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1.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110077, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821940

RESUMO

Forensic samples are commonly influenced by various environmental factors, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation; thus, forensic applications of DNA repair (e.g., PreCR™, Restorase®) have been investigated, focusing on short tandem repeat typing. However, current DNA-based examinations are used for both human and body fluid identification. This study thus aims to clarify the efficacy of a DNA repair approach for Streptococcus salivarius DNA-based identification of saliva from UV-damaged samples. Artificial UV-damaged genomic DNA of S. salivarius, drop saliva stains, and buccal swabs were used to evaluate the effects of DNA repair on S. salivarius DNA detection by using PreCR™ repair reagent. To evaluate forensic applications, we prepared mock forensic samples by exposing them to environmental conditions. Melting curve analysis following real-time PCR was applied for qualitatively detecting S. salivarius DNA with a specific melting peak of 80.5°C±0.4°C (n=10, mean ± 3SD). Single PCR was used for quantitative and qualitative analyses, whereas dual PCR was used for S. salivarius DNA qualitative detection. DNA repair experiments using artificial UV-damaged samples revealed a significant increase of only the quantitative value of genomic DNA samples by DNA repair. Moreover, significant quantitative DNA repair effects were not observed in all mock forensic samples, indicating the limitations of DNA repair for actual cell-derived DNA samples. Whereas, differences of qualitative results (with or without detection) were generated for mock forensic samples; thus, we consider the DNA repair strategy as an additional approach for S. salivarius DNA-based identification of saliva from environmentally damaged evidence.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus salivarius/genética , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Dano ao DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Repetições de Microssatélites , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
2.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(1): 1-12, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753105

RESUMO

The incidence of melanoma continues to increase worldwide. In the United States, melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in men and the sixth most common cancer in women. The risk factors contributing to melanoma have largely remained unchanged, but there is a new focus on modifiable risk factors including sun exposure and ultraviolet light. A large public initiative supported by the Centers for Disease Control focuses on educating the public on the risks of sun exposure and indoor tanning. Early detection and resection of melanoma lesions is necessary to prevent metastasis and reduce medical costs.


Assuntos
Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Melanoma/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Banho de Sol , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124653, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473528

RESUMO

Discharge of heated effluent at 8-12 °C above ambient into water areas is known to retard the growth of aquatic organisms due to heat stress. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) maintains genome integrity by removing helix-distorting adducts such as UV-induced DNA lesions. This study explored how NER in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos at different hours post fertilization (hpf) responded to + 8.5 °C heat shock for 30 min. Our transcription-based repair assay monitoring the ability of zebrafish extracts to upregulate a UV-suppressed gene expression detected a 2-fold increase of NER capacity in 10 hpf early embryos after heat stress. In contrast, heat stress caused a mild inhibition of NER capacity in 24 hpf mid-early embryos. Heat-treated and untreated 10 hpf zebrafish extracts displayed similar levels of UV-damaged-DNA binding activities, while an apparently weaker (6-4) photoproduct (6-4 PP) binding activity was present in heat-stressed 24 hpf zebrafish extracts. Heat stress enhanced UV-induced NER in 10 hpf embryos by increasing the efficiency of damage incision/excision based on both genomic DNA electrophoresis and terminal deoxytransferase (TdT)-mediated end labeling assay. UV-irradiated embryos preexposed to heat stress produced a significantly larger amount of NER-associated DNA fragments about 20-30 nucleotides in length than embryos only heat-treated or irradiated. Correlated with its inhibitory effect on 6-4 PP damage recognition, heat stress downregulated damage incision/excision activities in 24 hpf embryos. Hence, thermal stress may positively or negatively modulate NER capacity in zebrafish embryos at different stages by targeting at the step of DNA incision/excision or damage recognition.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , DNA/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Tempo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 672-681, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hibiscus sabdariffa is commonly used in daily life and its extract is applied widely in food and cosmetics. However, it has not been evaluated for its anti-aging effects. RESULTS: Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx aqueous extract (HSCAE) has shown potential collagenase activity suppression effects, together with tyrosinase activity inhibition, and anti-oxidation as a free radical scavenger. The current investigation demonstrated that HSCAE was not cytotoxic in skin fibroblasts, and it significantly decreased ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) on a flow cytometry assay. Moreover, HSCAE reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, increased tissue inhibition of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 level, and enhanced collagen content by inhibiting collagenase activity. It also blocked mRNA and protein expressions of melanin production pathway key factors, including the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and dopachrome tautomerase-2 (TRP-2). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated, for the first time, the potential of HSCAE as a natural antioxidant with the ability to maintain collagen production and to decrease melanin syntheses under UVB radiation, for anti-aging effects. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Hibiscus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/genética , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
5.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(5): 503-520, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777350

