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2.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 346-353, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881433

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the changes in skin temperature and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity throughout the estrous cycle as well as the regularity of the estrous cycle in mice. METHODS: We assessed the differences in the duration of the estrous cycle and its phases between 3- and 8-month-old female mice (n=18). Skin temperature and BAT activity were measured by infrared technology and compared with human menstrual cycle. RESULTS: Young and old female mice did not differ significantly in the estrous cycle length. However, young animals had longer diestrus and shorter proestrus phase. In contrast with women, mice showed age-dependent changes in body temperature and BAT activity during the estrus cycle. CONCLUSION: Establishing the pattern of temperature and BAT activity changes could be used to determine the estrous cycle phase before performing experiments without disturbing the animal. However, since the regulation of BAT activity during the estrous cycle was age-dependent, very complex, and varied significantly from women, further studies are needed to develop a non-invasive method for determining the phase of the estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Termografia/métodos , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Raios Infravermelhos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proestro/fisiologia
3.
J Biomed Opt ; 25(9)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921005

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Infrared thermographs (IRTs) have been used for fever screening during infectious disease epidemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola virus disease, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although IRTs have significant potential for human body temperature measurement, the literature indicates inconsistent diagnostic performance, possibly due to wide variations in implemented methodology. A standardized method for IRT fever screening was recently published, but there is a lack of clinical data demonstrating its impact on IRT performance. AIM: Perform a clinical study to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of standardized IRT-based fever screening and evaluate the effect of facial measurement location. APPROACH: We performed a clinical study of 596 subjects. Temperatures from 17 facial locations were extracted from thermal images and compared with oral thermometry. Statistical analyses included calculation of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) values for detection of febrile subjects. RESULTS: Pearson correlation coefficients for IRT-based and reference (oral) temperatures were found to vary strongly with measurement location. Approaches based on maximum temperatures in either inner canthi or full-face regions indicated stronger discrimination ability than maximum forehead temperature (AUC values of 0.95 to 0.97 versus 0.86 to 0.87, respectively) and other specific facial locations. These values are markedly better than the vast majority of results found in prior human studies of IRT-based fever screening. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide clinical confirmation of the utility of consensus approaches for fever screening, including the use of inner canthi temperatures, while also indicating that full-face maximum temperatures may provide an effective alternate approach.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Face/fisiologia , Febre/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Termografia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4117, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807785

RESUMO

Strategies for eradicating cancer stem cells (CSCs) are urgently required because CSCs are resistant to anticancer drugs and cause treatment failure, relapse and metastasis. Here, we show that photoactive functional nanocarbon complexes exhibit unique characteristics, such as homogeneous particle morphology, high water dispersibility, powerful photothermal conversion, rapid photoresponsivity and excellent photothermal stability. In addition, the present biologically permeable second near-infrared (NIR-II) light-induced nanocomplexes photo-thermally trigger calcium influx into target cells overexpressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid family type 2 (TRPV2). This combination of nanomaterial design and genetic engineering effectively eliminates cancer cells and suppresses stemness of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, in molecular analyses of mechanisms, we show that inhibition of cancer stemness involves calcium-mediated dysregulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signalling pathway. The present technological concept may lead to innovative therapies to address the global issue of refractory cancers.


Assuntos
Raios Infravermelhos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Western Blotting , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605056

