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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(8): 2930-2935, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918946

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze the 5-year results of accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus and identify preoperative characteristics predictive of visual and topographic outcomes. Methods: A prospective interventional case series. Nineteen eyes of 19 patients receiving accelerated CXL with settings of 18 mW/cm2 for 5 min were included. Clinical and topographic parameters were assessed. Linear regression and logistic regression were used to compare the R2 and odds ratio (OR), respectively, between baseline characteristics and postoperative outcomes. Results: Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) remained stable from 0.28 ± 0.21 to 0.25 ± 0.18 logMAR (P = 0.486). The mean cylindrical refraction was stable (P = 0.119). The maximal keratometry (Kmax) decreased from 61.99 ± 10.37 to 59.25 ± 7.75 D (P < 0.001), flattening in the flattest and steepest meridians and mean keratometry were also observed (P ≤ 0.040). The mean anterior elevation at the apex reduced from 21.42 ± 16.69 to 18.53 ± 12.74 µm (P = 0.013) and changes in posterior elevation were non-significant (P = 0.629). Preoperative Kmax best predicted the postoperative change in Kmax (R2 = 0.55, P < 0.001) compared to the other baseline characteristics (P ≤ 0.028), whereas preoperative CDVA was the only significant predictor of postoperative change in CDVA (R2 = 0.41, P = 0.003). Accelerated CXL is less likely to fail in eyes with a steeper preoperative Kmax (OR = 0.74, P = 0.040) or greater posterior elevation at the apex (OR = 0.91, P = 0.042). Conclusion: Kmax significantly decreased following accelerated CXL. Eyes with worse preoperative CDVA and higher Kmax were more likely to have an improvement in visual acuity and corneal flattening.


Assuntos
Ceratocone , Fotoquimioterapia , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Topografia da Córnea , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta
2.
4.
Biomater Adv ; 137: 212822, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929237

RESUMO

The Boston Keratoprosthesis type I (B-KPro) is widely used in the world, but the lack of donor corneas limits its application. This study aims to prepare the acellular porcine cornea (APC) crosslinked with ultraviolet A (UVA)/riboflavin instead of donor corneas as the scaffold for B-KPro. Decellularization of freeze-thaw combined with biological enzymes resulted in approximately 5 ng/mg DNA residue, the a-Gal removal rate of 99%, and glycosaminoglycans retention at a high level of 46.66 ± 2.59 mg/mg. UVA/ riboflavin cross-linking was adopted to induce the formation of new chemical bonds between adjacent collagen chains in the corneal stroma to improve the mechanical properties and resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. Through comprehensive analysis of the biomechanics, enzyme degradation, immunogenicity and histological structure of the APC crosslinked at different times, CL3 (irradiation conditions, 365 nm, 3 mW/cm, 80 min, both sides) was selected and transplanted into the rabbit cornea model through interlamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty as the scaffold of the B-KPro. Compared with the native porcine cornea (NPC) and APC, the experiment of interlamellar pocket indicated that the structure of CL3 was homogeneous without degradation and vascularization in vivo at 12 weeks after surgery. Simultaneously, the results of transplantation of B-KPro showed complete epithelialization of CL3 within 1 week, and neovascularization of the cornea indicated rejection but could be controlled with immunosuppressants. At 3 months postoperatively, the lens of B-KPro remained transparent, and the structure of CL3 was compact and uniform, accompanied by the migration and proliferation of a large number of stromal cells without degradation, suggesting the CL3 could be a promising corneal substitute.


Assuntos
Córnea , Doenças da Córnea , Animais , Córnea/cirurgia , Doenças da Córnea/metabolismo , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/metabolismo , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Próteses e Implantes , Coelhos , Riboflavina/farmacologia , Suínos , Raios Ultravioleta
5.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2022: 4955761, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909659

