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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(17): 5043-5052, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977368

RESUMO

The low phytic acid ( lpa) soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.) mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1-M, resulting from a 2 bp deletion in GmMIPS1, was crossed with a commercial cultivar. F3 and F5 progenies were subjected to nontargeted GC-based metabolite profiling, allowing analysis of a broad array of low molecular weight constituents. In the homozygous lpa mutant progenies the intended phytic acid reduction was accompanied by remarkable metabolic changes of nutritionally relevant constituents such as reduced contents of raffinose oligosaccharides and galactosyl cyclitols as well as increased concentrations in sucrose and various free amino acids. The mutation-induced metabolite signature was nearly unaffected by the cross-breeding and consistently expressed over generations and in different growing seasons. Therefore, not only the primary MIPS1 lpa mutant but also its progenies might be valuable genetic resources for commercial breeding programs to produce soybean seeds stably exhibiting improved phytate-related and nutritional properties.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Mio-Inositol-1-Fosfato Sintase/genética , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Hibridização Genética , Mutação , Mio-Inositol-1-Fosfato Sintase/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Sacarose/análise , Sacarose/metabolismo
2.
Food Funct ; 9(11): 5697-5706, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310896

RESUMO

New eating habits and diversification of tastes of consumers have led to the scientific community and the food industry to expand the range of probiotic foods and novel probiotic ingredients. Scant information is available about the viability and functionality of probiotics during shelf life and its effect on the nutritional characteristics of dairy-free products. The aim of the study was to formulate a fermented dairy-free dessert using a novel food ingredient based on a pumpkin by-product and containing Lactobacillus casei (ATCC®393™) (NFI). The effect of NFI and the soluble solids (SS) of soy milk on the probiotic viability, physical stability, colour, and firmness of dairy-free dessert was studied using a response surface methodology. The different levels of SS and NFI significantly (p < 0.05) affected the response variables. Thereafter, two formulations were selected and the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characterization were evaluated. The L. casei count reached the desired therapeutic level (>107 UFC mL-1) after gastrointestinal digestion at 21 days of storage. In general, both the fermentation process and storage reduced (p < 0.05) the content of phytic acid, raffinose and stachyose, which implies a nutritional improvement of the final product. Scores above 5.0 on a 9-point scale were obtained for colour, odour, texture and overall acceptability in the consumer acceptance test. Therefore, a dairy-free dessert with good physical properties, suitable nutritional characteristics, and sensorial acceptability could be successfully formulated with the NFI.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Ingredientes de Alimentos/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Probióticos , Adulto , Fenômenos Químicos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactobacillus casei , Masculino , Viabilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Rafinose/análise , Leite de Soja , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
3.
Food Chem ; 242: 279-287, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037690

RESUMO

A modelling approach was developed to better understand the behavior of the flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in cowpea seeds during isothermal water soaking-cooking process. Concentrations of verbascose, stachyose and raffinose were measured both in the seed and in the soaking water during the process (T=30, 60 and 95°C). A reaction-diffusion model was built for the three considered alpha-galactosides both in the seed and in the soaking water, together with a model of water transport in the seed. The model reproduced coupled reaction-diffusion of alpha-galactosides during the soaking-cooking process with a good fit. Produced, diffused and degraded alpha-galactoside fractions were identified by performing a mass balance. During soaking at 30°C, degradation predominated (maximum found for raffinose degradation rate constant of 3.22×10-4s-1) whereas diffusion predominated at higher temperatures (95°C).


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Galactosídeos/química , Modelos Teóricos , Sementes/química , Vigna/química , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Difusão , Temperatura Alta , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/química , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/química , Temperatura de Transição , Água/química
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1631: 279-293, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735404

RESUMO

Drought is a major limiting factor in agriculture and responsible for dramatic crop yield losses worldwide. The adjustment of the metabolic status via accumulation of drought stress-responsive osmolytes is one of the many strategies that some plants have developed to cope with water deficit conditions. Osmolytes are highly polar compounds, analysis of whcih is difficult with typical reversed-phase chromatography. Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) has shown to be a suitable alternative to reversed-phase stationary phases for the analysis of highly polar compounds typically found in the plant metabolome. In this chapter, we describe the development and validation of a PGC-based liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSn) method suitable for the target analysis of water-soluble carbohydrates, such as raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). We present detailed information regarding PGC column equilibration, LC-MSn system operation, data analysis, and important notes to be considered during the steps of method development and validation.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Plantas/química , Rafinose/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Desidratação/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Porosidade , Rafinose/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 211: 538-45, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27283664

RESUMO

The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders.