RESUMO

Individual respiratory protective devices and face masks represent critical tools in protecting health care workers in hospitals and clinics, and play a central role in decreasing the spread of the high-risk pandemic infection of 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to compare the facial skin temperature and the heat flow when wearing medical surgical masks to the same factors when wearing N95 respirators. A total of 20 subjects were recruited and during the evaluation, each subject was invited to wear a surgical mask or respirator for 1 h. The next day in the morning at the same hour, the same subject wore a N95 mask for 1 h with the same protocol. Infrared thermal evaluation was performed to measure the facial temperature of the perioral region and the perception ratings related to the humidity, heat, breathing difficulty, and discomfort were recorded. A significant difference in heat flow and perioral region temperature was recorded between the surgical mask and the N95 respirator (p < 0.05). A statistically significant difference in humidity, heat, breathing difficulty, and discomfort was present between the groups. The study results suggest that N95 respirators are able to induce an increased facial skin temperature, greater discomfort and lower wearing adherence when compared to the medical surgical masks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Mãos , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Temperatura Cutânea , Betacoronavirus , Pessoal de Saúde , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Umidade , Raios Infravermelhos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração , Termografia
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3915-3924, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wire-guided localization (WGL) has been the mainstay for localizing non-palpable breast lesions before excision. Due to its limitations, various wireless alternatives have been developed. In this prospective study, we evaluate the role of radiation-free wireless localization using the SAVI SCOUT® localization at a European centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This technique was evaluated in a prospective cohort of 20 patients. The evaluation focused on clinical and pathological parameters in addition to patient and physician acceptance. RESULTS: SAVI SCOUT reflectors (n=23) were deployed to localize 22 occult breast lesions and one axillary lymph node in 20 patients. The mean deployment duration was 5.6 min, with a mean distance from the lesion of 0.6 mm. The migration rate was 0% and the mean identification and retrieval time was 25.1 min. In patients undergoing therapeutic excision for malignancy (n=17), only one (5.9%) required reoperation for positive surgical margins. Radiologists and surgeons rated the technique as better than WGL and patient satisfaction was high. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that wireless localization using SAVI SCOUT® is an effective and time-efficient alternative to WGL with excellent physician and patient acceptance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Diagnóstico por Imagem/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Mamografia/instrumentação , Mamografia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radar
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235549, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628702

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize oligofructose-induced laminitis in zebu cattle and comparatively evaluate four different diagnostic methods for laminitis. A total of 29 rumen-cannulated Nelore heifers, weighing 474.5 ± 58.5 kg were used. Laminitis was experimentally induced by intraruminal administration of 0.765 g/kg oligofructose twice daily for three consecutive days, followed by a single dose of 10.71 g/kg oligofructose on the fourth day. The animals were evaluated before administration of the highest dose of oligofructose (basal) and every six hours for up to 24 hours (6, 12, 18, 24 hours) and thereafter, every 12 hours for up to 72 hours (36, 48, 60, 72 hours) post-induction. The following diagnostic methods were used: hoof pain sensitivity test (hoof-testing), locomotion scoring, hoof infrared thermography, and force platform. Diagnosis of laminitis was confirmed after two positive responses to hoof pressure testing. Using a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve, we defined the appropriate cut-off for infrared thermography and force plate as 30 °C and < 24%, respectively. From the 29 heifers, 27 developed laminitis (93.1%) which occurred between 24 h to 72 h in the digits from two limbs, with more frequent sensitivity in the lateral digits. Locomotion analysis detected twenty-eight heifers with laminitis and showed that a greater (P = 0.006) number of animals had lameness in two limbs (n = 13; 56%). Using hoof-testing as gold standard for the diagnosis of laminitis the locomotion score displayed 100% sensitivity, 97% specificity and 98% accuracy; infrared thermography showed 96% sensitivity, 63% specificity, and 75% accuracy whilst force plate had 76% sensitivity, 82% specificity and 79% accuracy. This suggests that, for the diagnosis of laminitis in cattle, pain evaluation is more efficient. Considering the difficult to evaluate pain sensitivity in Nelore animals, filmed locomotion score, infrared thermography and force plate methods can be indicated for non-invasive lameness detection in beef farms.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Raios Infravermelhos , Locomoção , Termografia , Animais , Bovinos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525895

RESUMO

The goal of the study was to assess whether tonic immobility (TI)-induced stress reactions in laying hens can be reduced by probiotic supplementation and if the changes in body surface temperature, as a stress indicator, are genetically dependent and can be detected using infrared thermography (IRT). Seventy-one white and 70 brown hens were used. Hens were randomly assigned to three treatments at 1-day-old: beak trimmed and fed a regular diet; non-beak trimmed and fed a regular diet; and non-beak trimmed and fed a diet supplemented with probiotics, Bacillus subtilis. At 40 weeks of age, hens were tested for TI reactions. Eye and face temperatures were measured with IRT immediately before and after TI testing. Results revealed that the probiotic supplementation did not affect hens' stress responses to TI testing; the left and right eye temperatures increased by 0.26s°C and 0.15°C, respectively, while right face temperature tended to increase following TI testing. However, the right eye (32.60°C for white, and 32.35°C for brown) and face (39.51°C for white, and 39.36°C for brown) temperatures differed significantly among genetic lines. There was a positive correlation between TI duration and the changes of the left and right eye temperatures after TI testing in white hens. Based on these results, hens experienced TI-induced surface temperature changes that were detectable using IRT. White hens experienced greater stress reactions in response to TI than brown hens. However, supplementation with Bacillus subtilis did not attenuate hens' reaction to TI testing.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico , Termografia/métodos , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Raios Infravermelhos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
9.
Science ; 368(6495): 1108-1113, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499439

