Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 980-988, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180222

RESUMO

Thermal processing of pulse crops influences the type and levels of prebiotic carbohydrates present. Pulses such as common bean and chickpea are rich sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, including sugar alcohols (SAs), raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), resistant starch (RS), and amylose. This study determined the changes in prebiotic carbohydrate concentrations of seven common bean and two chickpea market classes after thermal processing (cooking, cooling, and reheating). A 100-g serving of common bean provides 0.7 to 10.6 mg of SAs, 3.9 to 5.2 g of RFOs, 57 to 143 mg of FOSs, 2.6 to 3.9 g of RS, and 25 to 33 g of amylose; cooling and reheating reduced RFOs but increased SAs, FOSs, and RS in many cases. A 100-g serving of chickpea (cooked at 90 °C for 4 hr) provides 1.2 to 1.7 g of SAs, 2.5 to 3.2 g of RFOs, 26 to 43 mg of FOSs, 3.6 to 5.3 g of RS, and 24 to 30 g of amylose; cooling and reheating reduced SAs and RFOs but increased FOSs, RS, and amylose concentrations. Processing methods change the nutritional quality of pulse crops by changing the type and quantity of prebiotic carbohydrates.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Cicer/química , Phaseolus/química , Prebióticos/análise , Rafinose/análise , Amilose/análise , Culinária/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Temperatura Alta , Valor Nutritivo , Transição de Fase , Sementes/química , Amido/análise
2.
Food Sci Technol Int ; 26(2): 140-150, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544525

RESUMO

Faba beans have a short shelf life which is even reduced after fresh-cut processing mainly due to browning and dehydration. In that sense, the effects of a UV-C treatment (3 kJ m-2), compared with non-exposed beans (CTRL), were studied on the sensory and microbial quality, and bioactive and anti-nutritional content of fresh-cut faba beans (cv. Muchamiel) during storage at 5 ℃. The effect of a domestic microwaving (3 min, 900 W) on bioactive and anti-nutritional compounds of fresh seeds prior to consumption at each sampling time was also studied. UV-C treatment extended the fresh-cut faba bean shelf life from 7 to 10 days with browning score (the main sensory parameter adversely affected) of 8 and 1 log unit lower than CTRL at day 10. UV-C did not negatively affect the total antioxidant capacity of samples during storage. The phytic acid and raffinose contents decreased by 30/40%, respectively, after 10 days, without influence of the UV-C treatment. Microwaving reduced the phytic acid and condensed tannins contents by 30% in those samples stored for up to six days, with low microwaving effect in the last storage days. Nevertheless, UV-C improved the condensed tannins reductions through storage (≈30%) compared with non-irradiated samples.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Micro-Ondas , Vicia faba/química , Adulto , Antioxidantes/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenóis/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Rafinose/análise , Sementes/química , Taninos/análise , Paladar
3.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 61(1): 88-104, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513272

RESUMO

Deschampsia antarctica is a Poaceae grass that has adapted to and colonized Antarctica. When D. antarctica plants were subjected to cold and dehydration stress both in the Antarctic field and in laboratory experiments, galactinol, a precursor of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) and raffinose were highly accumulated, which was accompanied by upregulation of galactinol synthase (GolS). The Poaceae monocots have a small family of GolS genes, which are divided into two distinct groups called types I and II. Type II GolSs are highly expanded in cold-adapted monocot plants. Transgenic rice plants, in which type II D. antarctica GolS2 (DaGolS2) and rice GolS2 (OsGolS2) were constitutively expressed, were markedly tolerant to cold and drought stress as compared to the wild-type rice plants. The RFO contents and GolS enzyme activities were higher in the DaGolS2- and OsGolS2-overexpressing progeny than in the wild-type plants under both normal and stress conditions. DaGolS2 and OsGolS2 overexpressors contained reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) relative to the wild-type plants after cold and drought treatments. Overall, these results suggest that Poaceae type II GolS2s play a conserved role in D. antarctica and rice in response to drought and cold stress by inducing the accumulation of RFO and decreasing ROS levels.


