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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7361, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513457

RESUMO

Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that can occur in all warm blooded animals including humans. Vaccinating dogs can protect people from contracting rabies. Despite the availability of effective human and animal rabies vaccines, rabies prevention and control efforts are inadequate. The aim of the study was to determine the level of rabies prevention practices and associated factors among household heads in Bure Zuria district, North-west Ethiopia. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted at Bure Zuria from June 1 to 30, 2020. A total of 609 participants were selected using simple random sampling technique. Simple and multiple binary logistic regressions were applied to identify associated factors of rabies prevention practices. Of 609 participants, 413 (67.8%) were male and 289 (47.5%) were 30-45 years old. The level of good prevention practices of rabies at Bure Zuria district was 43.3%. Being males (AOR = 2.69 (1.72-4.22)), age group 18-29 years (AOR = 2.70 (1.20-6.10)), ever bitten by dog, (AOR = 2.40 (1.56-3.68)), got training (AOR = 1.70 (1.08-2.68)), had dog (AOR = 2.92 (1.62-5.26)), with good knowledge AOR (95% CI) = 3.42 (2.19-5.32), with good attitude AOR (95% CI) = 1.78 (1.16-2.73) and have 1001-2000 AOR (95% CI) = 2.29 (1.39-3.79) and > 2000 AOR (95% CI) = 2.02 (1.28-3.18)) monthly income were more likely to have good prevention practices of rabies. In this study, we found that the level of good prevention practices of rabies was low in Bure Zuria district. Therefore; awareness creation trainings and multi-sectoral collaborations to prevent rabies are needed in the district, zone and at large region level.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(2): 107-114, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521983

RESUMO

Rabies is almost ubiquitous (except in certain areas) and poses a significant danger to both animals and humans. Every year around 55,000 people die from this disease worldwide. In the Russian Federation alone 400,000- 450,000 patients annually apply for anti-rabies treatment. In the absolute majority of cases human infection is caused by contact with infected animals. In RF, a number of cultured inactivated anti-rabies vaccines for medical and veterinary purposes have been developed, registered and used for specific prevention of rabies. These vaccine preparations have shown high effectiveness in preventing infection in domestic and farm animals. At the same time, the main reservoir of the rabies virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae: Lyssavirus) (RV) are wild carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora). For the purpose of their oral immunization, live virus vaccines from attenuated (fixed) strains of RV that are little resistant in the external environment are used. In Western Europe and North America there is successful experience with recombinant anti-rabies vaccine preparations containing a viral glycoprotein gene (G-protein). Such vaccines are safe for humans and animals. In Russia also had been developed a vector anti-rabies vaccine based on adenovirus (Adenoviridae), which can be used to combat this infection. Currently, in addition to classical rabies, diseases caused by new, previously unknown lyssaviruses (Lyssavirus) are becoming increasingly important. Bats (Mammalia: Microchiroptera) are their vectors. Cases of illness and death after contact with these animals have been described. In the near future, we should expect the development of new vaccines that will provide protection not only against RV, but also against other lyssaviruses.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Lyssavirus , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Humanos , Lyssavirus/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(18): 619-627, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511716

RESUMO

Human rabies is an acute, progressive encephalomyelitis that is nearly always fatal once symptoms begin. Several measures have been implemented to prevent human rabies in the United States, including vaccination of targeted domesticated and wild animals, avoidance of behaviors that might precipitate an exposure (e.g., provoking high-risk animals), awareness of the types of animal contact that require postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), and use of proper personal protective equipment when handling animals or laboratory specimens. PEP is widely available in the United States and highly effective if administered after an exposure occurs. A small subset of persons has a higher level of risk for being exposed to rabies virus than does the general U.S. population; these persons are recommended to receive preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a series of human rabies vaccine doses administered before an exposure occurs, in addition to PEP after an exposure. PrEP does not eliminate the need for PEP; however, it does simplify the rabies PEP schedule (i.e., eliminates the need for rabies immunoglobulin and decreases the number of vaccine doses required for PEP). As rabies epidemiology has evolved and vaccine safety and efficacy have improved, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations to prevent human rabies have changed. During September 2019-November 2021, the ACIP Rabies Work Group considered updates to the 2008 ACIP recommendations by evaluating newly published data, reviewing frequently asked questions, and identifying barriers to adherence to previous ACIP rabies vaccination recommendations. Topics were presented and discussed during six ACIP meetings. The following modifications to PrEP are summarized in this report: 1) redefined risk categories; 2) fewer vaccine doses in the primary vaccination schedule; 3) flexible options for ensuring long-term protection, or immunogenicity; 4) less frequent or no antibody titer checks for some risk groups; 5) a new minimum rabies antibody titer (0.5 international units [IUs]) per mL); and 6) clinical guidance, including for ensuring effective vaccination of certain special populations.


