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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(4): 2101-2110, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate if topical support therapy during static-intensity modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT) course is able to equal the characteristic minimum risk for radiation proctitis of Image-guided volumetric modulated arc therapy (IG-VMAT) treatment among localized prostate cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Rectal toxicity data of the above patients were retrospectively collected throughout three different clinical periods at our Radiotherapy Deparment: from October 2011 to December 2012, prostate cancer patients were treated with sIMRT and in advance supported by means of daily topical corticosteroids; from January 2013 to November 2016, topical corticosteroids were replaced by daily hyaluronic acid enemas; from December 2016 to May 2018 eligible patients were treated with newly introduced IG-VMAT supported by only on-demand topical corticosteroids. RESULTS: Among 359 eligible patients, IG-VMAT was proven generally more effective than sIMRT supported by topical medications in terms of proctitis reduction, although without clinical and practical relevance. CONCLUSION: Topical medications might have a role in radiation proctitis prevention.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Proctite/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Administração Tópica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Beclometasona/administração & dosagem , Enema/métodos , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Proctite/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(4): 2141-2145, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We compared the outcome of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil as combination chemoradiotherapy (DCF-RT) for unresectable locally advanced thoracic esophageal cancer (EC) with that of cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as combination chemoradiotherapy (CF-RT) in clinical settings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients with unresectable locally advanced thoracic EC were included in this study. CF (n=38) consisted of intravenous CDDP at 70 mg/m2 (day 1) and 5-FU at 700 mg/m2 (days 1 to 4), repeated every four weeks for two cycles. DCF (n=35) consisted of intravenous docetaxel at 50 mg/m2 (day 1), CDDP at 60 mg/m2 (day 1), and 5-FU at 600 mg/m2 (days 1 to 4), repeated every four weeks for two cycles. Patients were irradiated with 60 Gy in 30 fractions. RESULTS: The overall complete response (CR) rate of DCF-RT was significantly higher than that of CF-RT (36.7% vs. 3.7%, p=0.003). The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of DCF-RT was significantly higher than that of CF-RT (32.8% vs. 8.5%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: DCF-RT demonstrated a higher CR rate and OS for unresectable locally advanced thoracic EC than CF-RT.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1120): 20201014, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In real-time portal dosimetry, thresholds are set for several measures of difference between predicted and measured images, and signals larger than those thresholds signify an error. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of an additional composite difference metric (CDM) for earlier detection of errors. METHODS: Portal images were predicted for the volumetric modulated arc therapy plans of six prostate patients. Errors in monitor units, aperture opening, aperture position and path length were deliberately introduced into all 180 segments of the treatment plans, and these plans were delivered to a water-equivalent phantom. Four different metrics, consisting of central axis signal, mean image value and two image difference measures, were used to identify errors, and a CDM was added, consisting of a weighted power sum of the individual metrics. To optimise the weights of the CDM and to evaluate the resulting timeliness of error detection, a leave-pair-out strategy was used. For each combination of four patients, the weights of the CDM were determined by an exhaustive search, and the result was evaluated on the remaining two patients. RESULTS: The median segment index at which the errors were identified was 87 (range 40-130) when using all of the individual metrics separately. Using a CDM as well as multiple separate metrics reduced this to 73 (35-95). The median weighting factors of the four metrics constituting the composite were (0.15, 0.10, 0.15, 0.00). Due to selection of suitable threshold levels, there was only one false positive result in the six patients. CONCLUSION: This study shows that, in conjunction with appropriate error thresholds, use of a CDM is able to identify increased image differences around 20% earlier than the separate measures. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study shows the value of combining difference metrics to allow earlier detection of errors during real-time portal dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Imagens de Fantasmas , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(3): 1587-1592, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is frequently applied to treat patients with nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NC/PNS) malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and four patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT) between 1994 and 2020 were recognized. This analysis compared conventional-radiotherapy (CRT) and image-guided IMRT outcomes for NC/PNS malignancies. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 69 months. Eighty-eight patients (85%) were managed with image-guided IMRT. The median initial radiation dose was 65 Gy, with 68 Gy applied for patients treated with primary RT versus 63 Gy applied for adjuvant therapy (p=0.1). The 5-year locoregional control (LRC) was 85%. The locoregional recurrence rate was 18% following IMRT versus 31% in the 2D/3D-conventional RT group (p=0.09). Moreover, IMRT was associated with a lower inner-ear toxicity rate (8% vs. 20%, respectively; p=0.045). CONCLUSION: IMRT appears to be linked with higher LRC and lower inner-ear acute toxicities compared to conventional RT.