Assuntos
Galactosiltransferases/genética , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oryza/genética , Poaceae/genética , Rafinose/análise , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Dissacarídeos/análise , Secas , Galactosiltransferases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Tiobarbitúricos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Food Res Int ; 121: 880-887, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108821

RESUMO

Monguba fruit has a seed with a chestnut-like flavor that can be consumed boiled, fried, and roasted. These nutritious seeds also have been used in popular medicine to treat several diseases. Nevertheless, the nutritional and functional potential of monguba seed is still underexploited. In this sense, we investigated the nutritional and functional components of monguba seeds. These seeds showed high total content of sugars, mainly sucrose, whereas the content of the raffinose family oligosaccharides was low. The mineral assay showed high amount of minerals, namely potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc, which indicate that monguba seeds can be a new source of these minerals. UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed caffeic, ferulic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids as the main phenolic compounds, mainly in the esterified form, in these seeds. Monguba seed showed high lipid content, in which the main compounds were palmitic acid and γ-tocopherol. The soluble and insoluble phenolic fractions from monguba seeds showed high antioxidant activity measured by the oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Therefore, the monguba seeds have great potential to be explored by food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to their chemical composition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Bombacaceae/química , Sementes/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Cromanos/análise , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Frutas/química , Nozes/química , Ácido Palmítico/análise , Parabenos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Potássio/análise , Rafinose/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , gama-Tocoferol/análise
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(17): 5043-5052, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977368

RESUMO

The low phytic acid ( lpa) soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.) mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1-M, resulting from a 2 bp deletion in GmMIPS1, was crossed with a commercial cultivar. F3 and F5 progenies were subjected to nontargeted GC-based metabolite profiling, allowing analysis of a broad array of low molecular weight constituents. In the homozygous lpa mutant progenies the intended phytic acid reduction was accompanied by remarkable metabolic changes of nutritionally relevant constituents such as reduced contents of raffinose oligosaccharides and galactosyl cyclitols as well as increased concentrations in sucrose and various free amino acids. The mutation-induced metabolite signature was nearly unaffected by the cross-breeding and consistently expressed over generations and in different growing seasons. Therefore, not only the primary MIPS1 lpa mutant but also its progenies might be valuable genetic resources for commercial breeding programs to produce soybean seeds stably exhibiting improved phytate-related and nutritional properties.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Mio-Inositol-1-Fosfato Sintase/genética , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Hibridização Genética , Mutação , Mio-Inositol-1-Fosfato Sintase/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Sacarose/análise , Sacarose/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 25(1)2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905949

RESUMO

Legumes are widely consumed by humans, being an important source of nutrients; however, they contain non-nutritional factors (NNFs), such as phytic acid (IP6), raffinose, stachyose, total phenolic compounds, condensed tannins, and flavonoids, that have negative effects on human health. Although vetches (Vicia sativa) are widely cultivated, they are not intended for human feeding due to their contents of NNF. Usually, the NNF are removed by cooking or germinating; however, germination is a process that requires extended time, and cooking may compromise the viability of some nutrients. To promote vetches for human consumption, the effect of the Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) process was studied as an alternative to cooking and germinating to decrease NNF contents. Results showed that compared to raw vetches, DIC treatment reduced total phenolic compounds (48%), condensed tannins (28%), flavonoids (65%), IP6 (92%), raffinose (77%), and stachyose (92%). These results are very similar to the ones achieved by traditional ways of removing NNF.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sementes/química , Vicia sativa/fisiologia , Culinária , Flavonoides/análise , Germinação , Valor Nutritivo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Rafinose/análise , Vicia sativa/química
7.
Food Funct ; 9(11): 5697-5706, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310896

RESUMO

New eating habits and diversification of tastes of consumers have led to the scientific community and the food industry to expand the range of probiotic foods and novel probiotic ingredients. Scant information is available about the viability and functionality of probiotics during shelf life and its effect on the nutritional characteristics of dairy-free products. The aim of the study was to formulate a fermented dairy-free dessert using a novel food ingredient based on a pumpkin by-product and containing Lactobacillus casei (ATCC®393™) (NFI). The effect of NFI and the soluble solids (SS) of soy milk on the probiotic viability, physical stability, colour, and firmness of dairy-free dessert was studied using a response surface methodology. The different levels of SS and NFI significantly (p < 0.05) affected the response variables. Thereafter, two formulations were selected and the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characterization were evaluated. The L. casei count reached the desired therapeutic level (>107 UFC mL-1) after gastrointestinal digestion at 21 days of storage. In general, both the fermentation process and storage reduced (p < 0.05) the content of phytic acid, raffinose and stachyose, which implies a nutritional improvement of the final product. Scores above 5.0 on a 9-point scale were obtained for colour, odour, texture and overall acceptability in the consumer acceptance test. Therefore, a dairy-free dessert with good physical properties, suitable nutritional characteristics, and sensorial acceptability could be successfully formulated with the NFI.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Ingredientes de Alimentos/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Probióticos , Adulto , Fenômenos Químicos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactobacillus casei , Masculino , Viabilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Rafinose/análise , Leite de Soja , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
8.
Food Chem ; 242: 279-287, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29037690