RESUMO

Interleukin- (IL-) 33 contributes to various inflammatory processes. IL-33/ST2 activation participates in systemic lupus erythematous via binding to the receptor of Suppression of Tumorigenicity 2 protein (ST2). However, whether IL-33/ST2 interferes with the nosogenesis of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) has not been reported so far. Herein, we proposed to disclose the impacts on IL-33/ST2 activation and Ro60 on CLE and their potential implications in the photosensitization of CLE cells. IL-33, ST2, and Ro60 in CLE patients' skin lesions were detected. Murine keratinocytes stimulated with or without IL-33 were irradiated by ultraviolet B (UVB), and the levels of Ro60 and inflammation markers were determined. Keratinocytes were cocultured with J774.2 macrophages and stimulated with IL-33 for analysis of chemostasis. The results identified that IL-33, ST2, and downstream inflammation markers were significantly upregulated in CLE lesions with Ro60 overexpression. Additionally, IL-33 treatment promoted the upregulation of Ro60 induced by UVB treatment in murine keratinocytes. Moreover, IL-33 stimulates keratinocytes to induce macrophage migration via enhancing the generation of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 17 and 22. Meanwhile, the silencing of ST2 or nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) suppression abolished IL-33-induced upregulation of Ro60 in keratinocytes. Similarly, the inhibition of SOX17 expression was followed by downregulation of Ro60 in keratinocytes following IL-33 stimulation. In addition, UVB irradiation upregulated SOX17 in keratinocytes. Conclusively, the IL-33/ST2 axis interferes with Ro60-regulated photosensitization via activating the NF-κB- and PI3K/Akt- and SOX17-related pathways.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1 , Interleucina-33 , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo , Animais , Autoantígenos/genética , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/genética , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/etiologia , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/genética , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Citoplasmático Pequeno/genética , RNA Citoplasmático Pequeno/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13260, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918389

RESUMO

Immersive ultraviolet disinfection provides a chemical-free technology for safer textiles, surfaces, and public spaces by inactivating communicable pathogens. This study examined immersive UV disinfection, using a disinfection cabinet, of E. coli and MS2 that was inoculated on white cotton T-shirts. The impact that porous materials have on UV disinfection is poorly understood with the majority of previous surface disinfection research focusing on hard, smooth surfaces. Several approaches were used in this study to characterize the light dynamics within the disinfection cabinet including colorimetric dosimetry coupons, biodosimetry, and spectroradiometry. Micro and macro geometry of porous surfaces are important factors to consider when using immersive UV technologies. The geometry of the cabinet impacted the distribution of emitted UV light within the disinfection cabinet and the physical properties of a porous material, such as the woven pattern of cotton, both contribute to UV disinfection efficiency. This work identified that light distribution is crucial for immersive UV technologies as the delivered fluence was highly variable within the disinfection cabinet and resulted in a difference of several logs of reduction for adjacent areas of T-shirt samples. Other inoculated areas achieved upwards of 1-log reductions values for MS2 and upwards of 2-log reductions for E. coli.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Levivirus , Desinfecção/métodos , Escherichia coli , Têxteis , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(14): 31, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941444
8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 93(7): 074101, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922331

RESUMO

In this paper, we present a surface decontamination system that substitutes traditional chemicals and scrubbing agents, which will be useful for the general public during a pandemic. The technique is based on a hybrid process in which UV-C light and its photons interact with metal oxide nano-catalysts to generate hydroxyl radicals, which can enhance the deactivation process, and the system can work even in the shadow regions via a dry process. The optimum number of UV light sources in combination with TiO2 nanoparticles catalysts on aluminum plates have been used synergistically in the system. The UV dose in the disinfection chamber has been optimized, which is between 60 and 500 mJ/cm2 throughout the disinfection chamber. The concentration of hydroxyl radicals is reported more than 25 000 ions/cm3 within the disinfection chamber. These ions are circulated throughout the disinfection volume. The disinfection efficiency has been tested on bacteria and spores, and the obtained results are correlated. Around 8 log reductions in the counts of the test bacteria of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have been achieved in just 2 min of exposure in the continuous operation of the system. Tests have also been performed on Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, and the method described here is the result of multiple tests, a review of the scientific literature, and the incorporation of current laboratory practice. The deactivation tested in the system is larger than that of known bacteria and viruses in terms of UV-doses, signifying its utility during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Raios Ultravioleta , Bactérias , Catálise , Desinfecção/métodos , Escherichia coli
9.
Biomater Adv ; 135: 212744, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929203