Assuntos
Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Comitês Consultivos , Animais , Humanos , Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação
5.
Science ; 376(6592): 512-516, 2022 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482879

RESUMO

How acute pathogens persist and what curtails their epidemic growth in the absence of acquired immunity remains unknown. Canine rabies is a fatal zoonosis that circulates endemically at low prevalence among domestic dogs in low- and middle-income countries. We traced rabies transmission in a population of 50,000 dogs in Tanzania from 2002 to 2016 and applied individual-based models to these spatially resolved data to investigate the mechanisms modulating transmission and the scale over which they operate. Although rabies prevalence never exceeded 0.15%, the best-fitting models demonstrated appreciable depletion of susceptible animals that occurred at local scales because of clusters of deaths and dogs already incubating infection. Individual variation in rabid dog behavior facilitated virus dispersal and cocirculation of virus lineages, enabling metapopulation persistence. These mechanisms have important implications for prediction and control of pathogens that circulate in spatially structured populations.


Assuntos
Raiva , Animais , Cães , Prevalência , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(15): 533-537, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421075

RESUMO

On August 16, 2021, the Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) was notified of a positive rabies test result from a South American collared anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla) in Washington County, Tennessee. Tamanduas, or lesser anteaters, are a species of anteater in which rabies has not previously been reported. The animal was living at a Tennessee zoo and had been recently translocated from a zoo in Virginia. TDH conducted an investigation to confirm the rabies result, characterize the rabies variant, and ascertain an exposure risk assessment among persons who came into contact with the tamandua. Risk assessments for 22 persons were completed to determine the need for rabies postexposure prophylaxis (rPEP); rPEP was recommended for 13 persons, all of whom agreed to receive it. Using phylogenetic results of the virus isolated from the tamandua and knowledge of rabies epidemiology, public health officials determined that the animal was likely exposed to wild raccoons present at the Virginia zoo. This report describes expansion of the wide mammalian species diversity susceptible to rabies virus infection and summarizes the investigation, highlighting coordination among veterinary and human public health partners and the importance of preexposure rabies vaccination for animal handlers and exotic zoo animals.


Assuntos
Raiva , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Tennessee/epidemiologia , Virginia/epidemiologia
7.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(3): 351-354, 2022 Mar 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381658

RESUMO

From 2011 to 2020, there were 111 213 cases of rabies exposed people recruited from the rabies immunization clinic of a hospital in Beijing. The monthly distribution of patients in each year was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The distribution of patients showed remarkable seasonality, with the exposure peak from May to October. The ratio of male to female was 1∶1.3. The majority of patients were aged 20-29 years old (39.1%) and in-service personnel (56.5%). Level-Ⅱ wounds (84.2%) were more common than level-Ⅲ wounds (14.9%). The number of visits to level-Ⅲwounds increased rapidly since 2017. The most common injured body part was hand (60.7%). Dogs were the most common animal for injuries (60.6%), followed by cats (32.3%), of which most were host animals (75.5%). The vaccination rate from 2016 to 2020 [49.8% (24 276/48 703)] was significantly higher than that from 2011 to 2015[18.6% (6 559/35 272)](χ²=8597.18, P<0.001).