RESUMO

Enabling near-infrared light sensitivity in a blind human retina may supplement or restore visual function in patients with regional retinal degeneration. We induced near-infrared light sensitivity using gold nanorods bound to temperature-sensitive engineered transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. We expressed mammalian or snake TRP channels in light-insensitive retinal cones in a mouse model of retinal degeneration. Near-infrared stimulation increased activity in cones, ganglion cell layer neurons, and cortical neurons, and enabled mice to perform a learned light-driven behavior. We tuned responses to different wavelengths, by using nanorods of different lengths, and to different radiant powers, by using engineered channels with different temperature thresholds. We targeted TRP channels to human retinas, which allowed the postmortem activation of different cell types by near-infrared light.


Assuntos
Cegueira/terapia , Ouro , Raios Infravermelhos , Nanotubos , Degeneração Retiniana/terapia , Limiar Sensorial/efeitos da radiação , Canais de Cátion TRPC/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/efeitos da radiação , Engenharia Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estimulação Luminosa , Ratos , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/efeitos da radiação , Degeneração Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos da radiação , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Serpentes , Canais de Cátion TRPC/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiopatologia , Córtex Visual/efeitos da radiação
10.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 38(7): 395-397, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579049

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the hypothesis that light could reduce the lethality of COVID-19. Methods: Most models for projections of the spread and lethality of COVID-19 take into account the ambient temperature, neglecting light. Recent advances in understanding the mechanism of action of COVID-19 have shown that it causes a systemic infection that significantly affects the hematopoietic system and hemostasis, factors extremely dependent of light, mainly in the region of visible and infrared radiation. Results: In the COVID-19 patients hemoglobin is decreasing and protoporphyrin is increasing, generating an extremely harmful accumulation of iron ions in the bloodstream, which are able to induce an intense inflammatory process in the body with a consequent increase in C-reactive protein and albumin. Observing the unsaturation characteristics of the cyclic porphyrin ring allows it to absorb and emit radiation mainly in the visible region. This characteristic can represent an important differential to change this process in the event of an imbalance in this system, through the photobiomodulation to increase the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using red and near-infrared radiation (R-NIR) and vitamin D using ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. These two compounds have the primary role of activating the defense mechanisms of the immune system, enabling greater resistance of the individual against the attack by the virus. According to the theory of electron excitation in photosensitive molecules, similar to hemoglobin heme, after the photon absorption there would be an increase in the stability of the iron ion bond with the center of the pyrrole ring, preventing the losses of heme function oxygen transport (HbO2). The light is also absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in the R-NIR region, with a consequent increase in electron transport, regulating enzyme activity and resulting in a significant increase of oxygen rate consumption by mitochondria, increasing ATP production. Conclusions: The most favorable range of optical radiation to operate in this system is between R-NIR region, in which cytochrome c oxidase and porphyrin present absorption peaks centered at 640 nm and HbO2 with absorption peak centered at 900 nm. Based on the mechanisms described earlier, our hypothesis is that light could reduce the lethality of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/radioterapia , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Pneumonia Viral/radioterapia , Terapia Ultravioleta , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234791, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555698

