and/or hypothalamus. Of the tumors tested for BRAF alterations (n = 15), 67% had a BRAF fusion. Median time to VA decline was 20 months in the eye with worse vision and 22 months in the better eye. For the worse eye, the 5-year cumulative incidences of VA decline and improvement were 17.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-32.8%] and 13.5% (95% CI 4.7-26.7%), respectively. For the better eye, the 5-year cumulative incidences of VA decline and improvement were 11.5% (95% CI 3.5-30.7%) and 10.6% (95% CI 2.6-25.2%), respectively. Visual outcomes did not correlate with radiographic evidence of tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS: The 5-year cumulative incidence of VA decline was low. VA decline is most likely to occur within the first 2 years after RT and is not associated with radiographic progression of disease, highlighting the need for frequent ophthalmologic exams during this period.


Assuntos
Glioma do Nervo Óptico/radioterapia , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Acuidade Visual/efeitos da radiação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Glioma do Nervo Óptico/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 651-657, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447340

RESUMO

For the last decade, stereotactic body radiotherapy has become a leading treatment for localized prostate cancer. It can be delivered using a wide array of radiotherapy machines. However, although numerous clinical studies, both prospective and retrospective, have been published, the different techniques have never been properly compared. This article aims at giving an overview of the published trials, and at pointing out the major differences between the machines, from a clinical (efficacy end toxicity), technical and radiobiological point of view.


Assuntos
Aceleradores de Partículas , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/instrumentação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 153, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462267

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The heart and lungs are routinely exposed to incidental irradiation during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer. We analyzed the impact of patient and treatment characteristics on heart and lung dose in left-sided breast RT. METHODS: We analyzed 332 female patients treated with left-sided breast RT between 2013 and 2018. Mean heart dose (MHD), left mean lung dose (MLD) and heart / lung V20Gy were collected from treatment plans. Patients were stratified by RT technique (3D-conformal RT, 3DCRT; intensity-modulated RT, IMRT; volumetric modulated arc therapy, VMAT) and target volumes, including lymph node RT (LN-RT). Patient characteristics (body mass index (BMI), heart and lung volume) were assessed using correlation analyses. RESULTS: LN-RT was performed in 111 patients with increased MHD (median 4.6 vs. 3.3 Gy; p < .01), left MLD (14.8 vs. 7.7 Gy; p < .01) and left lung V20Gy (30.0% vs. 14.4%; p < .01) compared to treatment without LN-RT. Internal mammary LN-RT further increased organ doses compared to RT involving only supraclavicular +/- axillary LN (p < .01 for all values; MHD 6.9 vs. 4.2 Gy). In 221 patients treated without LN-RT, IMRT/VMAT was associated with higher left lung doses (MLD 9.1 vs. 7.4 Gy, p < .01; V20Gy 18.8% vs. 14.0%, p < .01) compared to 3DCRT. A negative correlation between total lung volume and both MHD (r = - 0.38; p < .01) and heart V20Gy (r = - 0.37; p < .01), as well as a weak positive correlation of BMI and MHD (r = 0.27; p < .01) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In adjuvant RT for left-sided breast cancer, LN-RT is associated with a marked increase in heart and lung doses, particularly with internal mammary LN-RT. Potential advantages of IMRT/VMAT for breast or chest wall RT need to be weighed against a moderately increased lung dose.