Assuntos
Cavidade Nasal , Neoplasias Nasais/radioterapia , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/radioterapia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos
5.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1119): 20201031, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study dosimetric impact of random spot positioning errors on the clinical pencil beam scanning proton therapy plans. METHODS AND MATERIALS: IMPT plans of 10 patients who underwent proton therapy for tumors in brain or pelvic regions representing small and large volumes, respectively, were included in the study. Spot positioning errors of 1 mm, -1 mm or ±1 mm were introduced in these clinical plans by modifying the geometrical co-ordinates of proton spots using a script in the MATLAB programming environment. Positioning errors were simulated to certain numbers of (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%) randomly chosen spots in each layer of these treatment plans. Treatment plans with simulated errors were then imported back to the Raystation (Version 7) treatment planning system and the resultant dose distribution was calculated using Monte-Carlo dose calculation algorithm.Dosimetric plan evaluation parameters for target and critical organs of nominal treatment plans delivered for clinical treatments were compared with that of positioning error simulated treatment plans. For targets, D95% and D2% were used for the analysis. Dose received by optic nerve, chiasm, brainstem, rectum, sigmoid, and bowel were analyzed using relevant plan evaluation parameters depending on the critical structure. In case of intracranial lesions, the dose received by 0.03 cm3 volume (D0.03 cm3) was analyzed for optic nerve, chiasm and brainstem. In rectum, the volume of it receiving a dose of 65 Gy(RBE) (V65) and 40 Gy(RBE) (V40) were compared between the nominal and error introduced plans. Similarly, V65 and V63 were analyzed for Sigmoid and V50 and V15 were analyzed for bowel. RESULTS: The maximum dose variation in PTV D95% (1.88 %) was observed in a brain plan in which the target volume was the smallest (2.7 cm3) among all 10 plans included in the study. This variation in D95% drops down to 0.3% for a sacral chordoma plan in which the PTV volume is significantly higher at 672 cm3. The maximum difference in OARs in terms of absolute dose (D0.03 cm3) was found in left optic nerve (9.81%) and the minimum difference was observed in brainstem (2.48%). Overall, the magnitude of dose errors in chordoma plans were less significant in comparison to brain plans. CONCLUSION: The dosimetric impact of different error scenarios in spot positioning becomes more prominent for treatment plans involving smaller target volume compared to plans involving larger target volumes. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Provides information on the dosimetric impact of various possible spot positioning errors and its dependence on the tumor volume in intensity modulated proton therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pélvicas/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1119): 20201354, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This multicentric study was carried out to investigate the impact of small field output factors (OFs) inaccuracies on the calculated dose in volumetric arctherapy (VMAT) radiosurgery brain plans. METHODS: Nine centres, realised the same five VMAT plans with common planning rules and their specific clinical equipment Linac/treatment planning system commissioned with their OFs measured values (OFbaseline). In order to simulate OFs errors, two new OFs sets were generated for each centre by changing only the OFs values of the smallest field sizes (from 3.2 × 3.2 cm2 to 1 × 1 cm2) with well-defined amounts (positive and negative). Consequently, two virtual machines for each centre were recommissioned using the new OFs and the percentage dose differences ΔD (%) between the baseline plans and the same plans recalculated using the incremented (OFup) and decremented (OFdown) values were evaluated. The ΔD (%) were analysed in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage and organs at risk (OARs) sparing at selected dose/volume points. RESULTS: The plans recalculated with OFdown sets resulted in higher variation of doses than baseline within 1.6 and 3.4% to PTVs and OARs respectively; while the plans with OFup sets resulted in lower variation within 1.3% to both PTVs and OARs. Our analysis highlights that OFs variations affect calculated dose depending on the algorithm and on the delivery mode (field jaw/MLC-defined). The Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm resulted significantly more sensitive to OFs variations than all of the other algorithms. CONCLUSION: The aim of our study was to evaluate how small fields OFs inaccuracies can affect the dose calculation in VMAT brain radiosurgery treatments plans. It was observed that simulated OFs errors, return dosimetric calculation accuracies within the 3% between concurrent plans analysed in terms of percentage dose differences at selected dose/volume points of the PTV coverage and OARs sparing. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: First multicentre study involving different Planning/Linacs about undetectable errors in commissioning output factor for small fields.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Incerteza
7.
Cancer Radiother ; 25(2): 191-199, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402287