RESUMO

Oculocutaneous albinism is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the complete absence or decrease of melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes. Due to the reduction or absence of melanin, albinos are highly susceptible to the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation and are at increased risk of actinic damage and skin cancer. In Brazil, as in other parts of the world, albinism remains a little known disorder, both in relation to epidemiological data and to phenotypic and genotypic variation. In several regions of the country, individuals with albinism have no access to resources or specialized medical care, and are often neglected and deprived of social inclusion. Brazil is a tropical country, with a high incidence of solar radiation during the year nationwide. Consequently, actinic damage and skin cancer occur early and have a high incidence in this population, often leading to premature death. Skin monitoring of these patients and immediate therapeutic interventions have a positive impact in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. Health education is important to inform albinos and their families, the general population, educators, medical professionals, and public agencies about the particularities of this genetic condition. The aim of this article is to present a review of the epidemiological, clinical, genetic, and psychosocial characteristics of albinism, with a focus in skin changes caused by this rare pigmentation disorder.


Assuntos
Albinismo/genética , Albinismo/patologia , Albinismo/complicações , Albinismo/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/etiologia , Ceratose Actínica/patologia , Masculino , Melaninas/deficiência , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/fisiopatologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
6.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(5): 532-541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The knowledge of general practitioners about photoprotection is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of general practitioners and pediatricians about photoprotection, gauging the knowledge of these professionals. METHODS: The study followed the steps: (1) Literature identification and item elaboration related to the theme; (2) Content validation; (3) Apparent validation; (4) Construct validation: internal consistency analysis and discriminatory analysis; (5) Reliability analysis. In Step 4, the instrument was applied to 217 general practitioners and pediatricians who worked in the host city of the study; the scores were compared with dermatologists scores. RESULTS: The final instrument had 41 items and showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.780), satisfactory reproducibility and good test-retest reliability (good-to-excellent kappa statistic in more than 60% of items). The discriminatory analysis registered a mean score of 54.1 points for dermatologists and 31.1 points for generalists and pediatricians, from a total of 82 possible points, representing a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Generalists and pediatricians demonstrated an understanding of the relationship between excessive sun exposure and skin cancer, but they revealed lack of technical information necessary for their professional practice. STUDY LIMITATIONS: The instrument evaluates only knowledge, without evaluating the conduct of the participants. CONCLUSION: The results show that the instrument has good internal consistency and good reproducibility. It could be useful in the identification of general practitioners and pediatricians knowledge gaps on the subject, for the subsequent development of training and educational strategies.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Energia Solar , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
7.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(12): 2931-2941, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696195