RESUMO

Skin photoaging is one of the most serious public health problems in the 21st century that may lead to thin, saggy, and structurally weakened skin. Adipokine therapy toward skin photoaging is always associated with poor permeability, biologic stability and the short in vivo release duration. Our laboratory previously extracted an extracellular matrix component of adipose tissue by purely physical methods, namely "adipose collagen fragment (ACF)", which holds promise for preventing skin photoaging. However, the injection treatment of ACF requires repeated preparation processes and injection procedures, which may be time-consuming and painful. Therefore, we describe the fabrication and assessment of a detachable ACF-microneedle (ACF-MN) patch that creates minimally invasive dermal microtrauma upon application. And we evaluated the morphology characterization, mechanical properties and puncture performance in vitro. The delivery efficiency of ACF from the patches was estimated in vitro and vivo. Then, the therapeutic efficacy was identified through applying ACF-MN patches into the dermis of UVA-induced photoaging mice and the related detection of skin photoaging was estimated. Our results demonstrated that ACF-MN exhibited well skin puncture performance and could release ACF component slowly. Meanwhile, this microneedle device loaded with ACF exhibited the treatment efficiency on skin photoaging in a mouse model. Therefore, implantation of the microtrauma-mediated, long-acting ACF-MN system can be utilized as a potential candidate for preventing skin photoaging in the clinic.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento da Pele , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Colágeno , Camundongos , Pele , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
10.
Cornea ; 41(8): 1058-1061, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830582

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report a case of fungal keratitis resistant to standard-of-care antimicrobial treatment and successful resolution, thanks to the repeated high-fluence accelerated photoactivated chromophore for keratitis-corneal cross-linking (PACK-CXL). METHODS: This was a case report. RESULTS: A 79-year-old male patient with previous Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty presented with a corneal ulcer that was resistant to topical antimicrobial therapy and amniotic membrane placement. Fungal keratitis was diagnosed, and the cornea was on the verge of perforation. After over a month of topical and systemic therapy without marked improvement, the patient underwent 2 repeated high-fluence accelerated CXL procedures (7.2 J/cm2 using a UV irradiation of 30 mW/cm2 for 4 minutes) over an interval of 8 days (accumulated fluence of 14.4 J/cm2), which resulted in significant clinical improvement, with consolidation into a quiescent scar. CONCLUSIONS: PACK-CXL protocols delivering a total UV fluence of 5.4 J/cm2 (as per the original Dresden protocol for corneal ectasia cross-linking) can be an effective primary therapy for initial or superficial corneal infections because approximately half of the energy is absorbed in the first 100 µm of a riboflavin-soaked cornea. However, fungal keratitis may require higher fluences than 5.4 J/cm2 because, unlike ectatic corneas, corneal ulcers are not transparent, and the infection may involve deep stroma. This case illustrates how repeated high-fluence accelerated PACK-CXL can be used to successfully treat fungal keratitis resistant to conventional topical and systemic medications.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Córnea , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas , Ceratite , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Córnea/microbiologia , Úlcera da Córnea/diagnóstico , Úlcera da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera da Córnea/microbiologia , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/microbiologia , Humanos , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/microbiologia , Masculino , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
Mar Drugs ; 20(8)2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35892946

RESUMO

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are small molecules with robust ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing capacities and a huge potential to be used as an environmentally friendly natural sunscreen. MAAs, temperature, and light-stable compounds demonstrate powerful photoprotective capacities and the ability to capture light in the UV-A and UV-B ranges without the production of damaging free radicals. The biotechnological uses of these secondary metabolites have been often limited by the small quantities restored from natural resources, variation in MAA expression profiles, and limited success in heterologous expression systems. Overcoming these obstacles requires a better understanding of MAA biosynthesis and its regulatory processes. MAAs are produced to a certain extent via a four-enzyme pathway, including genes encoding enzymes dehydroquinate synthase, enzyme O-methyltransferase, adenosine triphosphate grasp, and a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. However, there are substantial genetic discrepancies in the MAA genetic pathway in different species, suggesting further complexity of this pathway that is yet to be fully explored. In recent years, the application of genome-mining approaches allowed the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that resulted in the discovery of many new compounds from unconventional sources. This review explores the use of novel genomics tools for linking BGCs and secondary metabolites based on the available omics data, including MAAs, and evaluates the potential of using novel genome-mining tools to reveal a cryptic potential for new bioproduct screening approaches and unrevealing new MAA producers.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Organismos Aquáticos , Aminoácidos/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Protetores Solares/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(14): 10329-10338, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791772