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In breast cancer, radiotherapy is an essential component of the treatment. However, indications of irradiation of the internal mammary chain and axillary area are debatables. Axillary recurrence in patients with invasive breast carcinoma remains an issue. Currently, the substitution of axillary lymph node dissection by sentinel node biopsy leads to revisit the role of axillary irradiation. Breast irradiation including level I, II and III might decrease the risk of axillary recurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed and the Cochrane library to identify articles publishing data regarding dose-volume analysis of axillary levels in breast irradiation aiming to determine the potential therapeutic implications. RESULTS: Eleven articles were retained. A total of 375 treatment plans were analyzed. The results concerning the irradiation technique, initial dose prescribed to breast, delineated volumes and dose received at axillary levels were heterogeneous. The average dose delivered to axilla levels I-III with 3D-conformal radiotherapy using standard fields were between 24Gy and 43.5Gy, 3Gy and 32.5Gy and between 1.0Gy and 20.5Gy respectively. The average doses delivered to axilla levels I-III with 3D-conformal radiotherapy using high tangential fields were between 38Gy and 49.7Gy, 11Gy and 47.1Gy and 5Gy 38.7Gy, 32.1Gy and 5Gy (result available for only one study) respectively. Finally, the average doses delivered to axilla levels I-III with intensity modulated radiation therapy were between 14.5Gy and 42.6Gy, 3.4Gy and 35Gy and between 1.2Gy and 25.5Gy respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Incidental axillary dose seems insufficient to be therapeutic regardless of the irradiation technique. There are meaningful differences between intensity modulated radiation therapy and 3D-conformal radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Irradiação Linfática/métodos , Axila , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/normas , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/normas , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela
8.
Cancer Radiother ; 25(1): 32-38, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402292

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate attenuation of the totally implantable vascular access device (TIVAD) and assess its clinical and dosimetric impact on radiotherapy (RT) of lymphoma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The first part of the study consisted of an in vitro approach by irradiating the TIVAD with different electron and photon energies. The attenuation data measured were compared with data calculated by our treatment planning system. All patients treated by radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma with their TIVAD in the target volume were then reviewed to assess the clinical outcome and dosimetric comparison using different plan metrics. All patients were treated by 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivered by Helical Tomotherapy (HT). RESULTS: Nineteen patients treated for stage I-III HL were studied. Seven patients were treated exclusively on the side of TIVAD and 12 were treated bilaterally. Median prescription dose was 30Gy. No significant clinical or dosimetric differences were observed between the side of the TIVAD and the contralateral side in patients treated bilaterally. HT resulted in a significantly higher conformity index (P<0.0022) and a significantly lower healthy tissue coverage (P=0.0008) than 3DCRT. The observed attenuation was 79% for 6 MeV, 59% for 9 MeV, and 46% for 12 MeV for electrons and 9% for 4 MV, 8% for 6 MV, 5% for 10 MV and 15 MV and 3% for 20 MV for X photons. CONCLUSION: TIVADs induce significant beam attenuation when using electrons, which can be overcome by using high-energy photons or by creating an exclusion zone in when HT is used.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular , Adulto , Elétrons/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia com Prótons , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cancer Radiother ; 25(1): 39-44, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419607