Assuntos
Culinária , Phaseolus/química , Pós/química , Sementes/química , Géis , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Rafinose/análise , Amido/análise , Amido/química
6.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 67(4): 383-90, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27002546

RESUMO

Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.


Assuntos
Dieta , Dissacarídeos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Grupos Minoritários , Monossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Álcoois Açúcares/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Dieta/etnologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/etnologia , Dissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Grupos Focais , Frutanos/efeitos adversos , Frutanos/análise , Frutanos/metabolismo , Humanos , Internet , Monossacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Nutricionistas , Oligossacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Rafinose/efeitos adversos , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/metabolismo , Álcoois Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Álcoois Açúcares/metabolismo , Reino Unido
7.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 71(3-4): 79-85, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27023319

RESUMO

The chemical properties, mineral contents, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of seed and seed oils of some citrus genus provided from several locations in Turkey and Saudi Arabia were determined. While Ca contents of seeds were between 5018 mg/kg (Kütdiken lemon) and 7619 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin), K contents of seeds varied between 7007 mg/kg (Orlando orange) and 10334 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin). Glucose and fructose contents of citrus seed samples varied between 3.75 g/kg and 5.75 g/kg, and 4.09 g/kg and 6.03 g/kg. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were established as dominant fatty acids. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid contents of citrus seed oils varied between 19.6% (Kütdiken lemon) and 26.2% (pineapple orange), 21.3% (kinnow mandarin) and 31.4% (Kütdiken lemon) and 32.3% (Kütdiken lemon) and 43.7% (kinnow mandarin), respectively. The total amount of tocopherols of Turkish citrus oil varied between 0.5 mg/100 g (Fremont mandarin) and 18.8 mg/100 g (bitter orange).


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Minerais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Cálcio/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Citrus/classificação , Frutose/análise , Galactose/análise , Glucose/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Potássio/análise , Rafinose/análise , Arábia Saudita , Sacarose/análise , Turquia
8.
Sci Rep ; 5: 12199, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26174584

RESUMO

During low temperature exposure, Arabidopsis thaliana and many other plants from temperate climates increase in freezing tolerance in a process termed cold acclimation. However, the correct timing and rate of deacclimation, resulting in loss of freezing tolerance and initiation of growth is equally important for plant fitness and survival. While the molecular basis of cold acclimation has been investigated in detail, much less information is available about deacclimation. We have characterized the responses of 10 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana that vary widely in their freezing tolerance, to deacclimation conditions. Sugar, proline and transcript levels declined sharply over three days in all accessions after transfer of cold acclimated plants to ambient temperatures, while freezing tolerance only declined in tolerant accessions. Correlations between freezing tolerance and the expression levels of COR genes and the content of glucose, fructose and sucrose, as well as many correlations among transcript and solute levels, that were highly significant in cold acclimated plants, were lost during deacclimation. Other correlations persisted, indicating that after three days of deacclimation, plant metabolism had not completely reverted back to the non-acclimated state. These data provide the basis for further molecular and genetic studies to unravel the regulation of deacclimation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Congelamento , Frutose/análise , Glucose/análise , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Rafinose/análise
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 95(11): 2287-91, 2015 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25298221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. RESULTS: Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. CONCLUSION: The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products.