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current methods of intraoperative margin assessment in breast conserving surgery are impractical, unreliable, or time consuming. We hypothesized that intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) imaging with an FDA-approved NIR optical contrast agent could identify canine mammary tumors, a spontaneous large animal model of human breast cancer, during surgery. METHODS: Dogs with mammary tumors underwent a standard of care lumpectomy or mastectomy with wide surgical margins 20 hours after indocyanine green administration (3 mg/kg IV). During surgery, NIR imaging was performed on tumors and wound margins in situ and tumors and lymph nodes ex vivo. Following resection, the wound bed was examined for residual fluorescence. Fluorescence intensity was determined by signal-to-background ratio (SBR). All tumors, areas of residual fluorescence, and lymph nodes underwent histopathologic analysis. RESULTS: There were 41 mammary tumors in 16 female dogs. Twenty tumors were malignant and 21 were benign. Twenty-eight tumors were fluorescent (mean SBR 1.5±0.2). Sensitivity of fluorescence for all malignant tumors was 80% (16/20) and 93.3% (14/15) for malignant tumors > 2 cm. Specificity for malignancy was low (< 2cm = 55%; > 2cm = 30%). Tumors > 2 cm were more likely to be fluorescent (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.50-24.44, P = 0.011) but not more likely to be malignant (OR 3.09, 95% CI 0.86-11.14, P = 0.085) than tumors ≤ 2 cm. Four out of seven inguinal lymph nodes excised in the mastectomy specimen fluoresced. All four drained malignant tumors; however only 2/4 contained metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: Systemic ICG accumulates reliably in malignant canine mammary tumors > 2 cm. Although no tumor margins fluoresced, a wider margin of normal tissue is removed in canine mastectomy, making direct comparisons with breast conserving surgery difficult. Targeted NIR imaging agents are likely required to improve detection of smaller tumors and improve the specificity of NIR imaging for residual disease and metastatic lymph node detection.


Assuntos
Raios Infravermelhos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/cirurgia , Imagem Óptica , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Metástase Linfática , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555724

RESUMO

Super-resolution (SR) technology provides a far promising computational imaging approach in obtaining a high-resolution (HR) image (or image sequences) from observed multiple low-resolution (LR) images by incorporating complementary information. In this paper, a three-stage SR method is proposed to generate a HR image from infrared (IR) LR Images acquired with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The proposed method integrates a high-level image capturing process and a low-level SR process. In this integrated process, we incorporate UAV path optimization, sub-pixel image registration, and sparseness constraint into a computational imaging framework of a region of interest (ROI). To refine ROI complementary feathers, we design an optimal flight control scheme to acquire adequate image sequences from multi-angles. In particular, a phase correlation approach achieving reliable sub-pixel image feature matching is adapted, on the basis of which an effective sparseness regularization model is built to enhance the fine structures of the IR image. Unlike most traditional multiple-frame SR algorithms that mainly focus on signal processing and achieve good performances when using standard test datasets, the performed experiments with real-life IR sequences indicate the three-stage SR method can also deal with practical LR IR image sequences collected by UAVs. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of generating HR images with good performance in terms of edge preservation and detail enhancement.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Raios Infravermelhos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Algoritmos , Automação
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(10)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306261

RESUMO

Many types of thermometers have been developed to measure body temperature. Infrared thermometers (IRT) are fast, convenient and ease to use. Two types of infrared thermometers are uses to measure body temperature: tympanic and forehead. With the spread of COVID-19 coronavirus, forehead temperature measurement is used widely to screen people for the illness. The performance of this type of device and the criteria for screening are worth studying. This study evaluated the performance of two types of tympanic infrared thermometers and an industrial infrared thermometer. The results showed that these infrared thermometers provide good precision. A fixed offset between tympanic and forehead temperature were found. The measurement values for wrist temperature show significant offsets with the tympanic temperature and cannot be used to screen fevers. The standard operating procedure (SOP) for the measurement of body temperature using an infrared thermometer was proposed. The suggestion threshold for the forehead temperature is 36 °C for screening of fever. The body temperature of a person who is possibly ill is then measured using a tympanic infrared thermometer for the purpose of a double check.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Febre/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Termômetros , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Febre/virologia , Testa/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
14.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 207: 111891, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154800

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of COVID-19, which continues to ravage communities with high death tolls and untold psychosocial and catastrophic economic consequences, is a vivid reminder of nature's capacity to defy contemporary healthcare. The pandemic calls for rapid mobilization of every potential clinical tool, including phototherapy-one of the most effective treatments used to reduce the impact of the 1918 "Spanish influenza" pandemic. This paper cites several studies showing that phototherapy has immense potential to reduce the impact of coronavirus diseases, and offers suggested ways that the healthcare industry can integrate modern light technologies in the fight against COVID-19 and other infections. The evidence shows that violet/blue (400-470 nm) light is antimicrobial against numerous bacteria, and that it accounts for Niels Ryberg Finsen's Nobel-winning treatment of tuberculosis. Further evidence shows that blue light inactivates several viruses, including the common flu coronavirus, and that in experimental animals, red and near infrared light reduce respiratory disorders, similar to those complications associated with coronavirus infection. Moreover, in patients, red light has been shown to alleviate chronic obstructive lung disease and bronchial asthma. These findings call for urgent efforts to further explore the clinical value of light, and not wait for another pandemic to serve as a reminder. The ubiquity of inexpensive light emitting lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs), makes it relatively easy to develop safe low-cost light-based devices with the potential to reduce infections, sanitize equipment, hospital facilities, emergency care vehicles, homes, and the general environment as pilot studies have shown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Fototerapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Helioterapia , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Luz , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Pandemias , Fototerapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(8): 4565-4571, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-207793