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is considered as a standard treatment for unresectable and inoperable esophageal cancer (EC) patients. However, no consensus has been reached regarding the optimal synchronous chemotherapy regimen and the best combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of raltitrexed plus cisplatin and docetaxel plus cisplatin to find a safe and effective concurrent chemotherapy schedule. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our retrospective study included 151 EC patients treated with raltitrexed and cisplatin (RP) (n=90) or docetaxel and cisplatin (DP) (n=61) from 2011 till 2018. Survival outcomes and treatment related toxicity were analyzed between the two groups. RESULTS: PFS and OS were 18 and 34 months in the RP group, while 13 and 20 months in the DP group (P=0.118 and P=0.270). The 1-, 2-, 3-year survival rates of the RP group were 71.1, 55.4 and 46.4%. For the DP group, these were 63.9, 44.3 and 37.6%, respectively. Compared with DP group, RP group received a superior CR rate (68.9% versus 52.5%, P=0.041). There was a trend that the total number of toxic reactions in RP group was lower than that in DP group (P=0.058). CONCLUSIONS: Even RP and DP groups have the similar survival outcomes and toxicity, raltitrexed/cisplatin get a higher complete response rate. Our study suggests that raltitrexed combined with cisplatin is a safe and effective concurrent chemotherapy regimen and it might be used as an alternative for cisplatin/5-FU and cisplatin/docetaxel in CCRT for EC patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/terapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 417-427, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. Despite clear benefits concerning normal tissue sparing and dose homogeneity, the effects of breathing motion and setup error during breast IMRT should be considered. This study aimed to assess the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion on breast IMRT using four-dimensional (4D) dose calculations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multiple computed tomography datasets acquired in three representative respiratory amplitudes, were retrospectively re-planned. Based on the reference dose distribution (RDD), motion-adjusted dose distributions (MDD) were recalculated. All 4D dose distributions were calculated by the voxel-based accumulation of RDD and MDD using five temporal probabilities. The dosimetric parameters of the 4D plans were compared to those of RDD. RESULTS: The dosimetric parameters of the planning target volume (PTV) were not significantly different between the RDD and 4D plans. Of the parameters of tumor bed (TB) simultaneous-integrated boost (SIB), the mean dose and V95% for the 4D plans were significantly reduced compared to those of RDD, and the percentage difference in the TB V95% ranged from -1.1% to -5.7% (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The breast IMRT plan was robust against respiratory motion during tidal breathing. However, special considerations should be made when designing the TB SIB.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Movimento (Física) , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Respiração , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 467-475, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HypoAR) is widely applied for the treatment of early laryngeal cancer. Its role in locally advanced head-neck cancer (LA-HNC) is unexplored. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We present results of a prospective trial on 124 patients with LA-HNC, treated with radio-chemotherapy with three different HypoAR fractionations (3.5 Gy/day × 14-15 fractions, 2.7 Gy/day × 20-21 fractions, and 2.5 Gy/day × 21-22 fractions). RESULTS: Protraction of the overall treatment time due to oropharyngeal mucositis was enforced in 18/57 laryngeal, 6/19 nasopharyngeal, and 15/48 cancer patients with other tumors. Regarding late toxicities, laryngeal edema grade 3 was noted in 5/57 patients with laryngeal cancer, while severe dysphagia was noted in 4/124 and tracheoesophageal fistula formation in 1/124 patients. The complete response rates obtained were 73%, 84%, and 67% in patients with laryngeal, nasopharyngeal, and other tumors, respectively. The 3-year locoregional progression-free survival was 58%, 73%, and 55%, respectively. CONCLUSION: HypoAR chemoradiotherapy is feasible, with acceptable early and late radiotherapy toxicities, response rates and LPFS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimiorradioterapia , Terapia Combinada , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Radiother ; 25(1): 77-91, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358082