RESUMO

A modelling approach was developed to better understand the behavior of the flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in cowpea seeds during isothermal water soaking-cooking process. Concentrations of verbascose, stachyose and raffinose were measured both in the seed and in the soaking water during the process (T=30, 60 and 95°C). A reaction-diffusion model was built for the three considered alpha-galactosides both in the seed and in the soaking water, together with a model of water transport in the seed. The model reproduced coupled reaction-diffusion of alpha-galactosides during the soaking-cooking process with a good fit. Produced, diffused and degraded alpha-galactoside fractions were identified by performing a mass balance. During soaking at 30°C, degradation predominated (maximum found for raffinose degradation rate constant of 3.22×10-4s-1) whereas diffusion predominated at higher temperatures (95°C).


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Galactosídeos/química , Modelos Teóricos , Sementes/química , Vigna/química , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Difusão , Temperatura Alta , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/química , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/química , Temperatura de Transição , Água/química
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1631: 279-293, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735404

RESUMO

Drought is a major limiting factor in agriculture and responsible for dramatic crop yield losses worldwide. The adjustment of the metabolic status via accumulation of drought stress-responsive osmolytes is one of the many strategies that some plants have developed to cope with water deficit conditions. Osmolytes are highly polar compounds, analysis of whcih is difficult with typical reversed-phase chromatography. Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) has shown to be a suitable alternative to reversed-phase stationary phases for the analysis of highly polar compounds typically found in the plant metabolome. In this chapter, we describe the development and validation of a PGC-based liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSn) method suitable for the target analysis of water-soluble carbohydrates, such as raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). We present detailed information regarding PGC column equilibration, LC-MSn system operation, data analysis, and important notes to be considered during the steps of method development and validation.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Plantas/química , Rafinose/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Desidratação/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Porosidade , Rafinose/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 211: 538-45, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27283664

RESUMO

The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders.


Assuntos
Culinária , Phaseolus/química , Pós/química , Sementes/química , Géis , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Rafinose/análise , Amido/análise , Amido/química
11.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 71(3-4): 79-85, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27023319

RESUMO

The chemical properties, mineral contents, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of seed and seed oils of some citrus genus provided from several locations in Turkey and Saudi Arabia were determined. While Ca contents of seeds were between 5018 mg/kg (Kütdiken lemon) and 7619 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin), K contents of seeds varied between 7007 mg/kg (Orlando orange) and 10334 mg/kg (kinnow mandarin). Glucose and fructose contents of citrus seed samples varied between 3.75 g/kg and 5.75 g/kg, and 4.09 g/kg and 6.03 g/kg. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were established as dominant fatty acids. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid contents of citrus seed oils varied between 19.6% (Kütdiken lemon) and 26.2% (pineapple orange), 21.3% (kinnow mandarin) and 31.4% (Kütdiken lemon) and 32.3% (Kütdiken lemon) and 43.7% (kinnow mandarin), respectively. The total amount of tocopherols of Turkish citrus oil varied between 0.5 mg/100 g (Fremont mandarin) and 18.8 mg/100 g (bitter orange).


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Minerais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Cálcio/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Citrus/classificação , Frutose/análise , Galactose/análise , Glucose/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Potássio/análise , Rafinose/análise , Arábia Saudita , Sacarose/análise , Turquia
12.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 67(4): 383-90, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27002546

RESUMO

Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.


Assuntos
Dieta , Dissacarídeos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Grupos Minoritários , Monossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Álcoois Açúcares/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Dieta/etnologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/etnologia , Dissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Grupos Focais , Frutanos/efeitos adversos , Frutanos/análise , Frutanos/metabolismo , Humanos , Internet , Monossacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Nutricionistas , Oligossacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Rafinose/efeitos adversos , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/metabolismo , Álcoois Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Álcoois Açúcares/metabolismo , Reino Unido
13.
Sci Rep ; 5: 12199, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26174584