RESUMO

On February 1, 2020, China announced a novel coronavirus CoVID-19 outbreak to the public. CoVID-19 was classified as an epidemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although the disease was discovered and concentrated in Hubei Province, China, it was exported to all of the other Chinese provinces and spread globally. As of this writing, all plans have failed to contain the novel coronavirus disease, and it has continued to spread to the rest of the world. This study aimed to explore and interpret the effect of environmental and metrological variables on the spread of coronavirus disease in 30 provinces in China, as well as to investigate the impact of new China regulations and plans to mitigate further spread of infections. This article forecasts the size of the disease spreading based on time series forecasting. The growing size of CoVID-19 in China for the next 210 days is estimated by predicting the expected confirmed and recovered cases. The results revealed that weather conditions largely influence the spread of coronavirus in most of the Chinese provinces. This study has determined that increasing temperature and short-wave radiation would positively increase the number of confirmed cases, mortality rate, and recovered cases. The findings of this study agree with the results of our previous study.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Previsões , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Temperatura , Vento
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(8): 4565-4571, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373996

RESUMO

On February 1, 2020, China announced a novel coronavirus CoVID-19 outbreak to the public. CoVID-19 was classified as an epidemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although the disease was discovered and concentrated in Hubei Province, China, it was exported to all of the other Chinese provinces and spread globally. As of this writing, all plans have failed to contain the novel coronavirus disease, and it has continued to spread to the rest of the world. This study aimed to explore and interpret the effect of environmental and metrological variables on the spread of coronavirus disease in 30 provinces in China, as well as to investigate the impact of new China regulations and plans to mitigate further spread of infections. This article forecasts the size of the disease spreading based on time series forecasting. The growing size of CoVID-19 in China for the next 210 days is estimated by predicting the expected confirmed and recovered cases. The results revealed that weather conditions largely influence the spread of coronavirus in most of the Chinese provinces. This study has determined that increasing temperature and short-wave radiation would positively increase the number of confirmed cases, mortality rate, and recovered cases. The findings of this study agree with the results of our previous study.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Previsões , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Temperatura , Vento
17.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 207: 111891, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388486

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of COVID-19, which continues to ravage communities with high death tolls and untold psychosocial and catastrophic economic consequences, is a vivid reminder of nature's capacity to defy contemporary healthcare. The pandemic calls for rapid mobilization of every potential clinical tool, including phototherapy-one of the most effective treatments used to reduce the impact of the 1918 "Spanish influenza" pandemic. This paper cites several studies showing that phototherapy has immense potential to reduce the impact of coronavirus diseases, and offers suggested ways that the healthcare industry can integrate modern light technologies in the fight against COVID-19 and other infections. The evidence shows that violet/blue (400-470 nm) light is antimicrobial against numerous bacteria, and that it accounts for Niels Ryberg Finsen's Nobel-winning treatment of tuberculosis. Further evidence shows that blue light inactivates several viruses, including the common flu coronavirus, and that in experimental animals, red and near infrared light reduce respiratory disorders, similar to those complications associated with coronavirus infection. Moreover, in patients, red light has been shown to alleviate chronic obstructive lung disease and bronchial asthma. These findings call for urgent efforts to further explore the clinical value of light, and not wait for another pandemic to serve as a reminder. The ubiquity of inexpensive light emitting lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs), makes it relatively easy to develop safe low-cost light-based devices with the potential to reduce infections, sanitize equipment, hospital facilities, emergency care vehicles, homes, and the general environment as pilot studies have shown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Fototerapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Helioterapia , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Luz , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Pandemias , Fototerapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(10)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438729