Assuntos
Coração/efeitos da radiação , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/patologia
18.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 105(5): 1074-1085, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We initially aimed to ascertain the application value of inflammatory indexes in predicting severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP). Furthermore, a novel nomogram and risk classification system integrating clinicopathologic, dosimetric, and biological parameters were built to provide individualized risk assessment and accurate prediction of SARP in patients with esophageal cancer who received radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All data were retrospectively collected from 416 esophageal cancer patients in 2 participating institutes. A novel nomogram was constructed that forecasted SARP based on logistic regression analyses. The concordance index, calibration curves, and decision curve analyses were used by both internal and external validation to demonstrate discriminatory and predictive capacity. Moreover, a corresponding risk classification system was generated by recursive partitioning analysis. RESULTS: The Subjective Global Assessment score, pulmonary fibrosis score, planning target volume/total lung volume, mean lung dose, and ratio of change regarding systemic immune inflammation index at 4 weeks in the course of treatment were independent predictors of SARP and finally incorporated into our nomogram. The concordance index of nomogram for SARP prediction was 0.852, which showed superior discriminatory power (range, 0.604-0.712). Calibration curves indicated favorable consistency between the nomogram prediction and the actual outcomes. Decision curve analyses exhibited satisfactory clinical utility. A risk classification system was established to perfectly divide patients into 3 different risk groups, which were low-risk group (6.1%, score 0-158), intermediate-risk group (37.3%, score 159-280), and high-risk group (78.9%, score >280). CONCLUSIONS: The Subjective Global Assessment score, pulmonary fibrosis score, planning target volume/total lung volume, mean lung dose, and ratio of change regarding systemic immune inflammation index at 4 weeks were potential valuable markers in predicting SARP. The developed nomogram and corresponding risk classification system with superior prediction ability for SARP could assist in patient counseling and provide guidance when making treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Nomogramas , Pneumonite por Radiação/etiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Análise de Variância , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Calibragem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Modelos Logísticos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Pneumonite por Radiação/diagnóstico , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
19.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1102): 20190317, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we used the concept of organ-equivalent dose (OED) to evaluate the excess absolute risk (EAR) for secondary cancer in various organs after radiation treatment for breast cancer. METHODS: Using CT data set of 12 patients, we generated three different whole-breast radiation treatment plans using 50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions: three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a field-in-field (FinF) technique, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The OEDs were calculated from differential dose-volume histograms on the basis of the "linear-exponential," "plateau," and "full mechanistic" dose-response models. Secondary cancer risks of the contralateral breast (CB), contralateral lung (CL), and ipsilateral lung (IL) were estimated and compared. RESULTS: The lowest EARs for the CB, CL, and IL were achieved with FinF, which reduced the EARs by 77%, 88%, and 56% relative to those with IMRT, and by 77%, 84%, and 58% relative to those with VMAT, respectively. The secondary cancer risk for FinF was significantly lower than those of IMRT and VMAT. OED-based secondary cancer risks for CB and IL were similar when IMRT and VMAT were used, but the risk for CL was statistically lower when VMAT was used. CONCLUSION: The overall estimation of EAR indicated that the radiation-induced cancer risk of breast radiation therapy was lower with FinF than with IMRT and VMAT. Therefore, when secondary cancer risk is a major concern, FinF is considered to be the preferred treatment option in irradiation of whole-breast. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Secondary malignancy estimation after breast radiotherapy is becoming an important subject for comparative treatment planning.When secondary cancer risk a major concern, FinF technique is considered the preferred treatment option in whole breast patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/efeitos da radiação , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Números Necessários para Tratar , Órgãos em Risco/diagnóstico por imagem , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/etiologia
20.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1102): 20190252, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of adjuvant volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in terms of toxicity and local control (LC) in patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities. METHODS: From 2004 to 2016, 109 patients were treated, initially using 3DCRT and subsequently with VMAT. Clinical outcome was evaluated by contrast-enhanced MRI, thoracic and abdominal CT 3 months after treatments and then every 6 months. Toxicity was evaluated with Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events scale v. 4.3. RESULTS: Patients presented Stage III soft tissue sarcoma disease (77%), localized tumor (95%) at the lower extremity (87%), adipocytic histotype (46%). Surgical resection was performed in all patients, followed by adjuvant 3DCRT in 38, and VMAT in 71. The median total dose was 66 Gy/33 fractions (range 60-70 Gy;25-35 fractions). More successful bone sparing was recorded using VMAT (p < 0.001). Median follow-up was 61 months, 93 and 58 months for 3DCRT and VMAT group, respectively. The 2- and 5 year LC were 95.3±2.1%, and 87.4±3.4% for the whole cohort, 92.0±4.5%, 82.9±6.4% for 3DCRT, 97.1±2.0%, 89.6±4.1% for VMAT (p = 0.150). On univariate and multivariate analysis the factors recorded as conditioning LC were the status of the surgical resection margins (p = 0.028) and the total dose delivered (p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: The availability of modern radiotherapy technique permit a better conformity on the target with maximum sparing of normal tissue and acceptable side-effects. VMAT is a safe and feasible treatment with limited rate of toxicity, compared to 3DCRT. Results on LC of VMAT are encouraging. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities can benefit from the use of VMAT, with a reduction of the high dose to bones to avoid radiation osteonecrosis. An adequate total dose of at least 66 Gy and a radical surgical margin allow a good local control.


Assuntos
Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Sarcoma/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Meios de Contraste , Extremidades , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Conformacional/mortalidade , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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