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Vacinação
8.
PLoS Biol ; 20(4): e3001580, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439242

RESUMO

Vaccination is a powerful tool in combating infectious diseases of humans and companion animals. In most wildlife, including reservoirs of emerging human diseases, achieving sufficient vaccine coverage to mitigate disease burdens remains logistically unattainable. Virally vectored "transmissible" vaccines that deliberately spread among hosts are a potentially transformative, but still theoretical, solution to the challenge of immunising inaccessible wildlife. Progress towards real-world application is frustrated by the absence of frameworks to guide vector selection and vaccine deployment prior to major in vitro and in vivo investments in vaccine engineering and testing. Here, we performed deep sequencing on field-collected samples of Desmodus rotundus betaherpesvirus (DrBHV), a candidate vector for a transmissible vaccine targeting vampire bat-transmitted rabies. We discovered 11 strains of DrBHV that varied in prevalence and geographic distribution across Peru. The phylogeographic structure of DrBHV strains was predictable from both host genetics and landscape topology, informing long-term DrBHV-vectored vaccine deployment strategies and identifying geographic areas for field trials where vaccine spread would be naturally contained. Multistrain infections were observed in 79% of infected bats. Resampling of marked individuals over 4 years showed within-host persistence kinetics characteristic of latency and reactivation, properties that might boost individual immunity and lead to sporadic vaccine transmission over the lifetime of the host. Further, strain acquisitions by already infected individuals implied that preexisting immunity and strain competition are unlikely to inhibit vaccine spread. Our results support the development of a transmissible vaccine targeting a major source of human and animal rabies in Latin America and show how genomics can enlighten vector selection and deployment strategies for transmissible vaccines.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Raiva , Vacinas , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e055411, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the epidemiology of paediatric and adult patients receiving rabies immune globulin (RIG). DESIGN: Cross-sectional prevalence study. SETTING: Eligible participants from the Symphony Integrated Dataverse presenting between 2013 and 2019. PARTICIPANTS: All adult and paediatric patients with integrated claims and demographic data associated with RIG use from the Symphony Integrated Dataverse from 2013 to 2019. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of diagnoses and procedures associated with paediatric and adult patient population based on frequency of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9/ICD-10) and Current Procedural Terminology codes, respectively. METHODS: We used mutual information to identify features that differentiate the paediatric from adult patient population. Prevalence ratios were calculated to compare adult and paediatric patients. RESULTS: There were 79 766 adult and 20 381 paediatric patients who met the inclusion criteria. Paediatric patients had a 5.92-fold higher prevalence of 'open wounds to the head; neck; and trunk', 3.10-fold higher prevalence of 'abrasion or friction burn of face; neck; and scalp except eye; without mention of infection', 4.44-fold higher prevalence of 'open wound of scalp; without mention of complication' and 6.75-fold higher prevalence of 'laceration of skin of eyelid and periocular area | laceration of eyelid involving lacrimal passages'. Paediatric patients had a 3.83-fold higher prevalence of complex repairs compared with adult patients (n=157, 0.7% vs n=157, 0.2%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric patients represent a significant proportion of the patient population receiving RIG, and are associated with higher prevalence of codes reporting repair of larger, more complex wounds in highly innervated anatomical regions. Dosing and administration of RIG must be informed by animal bite wound characteristics; clinicians should understand the differences between presentations in adults and children and treat accordingly.


Assuntos
Lacerações , Raiva , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas , Fatores Imunológicos , Prevalência , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458560

RESUMO

Human rabies can be prevented through mass dog vaccination campaigns; however, in rabies endemic countries, pulsed central point campaigns do not always achieve the recommended coverage of 70%. This study describes the development of a novel approach to sustain high coverage based on decentralized and continuous vaccination delivery. A rabies vaccination campaign was conducted across 12 wards in the Mara region, Tanzania to test this approach. Household surveys were used to obtain data on vaccination coverage as well as factors influencing dog vaccination. A total 17,571 dogs were vaccinated, 2654 using routine central point delivery and 14,917 dogs using one of three strategies of decentralized continuous vaccination. One month after the first vaccination campaign, coverage in areas receiving decentralized vaccinations was higher (64.1, 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) 62.1-66%) than in areas receiving pulsed vaccinations (35.9%, 95% CIs 32.6-39.5%). Follow-up surveys 10 months later showed that vaccination coverage in areas receiving decentralized vaccinations remained on average over 60% (60.7%, 95% CIs 58.5-62.8%) and much higher than in villages receiving pulsed vaccinations where coverage was on average 32.1% (95% CIs 28.8-35.6%). We conclude that decentralized continuous dog vaccination strategies have the potential to improve vaccination coverage and maintain herd immunity against rabies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Animais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Imunidade Coletiva , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Cobertura Vacinal
11.
Euro Surveill ; 27(16)2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35451362