RESUMO

During low temperature exposure, Arabidopsis thaliana and many other plants from temperate climates increase in freezing tolerance in a process termed cold acclimation. However, the correct timing and rate of deacclimation, resulting in loss of freezing tolerance and initiation of growth is equally important for plant fitness and survival. While the molecular basis of cold acclimation has been investigated in detail, much less information is available about deacclimation. We have characterized the responses of 10 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana that vary widely in their freezing tolerance, to deacclimation conditions. Sugar, proline and transcript levels declined sharply over three days in all accessions after transfer of cold acclimated plants to ambient temperatures, while freezing tolerance only declined in tolerant accessions. Correlations between freezing tolerance and the expression levels of COR genes and the content of glucose, fructose and sucrose, as well as many correlations among transcript and solute levels, that were highly significant in cold acclimated plants, were lost during deacclimation. Other correlations persisted, indicating that after three days of deacclimation, plant metabolism had not completely reverted back to the non-acclimated state. These data provide the basis for further molecular and genetic studies to unravel the regulation of deacclimation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Congelamento , Frutose/análise , Glucose/análise , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Rafinose/análise
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 95(11): 2287-91, 2015 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25298221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. RESULTS: Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. CONCLUSION: The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products.


Assuntos
Dieta , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Phaseolus/química , Paladar , Produtos Vegetais/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Humanos , Rafinose/análise , Amido/análise
15.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e113725, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25409020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pistachio nut ingestion (3 oz./d, two weeks) was tested for effects on exercise performance and 21-h post-exercise recovery from inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and metabolite shifts. METHODS: Using a randomized, crossover approach, cyclists (N = 19) engaged in two 75-km time trials after 2-weeks pistachio or no pistachio supplementation, with a 2-week washout period. Subjects came to the lab in an overnight fasted state, and ingested water only or 3 oz. pistachios with water before and during exercise. Blood samples were collected 45 min pre-exercise, and immediately post-, 1.5-h post-, and 21-h post-exercise, and analyzed for plasma cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP), granulocyte phagocytosis (GPHAG) and oxidative burst activity (GOBA), and shifts in metabolites. RESULTS: Performance time for the 75-km time trial was 4.8% slower under pistachio conditions (2.84 ± 0.11 and 2.71 ± 0.07 h, respectively, P = 0.034). Significant time effects were shown for plasma cytokines, CRP, F2-IsoP, GPHAG, and GOBA, with few group differences. Metabolomics analysis revealed 423 detectable compounds of known identity, with significant interaction effects for 19 metabolites, especially raffinose, (12Z)-9,10-Dihydroxyoctadec-12-enoate (9,10-DiHOME), and sucrose. Dietary intake of raffinose was 2.19 ± 0.15 and 0.35 ± 0.08 mg/d during the pistachio and no pistachio periods, and metabolomics revealed that colon raffinose and sucrose translocated to the circulation during exercise due to increased gut permeability. The post-exercise increase in plasma raffinose correlated significantly with 9,10-DiHOME and other oxidative stress metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, 2-weeks pistachio nut ingestion was associated with reduced 75-km cycling time trial performance and increased post-exercise plasma levels of raffinose, sucrose, and metabolites related to leukotoxic effects and oxidative stress. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01821820.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ciclismo , Inflamação , Estresse Oxidativo , Pistacia/metabolismo , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Citocinas/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exotoxinas/farmacologia , F2-Isoprostanos/sangue , Granulócitos/citologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Esforço Físico , Pistacia/química , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/farmacologia , Sacarose/análise , Sacarose/farmacologia
16.
Food Chem ; 154: 127-33, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24518324

RESUMO

A high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was optimised to separate with precision, accuracy and high reproducibility soluble sugars including oligosaccharides present in pulse meal samples. The optimised method within 20min separated myo-inositol, galactinol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose in chickpea seed meal extracts. Gradient method of eluting solvent (sodium hydroxide) resulted in higher sensitivity and rapid detection compared to similar analytical methods. Peaks asymmetry equivalent to one and resolution value ⩾1.5 support column's precision and accuracy for quantitative determinations of soluble sugars in complex mixtures. Intermediate precision determined as relative standard deviation (1.8-3.5%) for different soluble sugars confirms reproducibility of the optimised method. The developed method has superior sensitivity to detect even scarcely present verbascose in chickpea. It also quantifies myo-inositol and galactinol making it suitable both for RFO related genotype screening and biosynthetic studies.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica/métodos , Cicer/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Rafinose/análise , Sementes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica/instrumentação
17.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 65(4): 419-25, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24392956

RESUMO

Immature seeds of five bean cultivars (flageolet-type and those intended for dry-seed production) were assessed for changes in water-soluble carbohydrates including raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) due to boiling, sterilization, and storage of the sterilized product. About 100 g fresh weight of edible portion of fresh bean seeds contained 2449.3-3182.6 mg total soluble sugars, of which RFOs comprised 44-49%. The highest amounts of these compounds were found in the seeds of the cultivars Laponia and Mona. The dominant oligosaccharide was stachyose. Boiling fresh seeds to consumption consistency reduced total soluble sugars and RFOs: average values were 57% and 55%, respectively. Sterilization in cans resulted in 65% reductions of both total soluble sugars and RFOs. In general, there were no changes in the content of soluble sugars in canned and sterilized products stored for 12 months.