RESUMO

Recent studies show that the ozone layer will recover by the middle part of this century. This is a significant result arising from the Montreal Protocol, and highlights the success of this environmental protection agreement. Climate change projections show that Total Ozone Content (TOC) levels will increase significantly by the end of this century, mainly at higher latitudes. This increase may result in a reduction of the adverse effects of UV radiation overexposure. By contrast, reduced UV radiation levels at the surface of the Earth can result in reduced levels of vitamin D synthesis among the inhabitants of these regions. In this study we provide estimates for the UVI, erythemal, and vitamin-D weighted daily doses for ten different locations in South America and Antarctica. Our calculations were based on ozone projections provided by climate models set forth in the last IPCC report. Results show that the increase of TOC levels in middle and high latitude regions may result in decreased UVI and UV doses throughout the century. In high latitudes, erythemal doses and vitamin D synthesis doses may be reduced by up to 22 and 39%, respectively, if anthropogenic emissions continue to rise throughout the century. Furthermore, there may be reductions of up to 9 and 12%, respectively, in mid-latitudes (20°S to 35°S). Significant variations at Equatorial sites were not observed. In most of South America, the attenuation in UVR caused by increases in TOC during the 21st century is neither enough to promote protective effects from this radiation, nor for the lack of UVR for vitamin D synthesis. The incidence of UVR in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the continent will continue to be a public health risk for the entire 21st century during all seasons, regardless of the climatic scenarios. Our results can be used as an important tool for health studies focusing on the excess and/or lack of sun exposure.


Assuntos
Eritema/etiologia , Ozônio/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/biossíntese , Regiões Antárticas , Humanos , Estações do Ano , América do Sul , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
8.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(5): 567-573, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the main prevention methods against skin cancer is the use of sunscreen; however, incidence of this disease has not declined despite prevention campaigns. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the prevalence of non-use of sunscreen and its associated factors. METHOD: A population-based cross-sectional study with individuals aged 18 years or over living in the urban area. Conducted between April and July of 2016. Participants were interviewed about socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral questions. Non-use of sunscreen was considered as the outcome. For multivariate analysis, Poisson regression with robust adjustment for variance was used. RESULTS: Among the 1300 participants, prevalence of non-use of sunscreen was 38.2% (95% CI: 34.6-41.8). The variables independently associated with the outcome were male sex, older age, brown or black skin color, lower income, fewer years of education, no physical activity in leisure time, no medical consultations in the last year, and self-perception of health as regular or poor. STUDY LIMITATIONS: The prevalence may be underestimated by reports of more use of sunscreen than actually used, which could increase the figure in the outcome. CONCLUSION: It was estimated that about four out of ten adults and elderly do not use sunscreen in this sample. Prevention strategies are needed to advance health policy and ensure that sun protection options are easily accessible.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 286, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Edible insects, including Oxya chinensis sinuosa Mishchenko (Oc), which is consumed as food in Asia, are considered as a human food shortage alternative, and also as a preventive measure against environmental destruction. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, which causes skin photodamage, is considered as an extrinsic skin aging factor. It reduces skin hydration, and increases wrinkle formation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the anti-aging effects of an ethanol extract of Oc (Oc.Ex). METHODS: A UVB-irradiated hairless mouse model was used to examine relevant changes in skin hydration, wrinkle formation, and skin epidermal thickness. Also, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed, and Oc. Ex skin protective effects against UVB irradiation-induced photoaging were examined by determining the levels of skin hydration factors. RESULTS: Oc.Ex improved epidermal barrier dysfunctions such as increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and capacitance reduction in UVB-irradiated mice. It upregulated skin hydration-related markers, including hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß, and pro-collagen, in UVB-irradiated mice, compared with the vehicle control group. It also reduced UVB-induced wrinkle formation, collagen degradation, and epidermal thickness. Additionally, it remarkably suppressed the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and restored the activity of SOD and CAT in UVB-irradiated mice, compared with the vehicle control group. Furthermore, Oc. Ex treatment downregulated the production of inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway activated by UVB irradiation. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that Oc. Ex reduced skin thickness and the degradation of collagen fibers by increasing hydration markers and collagen-regulating factors in the skin of UVB-irradiated mice. It also inhibited UVB-induced antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammatory cytokine expression via MAPK signaling downregulation, suggesting that it prevents UVB-induced skin damage and photoaging, and has potential for clinical development in skin disease treatment.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos/química , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
10.
Enzymes ; 45: 99-138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627884