RESUMO

Pelvic bone marrow is the site of nearly 50% of total hematopoiesis. Radiation therapy of pelvic lymph node areas, and cancers located near the bony structures of the pelvis, exposes to hematological toxicity in the range of 30 to 70%. This toxicity depends on many factors, including the presence or absence of concomitant chemotherapy and its type, the volume of irradiated bone, the received doses, or the initial hematopoietic reserve. Intensity modulated radiation therapy allows the optimisation of dose deposit on at risk organs while providing optimal coverage of target volumes. However, this suggests that dose constraints should be known precisely to limit the incidence of radiation side effects. This literature review focuses firstly on pelvic lymph node areas and bony volumes nearby, then on the effects of irradiation on bone marrow and the current dosimetric constraints resulting from it, and finally on hematological toxicities by carcinologic location and progress in reducing these toxicities.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/efeitos da radiação , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Hematopoese/efeitos da radiação , Irradiação Linfática/efeitos adversos , Ossos Pélvicos/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Pélvicas/terapia , Neoplasias do Ânus/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos da radiação , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Pelve , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Irradiação Corporal Total/efeitos adversos
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12480-12489, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336767

RESUMO

COVID-19 disease is one of the biggest public health challenges in Italy and global healthcare facilities, including radiotherapy departments, faced an unprecedented emergency. Cancer patients are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection because of their immunosuppressive state caused by both tumor itself and anticancer therapy adopted. In this setting, the radiation therapy clinical decision-making process has been partly reconsidered; thus, to reduce treatment duration and minimize infection risk during a pandemic, hypofractionated regimens have been revised. Moreover, telemedicine shows its helpfulness in the radiotherapy field, and patients get the supportive care they need minimizing their access to hospitals. This review aims to point out the importance of hypofractionated RT and telemedicine in cancer patient management in the COVID-19 era.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/métodos , Radioterapia/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Neoplasias Ósseas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Braquiterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Tempo para o Tratamento
14.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 19: 1533033820974021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327884

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With the widespread prevalence of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), cancer patients are suggested to wear a surgical mask during radiation treatment. In this study, cone beam CT (CBCT) was used to investigate the effect of surgical mask on setup errors in head and neck radiotherapy. METHODS: A total of 91 patients with head and neck tumors were selected. CBCT was performed to localize target volume after patient set up. The images obtained by CBCT before treatment were automatically registered with CT images and manually fine-tuned. The setup errors of patients in 6 directions of Vrt, Lng, Lat, Pitch, Roll and Rotation were recorded. The patients were divided into groups according to whether they wore the surgical mask, the type of immobilization mask used and the location of the isocenter. The setup errors of patients were calculated. A t-test was performed to detect whether it was statistically significant. RESULTS: In the 4 groups, the standard deviation in the directions of Lng and Pitch of the with surgical mask group were all higher than that in the without surgical mask group. In the head-neck-shoulder mask group, the mean in the Lng direction of the with surgical mask group was larger than that of the without surgical mask group. In the lateral isocenter group, the mean in the Lng and Pitch directions of the with surgical mask group were larger than that of the without surgical mask group. The t-test results showed that there was significant difference in the setup error between the 2 groups (p = 0.043 and p = 0.013, respectively) only in the Lng and Pitch directions of the head-neck-shoulder mask group. In addition, the setup error of 6 patients with immobilization open masks exhibited no distinguished difference from that of the patients with regular immobilization masks. CONCLUSION: In the head and neck radiotherapy patients, the setup error was affected by wearing surgical mask. It is recommended that the immobilization open mask should be used when the patient cannot finish the whole treatment with a surgical mask.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Máscaras , Erros de Configuração em Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imobilização/instrumentação , Imobilização/métodos , Imobilização/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/métodos , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/normas , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/efeitos adversos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Ombro , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(6): 1309-1313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342789