RESUMO

More than 430 cases of rabies have been confirmed in dogs in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality of South Africa since July 2021. We describe the ongoing outbreak, its geographical spread and six related human deaths that have occurred. Further investigation of the outbreak and vaccination of the dog population is required. Raising awareness among healthcare providers, the public, and among international travellers planning to visit the region, is key for action to protect human and animal health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , África do Sul/epidemiologia
12.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221087881, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410522

RESUMO

In Thailand, rabies is an endemic fatal viral zoonosis where 40% of those infected are under age 15. The aim of this rabies KAP study (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices) is to examine preventive behaviors. A multistage sampling technique was employed for selecting the sample. Of 290 primary school students, 52.1% of them had poor knowledge, 89% had favorable attitudes, and 52.1% exercised proper preventive behaviors. We employed structural equation modeling to verify the systemic relationships and found rabies knowledge (ß = .157, se=.059, P = .008) and attitude (ß = .206 se=.054, P < .001) were associated with rabies preventive behaviors. Moreover, children in school No.4 statistically had less adept at rabies prevention than others. (ß = - .232, se=.054, P < .001). This study highlights the need to strengthen rabies education programs, especially for rabies risk situations among school-aged children.


Assuntos
Raiva , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia
13.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 47: 102316, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can prevent rabies. For non-vaccinated persons, PEP consists of multiple vaccinations and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) on indication. Since RIG is scarce, the need for PEP could be restricted through preventing animal contact and pre-exposure vaccination. We aimed to identify determinants for possible rabies exposure among travellers to provide more targeted pre-travel advice. METHOD: A case-control study was performed. Cases were defined as persons with a possible rabies exposure (category II or III injury according to WHO classification guidelines) in a rabies endemic country. Controls did not report exposure during travel. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. RESULTS: 229 cases and 1427 controls were included. Predictors (p < 0.05) of possible rabies exposure were young age, male sex, travelling to Western or Southeastern Asia, visiting a monkey park, pet ownership, previously visited the same country and considering oneself an experienced traveller. Negative predictors were travelling for business, visiting friends and relatives, and fear of animals. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-travel advice should take the identified predictors into account to provide better targeted information and pre-exposure prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas , Masculino , Transtornos Fóbicos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Viagem
14.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(2): 465-468, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255121

RESUMO

Rabies-association bat mortality events are rarely reported, suggesting that rabies is not a significant cause of bat mass mortality. Three bat die-offs in National Park Service units were attributed to rabies, highlighting the value of including rabies, and rabies virus strain spillover events, as a differential in mass mortality events.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , América do Norte , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária
15.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(2): 431-435, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255127

RESUMO

Serum samples of 638 free-ranging wild mammals from São Paulo state, Brazil, were tested for neutralizing antibodies against rabies virus by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. Overall seroprevalence was 1.7% among 24 species surveyed, with individuals of six species having positive results indicating exposure to rabies virus.


Assuntos
Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Antivirais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Mamíferos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(3): e0010202, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a viral zoonotic disease that kills more than 26,000 people each year in Africa. In Mozambique, poverty and inadequate surveillance result in gross underreporting and ineffective control of the disease in animals and people. Little is known of the role of human attitudes and behaviour in prevention or control of rabies, thus this study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices amongst selected households and health practitioners in one affected area, the Limpopo National Park (LNP), Massingir district. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 233 households in eight villages in LNP and among 42 health practitioners from eight health facilities in Massingir district between 2016 and 2018. Consenting household representatives aged 18 years or over were purposively selected. A KAP survey was administered to obtain information on dog ownership and knowledge of rabies, host species affected, modes of transmission, symptoms, recommended treatment and preventive methods. Similar to household study participants, health practitioners were purposively selected and completed the questionnaire during the investigators' visit. The questionnaire sought information on knowledge of rabies, management of bite wounds, vaccination sites and schedules of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. Descriptive and inferential data analyses were performed using SPSS software version 18.0. RESULTS: Approximately twenty per cent (18.9%; 95% CI: 14.3-24.3) and 13.3% (95% CI: 9.4-18.1) of households had good knowledge and practices of rabies, respectively. For health practitioners, only 16.7% (95% CI: 7.5-31.9) had good knowledge, whilst 33.3% (95% CI: 20.0-49.7) adopted adequate attitudes/practices towards the disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, both households and health practitioners displayed poor levels of knowledge and adopted bad attitudes and practices towards rabies. The former, had more gaps in their attitudes and practices towards the disease. Village location and education level (P < .05) and similarly, sex and occupation, were found to be statistically associated with good knowledge of rabies among households as compared to HPs. Overall, a lack of community-based education and professional retraining courses contribute significantly to poor awareness of rabies in the LNP of Mozambique. Enhancing public health knowledge should consequently reduce dog-mediated human rabies deaths in this country.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Raiva , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336899