Assuntos
Culinária , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Conservação de Alimentos , Phaseolus/química , Sementes/química , Carboidratos/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sacarose na Dieta/análise , Sacarose na Dieta/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Peso Molecular , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/química , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polônia , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solubilidade , Esterilização
18.
J Plant Res ; 127(2): 347-58, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24190064

RESUMO

Galactinol synthase (GolS; EC 2.4.1.123) is a member of the glycosyltransferase eight family that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis pathway of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs). The accumulation of RFOs in response to abiotic stress indicates a role for RFOs in stress adaptation. To obtain information on the roles of RFOs in abiotic stress adaptation in trees, we investigated the expression patterns of nine Populus trichocarpa GolS (PtrGolS) genes with special reference to stress responses. PtrGolS genes were differentially expressed in different organs, and the expressions of PtrGolS4 and PtrGolS6 were relatively high in all tested organs. The expression levels of all PtrGolS genes, except PtrGolS9, changed in response to abiotic stress in gene- and stress-type-specific manners. Moreover, short- and long-term stress treatments revealed that induction of PtrGolS by salt stress is obvious only in the early period of treatment (within 24 h), whereas water-deficit stress treatments continued to upregulate PtrGolS gene expression after two days of treatment, in addition to induction within 24 h of treatment. Consistent with these expression patterns, the galactinol content in leaves increased after four days of drought stress, but not under salt stress. Our findings suggest divergent roles for PtrGolS genes in abiotic stress responses in poplars.


Assuntos
Galactosiltransferases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Populus/enzimologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Dissacarídeos/análise , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Secas , Galactosiltransferases/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos , Populus/genética , Populus/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Rafinose/análise , Rafinose/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(40): 9719-26, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24006936

RESUMO

Dietary fiber (DF) has important health benefits in the human diet. Developing dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars with improved DF and reduced nondigestible oligosaccharide content is an important goal for dry bean breeders to increase consumer acceptance. To determine if genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars for DF, two populations of diverse dry bean cultivars/lines that represent two centers of dry bean domestication were evaluated for dietary fiber using the Integrated Total Dietary Fiber Assay (AOAC 2011.25). This assay was adapted to measure water insoluble dietary fiber, water soluble dietary fiber, oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose, and the calculated total dietary fiber (TDF) content of cooked dry bean seed. The AOAC 2011.25 protocol was modified by using a quick, simple, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method paired with an electrochemical detection method to separate and quantify specific oligosaccharides, and using duplicate samples as replicates to generate statistical information. The TDF of dry bean entries ranged from 20.0 to 27.0% in population I and from 20.6 to 25.7% in population II. Total oligosaccharides ranged from 2.56 to 4.65% in population I and from 2.36 to 3.84% in population II. The results suggest that significant genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars/lines to allow for genetic selection for improved DF content in dry beans and that the modifications to the AOAC 2011.25 method were suitable for estimating DF in cooked dry edible beans.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fabaceae/química , Culinária , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Rafinose/análise , Sementes/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(20): 4943-52, 2013 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23621405

RESUMO

To develop genetic improvement strategies to modulate raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) concentration in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO and their precursor concentrations were analyzed in 171 chickpea genotypes from diverse geographical origins. The genotypes were grown in replicated trials over two years in the field (Patancheru, India) and in the greenhouse (Saskatoon, Canada). Analysis of variance revealed a significant impact of genotype, environment, and their interaction on RFO concentration in chickpea seeds. Total RFO concentration ranged from 1.58 to 5.31 mmol/100 g and from 2.11 to 5.83 mmol/100 g in desi and kabuli genotypes, respectively. Sucrose (0.60-3.59 g/100 g) and stachyose (0.18-2.38 g/100 g) were distinguished as the major soluble sugar and RFO, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between substrate and product concentration in RFO biosynthesis. In chickpea seeds, raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose showed a moderate broad sense heritability (0.25-0.56), suggesting the use of a multilocation trials based approach in chickpea seed quality improvement programs.


Assuntos
Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/genética , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Rafinose/biossíntese , África , Ásia , Cicer/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Rafinose/análise , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , América do Sul , Sacarose/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...