RESUMO

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a versatile DNA repair pathway that eliminates various helix-distorting base lesions such as ultraviolet (UV)-induced photolesions. Several recessive human disorders, such as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), are caused by hereditary defects in NER, implying that the pathway plays critical roles in suppressing diverse pathogenic processes, including carcinogenesis. In general, discrimination of lesion sites from intact DNA, which is present in vast excess, is a key determinant of the overall efficiency of DNA repair. In mammalian cells, global genomic NER lesion recognition is initiated by the XPC protein complex, which achieves broad DNA-binding specificity by sensing destabilized base pairs rather than lesions per se. To avert unnecessary incisions at lesion-free sites, and thereby ensure the fidelity of the repair system, transcription factor IIH and the XPA protein then verify the presence of relevant lesions at suspicious sites bound by XPC. In the case of UV-induced photolesions, a specialized lesion sensor called UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB) contributes to efficient lesion recognition and the recruitment of XPC to lesion sites. The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a crucial role in the handoff of lesions from UV-DDB to XPC and the subsequent NER process. In addition, recognition of lesions targeted by global genomic NER is intricately regulated by higher-order chromatin structures, which play distinct roles depending on the type of lesion.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição TFIIH/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Proteína de Xeroderma Pigmentoso Grupo A/metabolismo
11.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 66(3): 365-370, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531419

RESUMO

Effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on calli of two wheat varieties: Parabola (stress tolerant) and Raweta (sensitive) was studied. ZnO induced 10% larger membrane damage in Raweta calli. TiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2 caused nearly 30% greater lactate dehydrogenase leakage for Raweta compared to Parabola. UV-irradiation of samples containing ZnO particles intensified this effect. Membrane lipid peroxidation in ZnO treated Raweta calli was twice as high as in Parabola and further increased after UV-irradiation. TiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2 nanoparticles caused a 4-fold increase in malondialdehyde concentration in Raweta calli in comparison to Parabola calli. The nanoparticles studied damaged the cellular defense system by inactivating the antioxidative enzymes.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Titânio/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Zircônio/toxicidade , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Proteção de Cultivos/métodos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula , Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Células Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Superóxido Dismutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Titânio/química , Triticum/citologia , Triticum/enzimologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Zircônio/química
12.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(9): 1349-1360, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474086

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, regarded as a major cause of extrinsic aging or photoaging characterized by wrinkle formation and skin dehydration, exerts adverse effects on skin by causing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Agastache rugosa Kuntze, known as Korean mint, possesses a wide spectrum of biological properties including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-atherosclerosis. Previous studies have reported that A. rugosa protected human keratinocytes against UVB irradiation by restoring the anti-oxidant defense system. However, the anti-photoaging effect of A. rugosa extract (ARE) in animal models has not yet been evaluated. ARE was orally administered to hairless mice at doses of 100 or 250 mg/kg/day along with UVB exposure for 12 weeks. ARE histologically improved UVB-induced wrinkle formation, epidermal thickening, erythema, and hyperpigmentation. In addition, ARE recovered skin moisture by improving skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Along with this, ARE increased hyaluronic acid levels by upregulating HA synthase genes. ARE markedly increased the density of collagen and the amounts of hydroxypoline via two pathways. First, ARE significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases responsible for collagen degradation by inactivating the mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein 1 pathway. Second, ARE stimulated the transforming growth factor beta/Smad signaling, consequently raising the mRNA levels of collagen-related genes. In addition, ARE not only increased the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes but also decreased inflammatory cytokines by blocking the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B. Collectively, our findings suggest that A. rugosa may be a potential preventive and therapeutic agent for photoaging.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Colágeno/biossíntese , Colágeno/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos Pelados , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Envelhecimento da Pele/patologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Smad/genética , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
13.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454971