Assuntos
Dieta , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Phaseolus/química , Paladar , Produtos Vegetais/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Humanos , Rafinose/análise , Amido/análise
10.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e113725, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25409020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pistachio nut ingestion (3 oz./d, two weeks) was tested for effects on exercise performance and 21-h post-exercise recovery from inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and metabolite shifts. METHODS: Using a randomized, crossover approach, cyclists (N = 19) engaged in two 75-km time trials after 2-weeks pistachio or no pistachio supplementation, with a 2-week washout period. Subjects came to the lab in an overnight fasted state, and ingested water only or 3 oz. pistachios with water before and during exercise. Blood samples were collected 45 min pre-exercise, and immediately post-, 1.5-h post-, and 21-h post-exercise, and analyzed for plasma cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP), granulocyte phagocytosis (GPHAG) and oxidative burst activity (GOBA), and shifts in metabolites. RESULTS: Performance time for the 75-km time trial was 4.8% slower under pistachio conditions (2.84 ± 0.11 and 2.71 ± 0.07 h, respectively, P = 0.034). Significant time effects were shown for plasma cytokines, CRP, F2-IsoP, GPHAG, and GOBA, with few group differences. Metabolomics analysis revealed 423 detectable compounds of known identity, with significant interaction effects for 19 metabolites, especially raffinose, (12Z)-9,10-Dihydroxyoctadec-12-enoate (9,10-DiHOME), and sucrose. Dietary intake of raffinose was 2.19 ± 0.15 and 0.35 ± 0.08 mg/d during the pistachio and no pistachio periods, and metabolomics revealed that colon raffinose and sucrose translocated to the circulation during exercise due to increased gut permeability. The post-exercise increase in plasma raffinose correlated significantly with 9,10-DiHOME and other oxidative stress metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, 2-weeks pistachio nut ingestion was associated with reduced 75-km cycling time trial performance and increased post-exercise plasma levels of raffinose, sucrose, and metabolites related to leukotoxic effects and oxidative stress. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01821820.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ciclismo , Inflamação , Estresse Oxidativo , Pistacia/metabolismo , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Citocinas/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exotoxinas/farmacologia , F2-Isoprostanos/sangue , Granulócitos/citologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Esforço Físico , Pistacia/química , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/farmacologia , Sacarose/análise , Sacarose/farmacologia
11.
Food Chem ; 154: 127-33, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24518324

RESUMO

A high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was optimised to separate with precision, accuracy and high reproducibility soluble sugars including oligosaccharides present in pulse meal samples. The optimised method within 20min separated myo-inositol, galactinol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose in chickpea seed meal extracts. Gradient method of eluting solvent (sodium hydroxide) resulted in higher sensitivity and rapid detection compared to similar analytical methods. Peaks asymmetry equivalent to one and resolution value ⩾1.5 support column's precision and accuracy for quantitative determinations of soluble sugars in complex mixtures. Intermediate precision determined as relative standard deviation (1.8-3.5%) for different soluble sugars confirms reproducibility of the optimised method. The developed method has superior sensitivity to detect even scarcely present verbascose in chickpea. It also quantifies myo-inositol and galactinol making it suitable both for RFO related genotype screening and biosynthetic studies.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica/métodos , Cicer/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Rafinose/análise , Sementes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica/instrumentação
12.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 65(4): 419-25, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24392956

RESUMO

Immature seeds of five bean cultivars (flageolet-type and those intended for dry-seed production) were assessed for changes in water-soluble carbohydrates including raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) due to boiling, sterilization, and storage of the sterilized product. About 100 g fresh weight of edible portion of fresh bean seeds contained 2449.3-3182.6 mg total soluble sugars, of which RFOs comprised 44-49%. The highest amounts of these compounds were found in the seeds of the cultivars Laponia and Mona. The dominant oligosaccharide was stachyose. Boiling fresh seeds to consumption consistency reduced total soluble sugars and RFOs: average values were 57% and 55%, respectively. Sterilization in cans resulted in 65% reductions of both total soluble sugars and RFOs. In general, there were no changes in the content of soluble sugars in canned and sterilized products stored for 12 months.