RESUMO

Background: Bilateral breast irradiation is technically challenging and there is limited information regarding optimal technique and outcomes. Hypofractionated Radiotherapy (HFRT) has emerged as the new standard of care in early breast cancer. However, there are concerns in using hypofractionation for bilateral breast irradiation due to larger volumes and potential toxicity. Our aim was to analyze the dosimetric data and clinical outcomes in these patients. Materials and Methods: Patients with synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) treated with bilateral breast irradiation were analyzed. All patients received simultaneous bilateral breast with or without regional nodal irradiation using a hypofractionated schedule of 40 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks with single isocenter bi-tangential field-in-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FIF-IMRT) technique. Results: Seven patients of SBBC were treated at our institute from 2015 to 2017. All patients were postmenopausal females. Five patients underwent bilateral modified radical mastectomy; two patients underwent bilateral breast conservative surgery. All patients received systemic anthracycline-based chemotherapy. The mean cardiac dose was 3.73 ± Gy and V 25 was 3.26% ± 1.96%. V 20 of lung ranged from 23.48% ± 4.47% and the mean esophageal dose was 3.6 ± 2.00 Gy. No patient had acute toxicity higher than Grade 2. At a median follow-up of 48 months, one patient died due to systemic progression. No patient reported any late toxicity. Conclusion: Bilateral breast irradiation using a hypofractionated schedule with single isocenter FIF-IMRT technique is technically feasible with minimal acute toxicity and no significant late effects on early follow-up.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/radioterapia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Igaku Butsuri ; 40(3): 88-96, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999255

RESUMO

The quality assurance (QA) of the output constancy of linear accelerators (linacs) is one of the most basic items for radiation therapy. The necessity and demand of the dosimetric audit is on the rise. We aimed at establishing an on-site dosimetric audit program with a plastic phantom in order to enrich the availability of dosimetric audit in Japan. By this, we developed and evaluated an on-site audit program in multiple institutions in 120 cases for photon and electron standard dosimetry and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) condition. For photon standard dosimetry, we evaluated the accuracies of institutional measured absorbed dose in 50 cases by this on-site audit program. For the electron standard dosimetry, we evaluated the accuracies of institutional measured absorbed dose in 25 cases. For IMRT condition, we evaluated the accuracies of the institutional calculated dose in radiation treatment planning systems in 45 cases. The agreements of the measured absorbed dose between our audit and the institutions were within±1.1% for photon standard dosimetry. The agreements of the measured absorbed dose between our audit and the institutions were within±2.1% for electron standard dosimetry. The agreements between the measured absorbed dose of our audit and the institutional calculated dose were within±2.1% for IMRT condition. We established an on-site dosimetric audit program with a plastic phantom and this program is suitable with tight criteria similar to criteria required for clinical QA.


Assuntos
Auditoria Médica/métodos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Radiometria/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/normas , Humanos , Japão , Auditoria Médica/normas , Órgãos em Risco , Imagens de Fantasmas , Plásticos , Radiometria/normas , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240043, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that spatial heterogeneity exists between recurrent and non-recurrent regions within a tumor. The aim of this study was to determine if there is a difference between radiomics features derived from recurrent versus non recurrent regions within the tumor based on pre-treatment MRI. METHODS: A total of 14 T4NxM0 NPC patients with histologically proven "in field" recurrence in the post nasal space following curative intent IMRT were included in this study. Pretreatment MRI were co-registered with MRI at the time of recurrence for the delineation of gross tumor volume at diagnosis(GTV) and at recurrence(GTVr). A total of 7 histogram features and 40 texture features were computed from the recurrent(GTVr) and non-recurrent region(GTV-GTVr). Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were carried out on the 47 quantified radiomics features. RESULTS: A total of 7 features were significantly different between recurrent and non-recurrent regions. Other than the variance from intensity-based histogram, the remaining six significant features were either from the gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM) or the neighbourhood gray-tone difference matrix (NGTDM). CONCLUSIONS: The radiomic features extracted from pre-treatment MRI can potentially reflect the difference between recurrent and non-recurrent regions within a tumor and has a potential role in pre-treatment identification of intra-tumoral radio-resistance for selective dose escalation.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Nasofaringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Interface Usuário-Computador
18.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6499-6503, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Late toxicity and long-term outcomes of a phase I-II trial on patients with prostate cancer treated with an integrated boost to the dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL) are reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy, with a simultaneous integrated boost to the DIL, defined on staging magnetic resonance imaging, delivering 72 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fraction to prostate/seminal vesicles and 80 Gy in 2 Gy/fraction to the DIL. The primary endpoint was acute toxicity and secondary endpoints were late toxicity and biochemical disease-free survival. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were enrolled. The median follow-up was 120 (range=25-150) months. Five-year rates of grade 3 late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity were 2.3% and 4.5%, respectively; only one grade 4 late genitourinary toxicity was recorded. Five-year biochemical relapse-free and overall survival rates were 95.3% and 95.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The treatment was well tolerated and achieved excellent results in terms of outcome in patients with low-intermediate Gleason's score and low risk of nodal metastasis.