RESUMO

Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. (QM) has been used as an oriental traditional medicine to relieve hemorrhoids, fever, and enteritis. We screened the inhibitory activities of the extracts and compounds (1-6) isolated from QM on the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activities. Further, we evaluated the expression levels of cytokines, chemokines, and immune factors on pedunculagin (PC, 1), which was selected from isolated compounds (1-6) because of its potential anti-inflammation effect. Additionally, we evaluated whether the inflammation mitigation effects of PC (1) following UVB exposure in keratinocytes occurred because of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)/Janus kinase (JAK) activation. PC (1) remarkably suppressed interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-13, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA expression and reduced the mRNA expression level of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and also reduced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a concentration-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/citologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Quercus/química , Taninos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , NF-kappa B , Fenóis/química , Fosforilação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Taninos/química , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426336

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from diverse cellular processes or external sources such as chemicals, pollutants, or ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Accumulation of radicals causes cell damage that can result in degenerative diseases. Antioxidants remove radicals by eliminating unpaired electrons from other molecules. In skin health, antioxidants are essential to protect cells from the environment and prevent skin aging. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-(3″-O-methyl) gallate (3″Me-EGCG) has been found in limited oolong teas or green teas with distinctive methylated form, but its precise activities have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the antioxidant roles of 3″Me-EGCG in keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). 3″Me-EGCG showed scavenging effects in cell and cell-free systems. Under H2O2 exposure, 3″Me-EGCG recovered cell viability and increased the expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Under ultraviolet B (UVB) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) exposure, 3″Me-EGCG protected keratinocytes and regulated the survival protein AKT1. By regulating the AKT1/NF-κB pathway, 3″Me-EGCG augmented cell survival and proliferation in HaCaT cells. These results indicate that 3″Me-EGCG exhibits antioxidant properties, resulting in cytoprotection against various external stimuli. In conclusion, our findings suggest that 3″Me-EGCG can be used as an ingredient of cosmetic products or health supplements.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/química , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Citoproteção/efeitos da radiação , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Protetores contra Radiação/química , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
15.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126300, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422230

RESUMO

Two morphologically different bacteriophages were isolated from the river and soil samples from various locations of Maharashtra, India against the phytopathogen Pseudomonas sp. that was recently reported to cause a new bacterial blight of pomegranate. Both the phages belonged to the order Caudovirales representing the families Siphoviridae (vB_Psp.S_PRɸL2) and Myoviridae (vB_Psp.M_SSɸL8). The multiplicity of infection ranged from 0.01 to 0.1, phage adsorption rate from 39% to 66%, latent period from 10 to 20 min with a burst size of 24-85 phage particles per infected host cell. The genome size of phages PRɸL2 and SSɸL8 was approximately 25.403 kb and 29.877 kb respectively. Restriction digestion pattern of phage genomic DNA was carried out for phage PRɸL2, Eco RI resulted in two bands and Hind III resulted in three bands while for phage SSɸL8, both Eco RI and Hind III each resulted in three bands. SDS-PAGE protein profile showed six bands for PRɸL2 and nine bands for SSɸL8 of different proteins. Phages showed high pH stability over a range of 4-9, temperature stability over a range of 4-50 °C and UV radiation showed a reduction up to 89.36% for PRɸL2 and 96% for SSɸL8. In short, the present research work discusses for the first time in-detailed characterization of phages of a phytopathogen Pseudomonas sp. from Maharashtra, India, which can be further efficiently used for biological control of the causative agent of a new bacterial blight disease of pomegranate.