Assuntos
Culinária , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Conservação de Alimentos , Phaseolus/química , Sementes/química , Carboidratos/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sacarose na Dieta/análise , Sacarose na Dieta/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Peso Molecular , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/química , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polônia , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solubilidade , Esterilização
13.
J Plant Res ; 127(2): 347-58, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24190064

RESUMO

Galactinol synthase (GolS; EC 2.4.1.123) is a member of the glycosyltransferase eight family that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis pathway of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs). The accumulation of RFOs in response to abiotic stress indicates a role for RFOs in stress adaptation. To obtain information on the roles of RFOs in abiotic stress adaptation in trees, we investigated the expression patterns of nine Populus trichocarpa GolS (PtrGolS) genes with special reference to stress responses. PtrGolS genes were differentially expressed in different organs, and the expressions of PtrGolS4 and PtrGolS6 were relatively high in all tested organs. The expression levels of all PtrGolS genes, except PtrGolS9, changed in response to abiotic stress in gene- and stress-type-specific manners. Moreover, short- and long-term stress treatments revealed that induction of PtrGolS by salt stress is obvious only in the early period of treatment (within 24 h), whereas water-deficit stress treatments continued to upregulate PtrGolS gene expression after two days of treatment, in addition to induction within 24 h of treatment. Consistent with these expression patterns, the galactinol content in leaves increased after four days of drought stress, but not under salt stress. Our findings suggest divergent roles for PtrGolS genes in abiotic stress responses in poplars.


Assuntos
Galactosiltransferases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Populus/enzimologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Dissacarídeos/análise , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Secas , Galactosiltransferases/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos , Populus/genética , Populus/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(40): 9719-26, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24006936

RESUMO

Dietary fiber (DF) has important health benefits in the human diet. Developing dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars with improved DF and reduced nondigestible oligosaccharide content is an important goal for dry bean breeders to increase consumer acceptance. To determine if genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars for DF, two populations of diverse dry bean cultivars/lines that represent two centers of dry bean domestication were evaluated for dietary fiber using the Integrated Total Dietary Fiber Assay (AOAC 2011.25). This assay was adapted to measure water insoluble dietary fiber, water soluble dietary fiber, oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose, and the calculated total dietary fiber (TDF) content of cooked dry bean seed. The AOAC 2011.25 protocol was modified by using a quick, simple, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method paired with an electrochemical detection method to separate and quantify specific oligosaccharides, and using duplicate samples as replicates to generate statistical information. The TDF of dry bean entries ranged from 20.0 to 27.0% in population I and from 20.6 to 25.7% in population II. Total oligosaccharides ranged from 2.56 to 4.65% in population I and from 2.36 to 3.84% in population II. The results suggest that significant genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars/lines to allow for genetic selection for improved DF content in dry beans and that the modifications to the AOAC 2011.25 method were suitable for estimating DF in cooked dry edible beans.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fabaceae/química , Culinária , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Rafinose/análise , Sementes/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(20): 4943-52, 2013 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23621405

RESUMO

To develop genetic improvement strategies to modulate raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) concentration in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO and their precursor concentrations were analyzed in 171 chickpea genotypes from diverse geographical origins. The genotypes were grown in replicated trials over two years in the field (Patancheru, India) and in the greenhouse (Saskatoon, Canada). Analysis of variance revealed a significant impact of genotype, environment, and their interaction on RFO concentration in chickpea seeds. Total RFO concentration ranged from 1.58 to 5.31 mmol/100 g and from 2.11 to 5.83 mmol/100 g in desi and kabuli genotypes, respectively. Sucrose (0.60-3.59 g/100 g) and stachyose (0.18-2.38 g/100 g) were distinguished as the major soluble sugar and RFO, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between substrate and product concentration in RFO biosynthesis. In chickpea seeds, raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose showed a moderate broad sense heritability (0.25-0.56), suggesting the use of a multilocation trials based approach in chickpea seed quality improvement programs.