RESUMO

Ultraviolet advanced reduction processes (UV-ARP) have garnered significant attention recently for the degradation of several hard to treat contaminants, including recalcitrant per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The rate of contaminant degradation in UV-ARP is directly related to the available hydrated electron concentration ([eaq-]). However, reports of [eaq-] and other parameters typically used to characterize photochemical systems are not widely reported in the UV-ARP literature. Deploying monochloroacetate as a probe compound, we developed a method (Re-,UV) to quantify the time-based hydrated electron concentration ([eaq]t) available for contaminant degradation relative to inputted UV fluence. Measured [eaq]t was then used to understand the impact of eaq- rate of formation and scavenging capacity on the degradation of two contaminants─nitrate and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)─in four source waters with varying background water quality. The results show that the long-term treatability of PFOS by UV-ARP is not significantly impacted by the initial eaq- scavenging conditions but rather is influenced by the presence of eaq- scavengers like dissolved organic carbon and bicarbonate. Lastly, using [eaq]t, degradation of nitrate and PFOS was modeled in the source waters. We demonstrate that the Re-,UV method provides an effective tool to assess UV-ARP treatment performance in a variety of source waters.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cinética , Nitratos , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(14): 10149-10160, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793149

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) interact frequently with dissolved organic matter (DOM) commonly found in the environment, but information on the aging behavior of MPs under the participation of DOM is still lacking. Thus, the polystyrene microplastic (PSMP) aging process with DOM participation was systematically studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy analyses under dark and ultraviolet (UV) light conditions. DOM was found to promote electron transfer to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under dark conditions and the aging of PSMPs, while the process of DOM generating ROS under UV light was more susceptible to photoelectrons and accelerated the aging process of PSMPs. However, among the four DOM types, fulvic acid (FA) has a more significant promoting effect on the aging process of PSMPs than humic acid, which can be attributed to the stronger conversion ability of FA to semiquinone radicals. Density functional theory calculations are used to describe the difference in the aging process of different structures of plastics with the participation of DOM. This study provides a necessary theoretical basis for the study of the migration of MPs in groundwater and deep surface water.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , 2,5-Dimetoxi-4-Metilanfetamina , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Poliestirenos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Raios Ultravioleta
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(14): 10372-10380, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795970

RESUMO

Although periodate-based advanced oxidation processes have been proven to be efficient in abating organic contaminants, the activation properties of different periodate species remain largely unclear. Herein, by highlighting the role of H4IO6-, we reinvestigated the pH effect on the decontamination performance of the H2O2/periodate process. Results revealed that elevating pH from 2.0 to 10.0 could markedly accelerate the rates of organic contaminant decay but decrease the amounts of organic contaminant removal. This pH-dependent trend of organic contaminant degradation corresponded well with the HO· yield and the variation of periodate species. Specifically, although 1O2 could be detected at pH 9.0, HO· was determined to be the major reactive oxidizing species in the H2O2/periodate process under all the tested pH levels. Furthermore, it was suggested that only H4IO6- and H2I2O104- could serve as the precursors of HO·. The second-order rate constant for the reaction of H2I2O104- species with H2O2 was determined to be ∼1199.5 M-1 s-1 at pH 9.0, which was two orders of magnitude greater than that of H4IO6- (∼2.2 M-1 s-1 at pH 3.0). Taken together, the reaction pathways of H2O2 with different periodate species were proposed. These fundamental findings could improve our understanding of the periodate-based advanced oxidation processes.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Oxirredução , Ácido Periódico , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
15.
Mar Drugs ; 20(7)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877706

RESUMO

The effect of oral supplementation with astaxanthin of different Z-isomer ratios on ultraviolet (UV) light-induced skin damage in guinea pigs was investigated. Astaxanthin with a high Z-isomer content was prepared from the all-E-isomer via thermal isomerization. Intact (all-E)-astaxanthin and the prepared Z-isomer-rich astaxanthin were suspended in soybean oil and fed to guinea pigs for three weeks. The UV-light irradiation was applied to the dorsal skin on the seventh day after the start of the test diet supplementation, and skin parameters, such as elasticity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and pigmentation (melanin and erythema values), were evaluated. The accumulation of astaxanthin in the dorsal skin was almost the same after consumption of the all-E-isomer-rich astaxanthin diet (E-AST-D; total Z-isomer ratio = 3.2%) and the Z-isomer-rich astaxanthin diet (Z-AST-D; total Z-isomer ratio = 84.4%); however, the total Z-isomer ratio of astaxanthin in the skin was higher in the case of the Z-AST-D supplementation. Both diets inhibited UV light-induced skin-damaging effects, such as the reduction in elasticity and the increase in TEWL level. Between E-AST-D and Z-AST-D, Z-AST-D showed better skin-protective ability against UV-light exposure than E-AST-D, which might be because of the greater UV-light-shielding ability of astaxanthin Z-isomers than the all-E-isomer. Furthermore, supplementation with Z-AST-D resulted in a greater reduction in skin pigmentation caused by astaxanthin accumulation compared to that of E-AST-D. This study indicates that dietary astaxanthin accumulates in the skin and appears to prevent UV light-induced skin damage, and the Z-isomers are more potent oral sunscreen agents than the all-E-isomer.