Assuntos
Lythraceae/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fagos de Pseudomonas/classificação , Fagos de Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas/virologia , Caudovirales/classificação , Caudovirales/genética , Caudovirales/isolamento & purificação , Caudovirales/ultraestrutura , DNA Viral/análise , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Índia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Myoviridae/classificação , Myoviridae/genética , Myoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Myoviridae/ultraestrutura , Fagos de Pseudomonas/genética , Fagos de Pseudomonas/ultraestrutura , Siphoviridae/classificação , Siphoviridae/genética , Siphoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Siphoviridae/ultraestrutura , Temperatura Ambiente , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Virais/análise
16.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416181

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to extract and prepare mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and investigate the mechanism by which they act against UV-induced skin photoaging in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR ) mice. MAAs such as porphyra-334 and shinorine were extracted from Porphyra yezoensis, separated, and purified using column chromatography with SA-2 cation exchange resin. The effects of MAAs on the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, namely total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were analyzed in mouse skin tissue. Pathological changes of skin tissue caused by ultraviolet radiation and the arrangement of collagen were observed by Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, and IL-10 were detected using the quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The concentration and expression of these proinflammatory cytokines was associated with the presence of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The results show that MAA compounds from Porphyra yezoensis could suppress UV-induced photoaging of skin by inhibiting the reduction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Compared to the control group, the concentrations of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT increased significantly in skin tissue homogenate following the external administration of MAAs (p < 0.05, p < 0.01), while the content of MDA decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the administration of MAAs was associated with down-regulations in the concentration and mRNA expression of NF-κB, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-10. The results suggest that MAAs could protect skin from photodamage by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibiting inflammation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Cicloexanonas/farmacologia , Cicloexilaminas/farmacologia , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatopatias/metabolismo
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1127, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ultraviolet (UV) Index provides a reliable means of monitoring the strength of UV radiation at the Earth's surface, which can be used to indicate the potential for skin damage. This qualitative study aims to examine public understanding of the UV Index among Australians who routinely use UV forecast information as well as those who do not. METHODS: Recent use of the SunSmart app (a popular mobile and tablet app that provides UV forecast information) served as a proxy for use of UV forecast information. Six focus groups were conducted with 'new users', who trialled the SunSmart app for the first time in the two weeks preceding the group discussion. In addition, 15 in-depth interviews were conducted with 'existing users', who routinely used the SunSmart app. Thematic discourse analysis was undertaken to compare views and experiences. RESULTS: Misperceptions about UV radiation were common. Participants learnt new information about UV radiation, the UV Index, and the times of the day that sun protection is recommended. Among adults who were using UV forecast information for the first time, this learning rarely translated to new behaviours; for these participants, the UV Index forecast information and recommendations were inconsistent with their own observation of the weather and subsequent judgement about their propensity to burn. Thus new users considered the UV forecast information to be overly cautious. In contrast, existing users recognised their inability to judge the UV Index level; for these participants, UV forecast information provided by the SunSmart app was incorporated into their daily routines and used to inform their sun protection behaviours. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: No matter how broadly UV forecast information is promoted, it is unlikely to improve sun protection behaviours across the Victorian population due to the low level of basic understanding of UV radiation. Public education strategies that correct the commonly held misperception that temperature and/or sunshine can reliably predict the potential for UV damage are required. Improved public awareness about UV radiation and how the UV Index can be used to prevent skin cancer may help Australians to develop more effective sun protection habits.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 71(10): 1532-1543, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bioactive molecules derived from natural products combine the ability to absorb UV light and act as antioxidants. We developed an oil-based sucupira (native species of the Brazilian cerrado) nanoemulsion (NE) using a high-energy emulsification method and assessed its effectiveness in vitro. METHODS: An easily scalable high-pressure homogenization method was used to prepare the formulation. NE droplets mean diameter, pH, stability, conductivity and morphology were analysed. Formulation bioactivity was assessed using HaCaT cells. KEY FINDINGS: The formulation presented suitable pH and size for topic administration and was stable for over 90 days upon storage at 4, 25 and 45°C. The NE showed protective effect against oxidative stress and reduced levels of UVA-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. CONCLUSIONS: A novel, stable and easily prepared formulation was obtained for encapsulation of sucupira oil. The protective effect of the formulation by cytokine inhibition in the early stage of the inflammatory process was shown in vitro. Combined with the antioxidant effect by inhibition of reactive oxygen species, the use of sucupira oil NE for prevention and treatment of UVA-induced stress could contribute to decrease the effects of UV radiation on skin ageing.