Assuntos
Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/genética , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Rafinose/biossíntese , África , Ásia , Cicer/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Rafinose/análise , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , América do Sul , Sacarose/metabolismo
16.
J Food Sci ; 78(1): C8-16, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23278402

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Rice bean, a less known and underutilized legume, has emerged as a potential legume because of its nutritional potential. The nutritional quality of rice bean is higher as compared to many other legumes of Vigna family. In the present study, 16 diverse rice bean genotypes were evaluated for major nutritional constituents viz; protein content, total lipids, dietary fiber, total carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, protein fractions, amino acid, and fatty acid profile. The protein content to the extent of 25.57% was observed in the genotype BRS-2 with in vitro digestibility of 54.23%. The fatty acid profile revealed the higher percentage of unsaturated fatty viz., linoleic and linolenic acid, which are nutritionally desirable in the diet. Albumins (6.13% to 7.47%) and globulins (13.11% to 15.56%) constituted the major portion of proteins. Anti-nutritional factors were in the range of: total phenolics (1.63% to 1.82%), total tannins (1.37% to 1.55%), condensed tannins (0.75% to 0.80%), hydrolysable tannins (0.56% to 0.79%), trypsin inhibitor (24.55 to 37.23 mg/g), phytic acid (7.32 to 8.17 mg/g), lipoxygenase activity (703 to 950 units/mg), and saponin content (1.2 to 3.1 mg/100 g). The oligosaccharides associated with the production of flatulence viz., raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose were in the limits of 1.66% to 2.58%, 0.94% to 1.88%, and 0.85% to 1.23%, respectively. In vitro protein digestibility up to 55.57% was observed in rice bean genotypes. The present study has revealed that rice bean is a nutritionally rich legume as compared to many other legumes of the category. Among different genotypes BRS-2 was observed superior and could be advocated for consumption as well as for inclusion in crop improvement programs. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Rice bean is nutritionally rich legume, but despite its nutritional excellence, it has been put in underutilized category. Because of this and several other reasons the people are not aware of its nutritional benefits. Moreover, the complete nutritional details are also not available on this pulse. The present study gives the vivid description of nutritional attributes of this legume for making people aware of its nutritional excellence and provoking improved work in rice bean.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Valor Nutritivo , Aminoácidos/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Fabaceae/classificação , Fabaceae/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Genótipo , Lipoxigenase/análise , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Niacina/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/metabolismo , Saponinas/análise , Taninos/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Inibidores da Tripsina/análise , Vitaminas/análise
17.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 27(1): 109-16, 2013 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23239323

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Organic matrices are the state-of-the-art ionization mediators in Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDI-MS). Despite improvements in understanding matrix chemistry, interfering matrix-related signals complicate the analysis. Surface-assisted LDI techniques like desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) or nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) provide promising alternatives but rely often on elaborate materials. METHODS: We introduce nanopatterned biomineralized cell walls of microalgae as easily accessible biological surfaces that support the ionization of embedded molecules in LDI-MS. Microalgae cell walls were cleaned through oxidation and washing before pipetting on a stainless-steel matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) target. Added molecules were efficiently ionized in positive and negative ionization mode in common MALDI sources. The method was rigorously validated by comparison with established MALDI experiments. RESULTS: Ionization of PEG600, D-sphingosine and raffinose was successfully mediated by nanostructured cell wall preparations from two different microalgae. Without any change in protocol, steric acid could be detected in the negative ionization mode. Ionization is also supported by commercially available celite, a material containing mineralized diatom cell walls. Characteristic ingredients of fresh coffee were detected in LDI-MS after pipetting it on celite without further sample preparation. Caffeine and saccharose were detected in positive and characteristic fatty acids in negative ionization mode. Detection limits were comparable to established MALDI experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Bionanostructure-enhanced ionization allows the analysis of a diverse selection of analytes including polymers, sugars, amino alcohols, and organic acids without interfering matrix signals. We also show that celite, a commercially available porous material containing mineralized algal bionanostructures, supports LDI-MS.


Assuntos
Microalgas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Cafeína/análise , Parede Celular/química , Café/química , Terra de Diatomáceas/química , Diatomáceas/química , Dinoflagelados/química , Hydrocharitaceae/química , Hydrocharitaceae/citologia , Limite de Detecção , Microalgas/citologia , Modelos Químicos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Ácido Quínico/análise , Rafinose/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esfingosina/análise
18.
Phytochem Anal ; 23(6): 607-12, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22473871