Assuntos
Próstata/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos
19.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(8): 676-681, 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867461

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the survival and prognostic factors of radiotherapy in patient with Ⅳ stage esophageal squamous carcinoma treated with radiation or chemoradiation. Methods: The medical records of 608 patients with stage Ⅳ esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who met the inclusion criteria in 10 medical centers in China from 2002 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The overall survival and prognostic factors of all patients at 1, 3 and 5 years were analyzed. Results: The 1-, 3-, 5- year overall survival (OS) rates was 66.7%, 29.5% and 24.3% in stage ⅣA patients, and 58.8%, 29.0% and 23.5% in stage ⅣB patients. There was no statistical difference between the two groups (P=0.255). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the length of lesion, treatment plan, planned tumor target volume (PGTV) dose, subsequent chemotherapy, and degrees of anemia, radiation esophagitis, radiation pneumonia were related to the prognoses of patients with Ⅳ stage esophageal carcinomas after radiotherapy and chemotherapy (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PGTV dose (OR=0.693, P=0.004), radiation esophagitis (OR=0.867, P=0.038), and radiation pneumonia (OR=1.181, P=0.004) were independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusions: For patients with stage Ⅳ esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, chemoradiotherapy followed by sequential chemotherapy is recommended, which can extend the total survival and improve the prognosis of the patients. PGTV dose more than 60 Gy has better efficacy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/radioterapia , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(4): 888-899, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930136

RESUMO

Context: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is increasingly being used for early-stage lung cancer and lung oligometastases. Aims: To report our experience of setting up lung SBRT and early clinical outcomes. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective, interventional, cohort study. Subjects and Methods: Patients were identified from multidisciplinary tumor board meetings. They underwent four-dimensional computed tomography-based planning. The ROSEL trial protocol, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0236, and the UK-Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy Consortium guidelines were used for target volume and organs-at-risks (OARs) delineation, dosimetry, and plan quality assessment. Each SBRT plan underwent patient-specific quality assurance (QA). Daily online image guidance using KVCT or MVCT was done to ensure accurate treatment delivery. Statistical Analysis Used: Microsoft Excel 2010 was used for data analysis. Results: Fifteen patients were treated to one or more lung tumors. One patient received helical tomotherapy in view of bilateral lung oligometastases at similar axial levels. All the remaining patients received volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based treatment. The prescription dose varied from 40 to 60 Gy in 5-8 fractions with alternate-day treatment. The mean and median lung V20 was 5.24% and 5.16%, respectively (range, 1.66%-9.10%). The mean and median conformity indexes were 1.02 and 1.06, respectively (range, 0.70-1.18). After a median follow-up of 17 months, the locoregional control rate was 93.3%. Conclusions: SBRT was implemented using careful evaluation of OAR dose constraints, dosimetric accuracy and plan quality, patient-specific QA, and online image guidance for accurate treatment delivery. It was safe and effective for early-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer and lung metastases. Prospective data were collected to audit our outcomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional/métodos , Humanos , Índia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órgãos em Risco/diagnóstico por imagem , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Radiocirurgia/normas , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Resultado do Tratamento
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