RESUMO

Accurate host identification is paramount to understand disease epidemiology and to apply appropriate control measures. This is especially important for multi-host pathogens such as the rabies virus, a major and almost invariably fatal zoonosis that has mobilized unanimous engagement at an international level towards the final goal of zero human deaths due to canine rabies. Currently, diagnostic laboratories implement a standardized identification using taxonomic keys. However, this method is challenged by high and undiscovered biodiversity, decomposition of carcasses and subjective misevaluation, as has been attested to by findings from a cohort of 242 archived specimens collected across Sub-Saharan Africa and submitted for rabies diagnosis. We applied two simple and cheap methods targeting the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I to confirm the initial classification. We therefore suggest prioritizing a standardized protocol that includes, as a first step, the implementation of taxonomic keys at a family or subfamily level, followed by the molecular characterization of the host species.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , África ao Sul do Saara , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Laboratórios , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
19.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 29(1): 44-49, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35352904

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bats are considered natural reservoirs for lyssaviruses. A total of 17 out of 19 known lyssaviruses circulate in bat populations. Lyssaviruses cause rabies in animals and humans. The transmission of lyssaviruses from European bats to terrestrial animals and humans is rare, but the risk of infection still exists even in developed countries. Slovakia is currently a rabies-free country. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the potential circulation of EBLV-1 in synanthropic bats present in human inhabited buildings, and to give an overview of human exposure to bats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A passive serological survey targeted the prevalence of antibodies to bat lyssaviruses in synanthropic bats between 2009 - 2019. A total of 598 bats of the species Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Pipistrellus pygmaeus, Eptesicus serotinus, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus were captured in buildings mainly in Eastern Slovakia, and examined by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). RESULTS: Lyssavirus-specific antibodies were detected in 2 (0.3%) of the 598 examined bats. Additionally, brain tissues of bats found dead were examined using the standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT) with negative results. An overview of available data on human exposure to bats recorded in Slovakia from 2007 - 2019 is also included. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed the presence of lyssavirus antibodies in synanthropic bats in Slovakia, suggesting the active circulation of bat lyssaviruses in bat populations exploiting human buildings. Although the seroprevalence was found to be extremely low, the results show that any case of human exposure to bats must be treated with caution in order to protect public health.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Lyssavirus , Raiva , Animais , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Eslováquia/epidemiologia
20.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(2): 69-75, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175137

RESUMO

In pre-Hispanic Mexico, dogs were not identified as an important source of rabies. We know from codexes and chronicles of the conquerors that at that time, rabies cases in humans and domestic animals were caused by local wildlife species such as bats. Canine-rabies virus variant seems to have arrived with Europeans. The first documented case of canine rabies in the Americas is found in Mexico in the Annals of the Holy Inquisition (16th century). During Mexico's independence, cases were frequently reported. In the 19th century the first attempts to control human rabies were made through sanitary measures such as elimination of rabid dogs and applying postexposure vaccination. During the first half of the 20th century, the efficacy of canine vaccination to prevent human rabies was established. However, in Mexico, despite reports of numerous human cases (>70/year), canine vaccination did not have enough coverage. It was only during the 1990s that Mexico made a serious commitment to eliminate dog-transmitted human rabies. Since the beginning, vaccination campaigns have been free and massive. Coverage increased from 7,100,000 doses in 1990 to more than 18,000,000 since 2017. This culminated in the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies cases since 2006. Subsequently, the epidemiology of rabies had changed. Nowadays, it is wildlife species (mainly bats and skunks) that are the source of human rabies. As a mega-biodiverse country Mexico has numerous wildlife species with potential to transmit rabies virus. Thus it is paramount to remain vigilant with respect to canine vaccination campaigns and to promote rabies research in wildlife.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Mephitidae , México/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Estados Unidos
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