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) to control several diseases and stimulate immune systems has been studied. Rehmannia glutinosa is reported to contain RFOs; however, there are no reports on their content level in R. glutinosa. Furthermore, it is difficult to analyse RFOs using common reverse-phase chromatographic techniques due to their high polarity. OBJECTIVE: To develop a rapid and reliable chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantitation of multiple RFOs in R. glutinosa. METHODOLOGY: Chromatographic separation was performed by using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector. For efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction of oligosaccharides, a central composite design was used. RESULTS: Response surface analysis estimated the highest-obtained yields of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose to be 58.31, 408.75 and 26.59 mg, respectively, from 1 g of R. glutinosa, while under optimal conditions, experimental yields per gram were 56.79, 391.42 and 27.69 mg, respectively. CONCLUSION: A rapid and reliable chromatographic method to simultaneously quantitate multiple RFOs in R. glutinosa was developed. Three RFOs in R. glutinosa were separated within 10 min using isocratic conditions. Quantitative analysis of RFOs showed that R. glutinosa may be a rich source of α-galacto-oligosaccharides, especially stachyose.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Galactosídeos/análise , Rehmannia/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/estatística & dados numéricos , Galactosídeos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Luz , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Rafinose/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Temperatura
19.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 63(2): 216-24, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21942885

RESUMO

Fructansucrase and fructan produced from Lactobacillus fermentum AKJ15 were isolated from seeds of Kodo ko jaanr, a fermented mild-alcoholic beverage prepared in North East India. The strain was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and biochemical characterization. The strain displayed maximum fructansucrase activity of 4.3 U/ml (1.02 U/mg) at 28°C at 180 rpm. The enzyme purified by polyethylene glycol-400 gave specific activity of 5 U/mg and showed 90 kDa band on non-denaturing Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purified enzyme confirmed the presence of fructan by periodic acid Schiff's staining which showed magenta colour bands with both sucrose and raffinose. The strain produced 10.2 mg/ml fructan in broth under optimized culture conditions. The purified fructansucrase displayed V(max) of 5.42 U/mg and K(m) of 16.65 mM. The enzyme showed maximum activity at 30°C and at pH 5. The structure of fructan was analysed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra confirming ß-(2-1) and ß-(2-6) linkages.


Assuntos
Bebidas/microbiologia , Eleusine/química , Frutanos/biossíntese , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Sacarase/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Eleusine/microbiologia , Fermentação , Frutanos/química , Frutanos/isolamento & purificação , Índia , Lactobacillus fermentum/genética , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rafinose/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Sacarase/química , Sacarase/isolamento & purificação , Sacarose/análise
20.
Plant Physiol ; 157(4): 1696-710, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22021422

RESUMO

Fruit from rosaceous species collectively display a great variety of flavors and textures as well as a generally high content of nutritionally beneficial metabolites. However, relatively little analysis of metabolic networks in rosaceous fruit has been reported. Among rosaceous species, peach (Prunus persica) has stone fruits composed of a juicy mesocarp and lignified endocarp. Here, peach mesocarp metabolic networks were studied across development using metabolomics and analysis of key regulatory enzymes. Principal component analysis of peach metabolic composition revealed clear metabolic shifts from early through late development stages and subsequently during postharvest ripening. Early developmental stages were characterized by a substantial decrease in protein abundance and high levels of bioactive polyphenols and amino acids, which are substrates for the phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways during stone hardening. Sucrose levels showed a large increase during development, reflecting translocation from the leaf, while the importance of galactinol and raffinose is also inferred. Our study further suggests that posttranscriptional mechanisms are key for metabolic regulation at early stages. In contrast to early developmental stages, a decrease in amino acid levels is coupled to an induction of transcripts encoding amino acid and organic acid catabolic enzymes during ripening. These data are consistent with the mobilization of amino acids to support respiration. In addition, sucrose cycling, suggested by the parallel increase of transcripts encoding sucrose degradative and synthetic enzymes, appears to operate during postharvest ripening. When taken together, these data highlight singular metabolic programs for peach development and may allow the identification of key factors related to agronomic traits of this important crop species.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prunus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Dissacarídeos/análise , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Prunus/enzimologia , Prunus/genética , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/metabolismo , Sacarose/análise , Sacarose/metabolismo , Álcoois Açúcares/análise , Álcoois Açúcares/metabolismo
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