Assuntos
Emulsões/farmacologia , Fabaceae/química , Nanopartículas/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brasil , Linhagem Celular , Emulsões/química , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
19.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374828

RESUMO

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main risk factor to develop skin pathologies or cancer because it encourages oxidative condition and skin inflammation. In this sense, strategies for its prevention are currently being evaluated. Natural products such as carotenoids or polyphenols, which are abundant in the marine environment, have been used in the prevention of oxidative stress due to their demonstrated antioxidant activities. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity and its implication in photo-prevention have not been extensively studied. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the combination of fucoxanthin (FX) and rosmarinic acid (RA) on cell viability, apoptosis induction, inflammasome regulation, and anti-oxidative response activation in UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes. We demonstrated for the first time that the combination of FX and RA (5 µM RA plus 5 µM FX, designated as M2) improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profiles in comparison to compounds assayed individually, by reducing UVB-induced apoptosis and the consequent ROS production. Furthermore, the M2 combination modulated the inflammatory response through down-regulation of inflammasome components such as NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1, and the interleukin (IL)-1ß production. In addition, Nrf2 and HO-1 antioxidant genes expression increased in UVB-exposed HaCaT cells pre-treated with M2. These results suggest that this combination of natural products exerts photo-protective effects by down-regulating NRLP3-inflammasome and increasing Nrf2 signalling pathway.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantofilas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/imunologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Pele/citologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1085-1092, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038605

RESUMO

A retrospective and cross-sectional study of canine tumors was performed in the capital of State of Mexico from 2002-2016. Since then, 393 tumors were remitted. Descriptive epidemiology was made from all data: breed, age, sex, and tumor features. Then the risk association between cutaneous and non-cutaneous tumors with variables such as sex, breed, and age were analyzed through an exact Fisher test and Odds ratio. In addition, some characteristics of the canine population were studied under a survey. Of all tumors, skin tumors were the most frequent (59.0%). The group of tumors related to ultraviolet radiation was the most common (15.1%). The frequency of tumors in females was 53%, nevertheless, males had more risk to develop cutaneous tumors (OR=1.88, 1.24-2.84) (0.003). The Pure breeds were the most common (82.5%) and the most frequent age range was > 7 years (54.7%). The survey showed that males (53%) and the age range 1-7 years (62.1%) were the most frequent. Conclusions, age, breed, and sex were identified as the major risk factors for tumorigenesis. Likewise, skin tumors were associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation, probably to the height of the locality (2667mamls).(AU)


Um estudo retrospectivo e transversal dos tumores caninos foi realizado na capital do Estado do México durante o período de 2002-2016. Desde esse período, 393 tumores foram remetidos. Epidemiologia descritiva foi feita com base em todos os dados: raça, idade, sexo e características do tumor. Em seguida, a associação de risco entre tumores cutâneos e não cutâneos com variáveis como sexo, raça e idade foi analisada por meio do teste exato de Fisher e odds ratio. Além disso, algumas características da população canina foram estudadas em uma pesquisa. De todos os tumores, os de pele foram os mais frequentes (59,0%). O grupo de tumores relacionados à radiação ultravioleta foi o mais comum (15,1%). A frequência de tumores no sexo feminino foi de 53%, no entanto os machos apresentaram maior risco de desenvolver tumores cutâneos (OR = 1,88; 1,24-2,84) (0,003). As raças puras foram as mais comuns (82,5%), e a faixa etária mais frequente foi >7 anos (54,7%). A pesquisa mostrou que os machos (53%) e a faixa etária de um a sete anos (62,1%) foram os mais frequentes. Conclusões: idade, raça e sexo foram identificados como os principais fatores de risco para a tumorigênese. Da mesma forma, os tumores cutâneos foram associados à exposição à radiação ultravioleta, provavelmente até a altura da localidade (2667m ANM).(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Carcinogênese , México/epidemiologia
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