Assuntos
Raios Ultravioleta , Xantofilas , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cobaias , Pele , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Xantofilas/farmacologia
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270065, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862365

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in geographically diverse regions of India. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional multicentric study was conducted in adults aged ≥40 years in plains, hilly and coastal regions of India. All participants underwent a detailed questionnaire-based assessment for sun exposure, usage of sun protective measures, exposure to indoor smoke, and smoking. Detailed ocular and systemic examinations were performed. Pterygium was diagnosed and graded clinically by slit-lamp examination. Association of pterygium with sociodemographic, ophthalmological, and systemic parameters was assessed. Physical environmental parameters for the study period were estimated. RESULTS: Of the 12,021 eligible subjects, 9735 (81% response rate) participated in the study. The prevalence of pterygium in any eye was 13.2% (95% CI: 12.5%-13.9%), and bilateral pterygium was 6.7% (95% CI: 6.2-7.2). The prevalence increased with age (<0.001) irrespective of sex and was highest in those aged 60-69 years (15.8%). The prevalence was highest in coastal (20.3%), followed by plains (11.2%) and hilly regions (9.1%). On multi-logistic regression, pterygium was positively associated with coastal location (P<0.001), illiteracy (P = 0.037), increasing lifetime sun exposure (P<0.001), and negatively associated with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Pterygium prevalence is high in the rural Indian population. The association of pterygium with several potentially modifiable risk factors reflects its multifactorial etiology and provides targets for preventive measures.


Assuntos
Pterígio , Adulto , Túnica Conjuntiva/anormalidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Pterígio/diagnóstico , Pterígio/epidemiologia , Pterígio/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Raios Ultravioleta
17.
J Refract Surg ; 38(7): 450-458, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine central corneal thickness (CCT) changes during in vivo rose bengal-green light corneal cross-linking (RG-CXL) and compare the CXL efficacy of different rose bengal formulations. METHODS: After epithelium removal, the right eyes of rabbits were immersed in rose bengal solution prepared by different solvents (water, phosphate buffered saline, dextran, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulos [HPMC]) for 2 or 20 minutes, then the rose bengal distribution in the corneal stroma was analyzed by confocal fluorescence detection. During the RG-CXL process, the CCT was measured at seven time points. The left eyes served as the untreated control group. Corneal enzymatic resistance and corneal biomechanics were tested to compare the RG-CXL efficacy. RESULTS: The rose bengal infiltration depths were 120 and 200 µm for the 2- and 20-minute groups, respectively. CCT increased significantly after infiltration, then decreased significantly in the first 200 seconds of irradiation and decreased slowly for the next 400 seconds. The CCT of the 20-minute groups was significantly thicker than that of the 2-minute groups (P < .0001). All RG-CXL treatments improved the corneal enzymatic resistance and corneal biomechanics, with the effects being greater in the 20-minute groups. The inclusion of 1.1% HPMC in the rose bengal formulation helped to maintain CCT during irradiation while not affecting either the infiltration of rose bengal or the efficacy of RG-CXL. CONCLUSIONS: Within the range studied, RG-CXL efficacy increased with infiltration time. The incorporation of a 20-minute infiltration of 0.1% rose bengal-1.1% HPMC into the RG-CXL procedure may further improve the safety of the treatment and its prospects for clinical use. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(7):450-458.].