RESUMO

Many types of thermometers have been developed to measure body temperature. Infrared thermometers (IRT) are fast, convenient and ease to use. Two types of infrared thermometers are uses to measure body temperature: tympanic and forehead. With the spread of COVID-19 coronavirus, forehead temperature measurement is used widely to screen people for the illness. The performance of this type of device and the criteria for screening are worth studying. This study evaluated the performance of two types of tympanic infrared thermometers and an industrial infrared thermometer. The results showed that these infrared thermometers provide good precision. A fixed offset between tympanic and forehead temperature were found. The measurement values for wrist temperature show significant offsets with the tympanic temperature and cannot be used to screen fevers. The standard operating procedure (SOP) for the measurement of body temperature using an infrared thermometer was proposed. The suggestion threshold for the forehead temperature is 36 °C for screening of fever. The body temperature of a person who is possibly ill is then measured using a tympanic infrared thermometer for the purpose of a double check.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Febre/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Termômetros , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Febre/virologia , Testa/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3235-3250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440121

RESUMO

Background: Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted intensive research interest in the biomedical field because of their unique properties. However, in order to realize the high loading capacity and therapeutic efficacy, it is still urgent to develop a multifunctional MOFs-based nanoplatform. Materials and Methods: Herein, a pH/near-infrared (NIR) dual-responsive drug delivery system based on zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) is constructed for synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy and dual-modal magnetic resonance (MR)/photoacoustic (PA) imaging. The doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) is embedded into ZIF-8 through one-pot method, and the resultant ZIF-8/DOX is then successively modified with polydopamine, Mn ions and poly(ethylene glycol). The obtained ZIF-8/DMPP is systematically characterized, and both its in vitro and in vivo biological effects are evaluated in detail. Results: The ZIF-8/DMPP possesses a high drug-loading content of 18.9% and displays appropriate size and morphology. The pH-dependent degradation and drug release behavior of prepared ZIF-8/DMPP are confirmed. Importantly, the results demonstrate that the photothermal effect of ZIF-8/DMPP under NIR laser irradiation can significantly accelerate its drug releasing rate, further improving the intracellular drug concentrations. Thereafter, the augmented chemotherapeutic efficiency by photothermal effect against cancer cells is verified both in vitro and in vivo. Besides, the favorable MR and PA imaging capacity of ZIF-8/DMPP is also evidenced on the tumor model. Conclusion: Taken together, the surface engineering of ZIF-8-based nanocarrier in this work offers a promising strategy for the multifunctional MOFs-based drug delivery system.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Hipertermia Induzida , Imageamento Tridimensional , Raios Infravermelhos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Fototerapia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Indóis/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Polímeros/química , Temperatura
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469977

RESUMO

Eye temperature measured using infrared thermography (IRT) can be used as a non-invasive measure of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate if changes in eye temperature (measured using IRT) can be used to non-invasively measure ANS activity in sheep. Twenty, 2 to 4-year-old, Romney ewes were randomly assigned to receive either epinephrine (EPI) or physiological saline (SAL) for 5 min administered via jugular catheter (n = 10 ewes/treatment). Eye temperature (°C) was recorded continuously using IRT for approximately 25 min before and 20 min after the start of infusion. Heart rate and heart rate variability, measured using the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and the standard deviation of all inter-beat intervals (SDNN), were recorded for 5 min before and up to 10 min after the start of infusion. Blood samples were taken before and after the infusion period to measure plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and packed cell volume (PCV) concentrations. During the infusion period, maximum eye temperature was on average higher (P<0.05) in sheep that received epinephrine than those that received saline. On average, heart rate was higher (SAL: 87.5 beats/min, EPI: 123.2 beats/min, SED = 7.07 beats/min; P<0.05), and RMSSD (SAL: 55.3 ms, EPI: 17.3 ms, SED = 14.18 ms) and SDNN (SAL: 54.3 ms, EPI: 21.5 ms, SED = 10.00 ms) lower (P<0.05) in ewes during the 5 min post-infusion period compared with ewes that received saline. An infusion of epinephrine resulted in higher geometric mean epinephrine (P<0.05) and cortisol (P<0.05) but not norepinephrine (P>0.05) concentrations in ewes compared to an infusion of saline. PCV concentrations were higher (P<0.001) by 7 ± 1.0% (mean±SED) in ewes after an epinephrine infusion. These results suggest that heart rate variability is a sensitive, non-invasive method that can be used to measure ANS activity in sheep, whereas change in eye temperature measured using IRT is a less sensitive method.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovinos/fisiologia , Termografia/métodos , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Olho , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Raios Infravermelhos
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