Assuntos
Riboflavina , Rosa Bengala , Animais , Colágeno/metabolismo , Córnea/metabolismo , Substância Própria/metabolismo , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Coelhos , Riboflavina/farmacologia , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Rosa Bengala/metabolismo , Rosa Bengala/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12142, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840596

RESUMO

Melanin-containing fungi (black molds) have the capacity to thrive under extreme environmental conditions such as the elevated radiation levels inside the former Chernobyl reactors. These fungi have been hypothesized to grow toward and use gamma radiation as an energy source, but the literature does not clearly address which energies of the electromagnetic spectrum, if any, positively affect fungal growth. The goal of this work was to characterize the response of non-melanized and melanized fungi to two distinct electromagnetic wavelengths, i.e., ultraviolet (UV) and gamma ray, keeping absorption and other potentially confounding variables constant. Exposure to UV or gamma radiation induced significant changes in fungi pigmentation, but not growth rate of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Paecilomyces variotii. Specifically, increased pigmentation of both fungi was observed in samples exposed to UV, while decreased pigmentation was observed for gamma-irradiated samples. These results provide new insights into the role of electromagnetic energies on growth of fungi and provide an impetus to examine additional energies and types of radiation to develop a fundamental understanding of this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Cladosporium , Raios gama , Pigmentação , Raios Ultravioleta , Byssochlamys/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Byssochlamys/efeitos da radiação , Cladosporium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cladosporium/efeitos da radiação , Melaninas/metabolismo , Pigmentação/efeitos da radiação
19.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 306, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum is an extremely serious genetic disorder defined by sensitivity to sunlight, resulting in sunburn and pigment changes. If patients are not completely protected from ultraviolet radiation, xeroderma pigmentosum is characterized by a greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms. There is no standard therapy for skin cancer of xeroderma pigmentosum. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors were reported to increase response rates and improve outcomes and life expectancy in patients with various cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma in xeroderma pigmentosum. In this paper, we report on a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum from a consanguineous family with recurrent facial chemotherapy-resistant squamous cell carcinoma lesions treated successfully with an anti-programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibody in both relapses. CASE PRESENTATION: A 7-year-old Turkish male was referred to our oncology department for recurring squamous cell carcinoma after local excision of the tumor over his nose. The lesion was a rapidly growing lesion, measuring 8 × 4 cm in size. Physical examination revealed that he also had hemorrhagic crusted plaques and nodules over both eyelids and upper lip, with multiple hypo- and hyperpigmented punctate lesions all over his body. After two more cycles of chemotherapy, progressive disease was noted, and a new lesion on the right eyelid caused blurred vision. Anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody treatment was planned with concomitant radiotherapy. He received nivolumab every 3 weeks for 4 months, improving his vision. No new lesions or active complaints have been observed in the current situation, and complete remission has been achieved. On the last admission, the patient was clinically diagnosed with xeroderma pigmentosum. Owing to the condition's genetic heterogeneity, whole-exome sequencing was performed with Ion Proton next-generation sequencing platform, and the c.2250 + 1G>A splice site mutation of the XPC gene was detected in the homozygous state. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical report emphasizes the importance of clinical awareness and crucial early diagnosis of xeroderma pigmentosum and presents a novel causative homozygous c.2250 + 1G>A splice site mutation. Our case proves that next-generation sequencing is an effective method for the rapid diagnosis and determination of xeroderma pigmentosum genetic etiology.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Xeroderma Pigmentoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Raios Ultravioleta , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/complicações , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética
20.
Science ; 377(6603): 328-335, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857590

RESUMO

Human NLRP1 (NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 1) is an innate immune sensor predominantly expressed in the skin and airway epithelium. Here, we report that human NLRP1 senses the ultraviolet B (UVB)- and toxin-induced ribotoxic stress response (RSR). Biochemically, RSR leads to the direct hyperphosphorylation of a human-specific disordered linker region of NLRP1 (NLRP1DR) by MAP3K20/ZAKα kinase and its downstream effector, p38. Mutating a single ZAKα phosphorylation site in NLRP1DR abrogates UVB- and ribotoxin-driven pyroptosis in human keratinocytes. Moreover, fusing NLRP1DR to CARD8, which is insensitive to RSR by itself, creates a minimal inflammasome sensor for UVB and ribotoxins. These results provide insight into UVB sensing by human skin keratinocytes, identify several ribotoxins as NLRP1 agonists, and establish inflammasome-driven pyroptosis as an integral component of the RSR.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases , Proteínas NLR , Piroptose , Ribossomos , Estresse Fisiológico , Anisomicina/toxicidade , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/efeitos da radiação , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteínas NLR/genética , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Piroptose/efeitos da radiação , Ribossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribossomos/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
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