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1.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0213120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881039

RESUMO

Based on notified cases of human rabies exposure and human deaths by rabies to Colombia public health surveillance system between 2007 and 2016, we conducted a spatiotemporal analysis to identify epidemiological scenarios of high human rabies exposure due to dogs, cats, bats, or farm animals (n = 666,411 cases). The incidence rate of human rabies exposures was analyzed by using geographical information system (spatiotemporal distribution and Cluster and Outlier Analysis (Anselin Local Moran's I)) data for all Colombian cities. The incidence rate of human rabies exposures due to dogs and cats showed an increasing trend, while aggression due bats and farm animals fluctuated throughout the analyzed period. Human deaths by rabies transmitted by cat and bat occurred in the Andean and Orinoquia regions, which had urban and rural scenarios. The urban scenario showed the highest exposure to human rabies due to cats and dogs in cities characterized with high human population density and greater economic development. In contrary, the highest human rabies exposure in the rural scenario was observed due to contact of mucosa or injured skin with the infected saliva of farm animals with the rabies virus, principally among workers in the agroforestry area. The inequality scenario showed some outlier cities with high human rabies exposure due to farm animals principally in the Pacific region (characterized by the highest poverty rates in Colombia), being Afro-descendant and indigenous population the most exposed. The highest exposure due to bats bite was observed among indigenous people residing in cities of the Amazon region as a dispersed population (Amazonian scenario). None of the high exposure scenarios were related to human deaths by rabies due to dogs aggression. The identified scenarios can help develop better surveillance systems with a differential approach to the vulnerable population and strengthening them in areas with rabies viral circulation.


Assuntos
Raiva/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Cães/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Populações Vulneráveis
2.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 199-212, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564730

RESUMO

Rabies is a fatal viral disease that causes an estimated 59,000 human deaths each year. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries in Asia. Canine rabies is endemic to Vietnam, which is, however, moving towards the disease's elimination. Many countries, such as Vietnam, have invested tremendous resources in controlling rabies, highlighting the goal of regional and global elimination of this neglected disease. In Vietnam, rabies is recognised as one of five high-priority, zoonotic diseases by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Investment by the government and by international partners for rabies prevention and control has played a substantial role in reducing human rabies deaths from 404 cases in 1992 to 74 cases in 2017. The catalyst for this effort was the Prime Minister's creation of the National Rabies Program in 1996, which led to increased support and resources for rabies prevention and control. Interventions carried out since then include the expansion of post-exposure prophylaxis centres throughout the country, the introduction or revision of key legislation and guidelines, and improved multisectoral One Health collaboration. In addition, support from international partners, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has helped to increase awareness, manage dog populations more effectively, and improve Vietnam's surveillance and diagnostic capabilities. To pursue the goal of eliminating dog-mediated rabies in Vietnam, political commitment is crucial. Resources must be made available to enforce the regulations and guidelines that will enable Vietnam to achieve greater canine rabies vaccination coverage. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the animal and human health systems in Vietnam, as well as past, current and future directions of rabies prevention and control.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças do Cão , Raiva , Animais , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
3.
Rev Prat ; 69(4): 423-428, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626500

RESUMO

Rabies is a zoonosis of viral origin responsible for tens of thousands of human deaths each year in countries where dog rabies is not controlled and where post-exposure prophylaxis -PEP- is not available to populations the most vulnerable. In France, the epidemiology of rabies has changed for 20 years and our territory is currently declared free from rabies in terrestrial animals since 2001. This favorable epidemiology no longer justifies the administration of PEP in individuals exposed to an animal -except bats- in France except in French Guiana because of the risk of desmodin-type rabies in South America.


Assuntos
Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Cães , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/transmissão , Zoonoses
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007739, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545810

RESUMO

Canine rabies was endemic pre-urbanisation, yet little is known about how it persists in small populations of dogs typically seen in rural and remote regions. By simulating rabies outbreaks in such populations (50-90 dogs) using a network-based model, our objective was to determine if rabies-induced behavioural changes influence disease persistence. Behavioural changes-increased bite frequency and increased number or duration of contacts (disease-induced roaming or paralysis, respectively)-were found to be essential for disease propagation. Spread occurred in approximately 50% of model simulations and in these, very low case rates (2.0-2.6 cases/month) over long durations (95% range 20-473 days) were observed. Consequently, disease detection is a challenge, risking human infection and spread to other communities via dog movements. Even with 70% pre-emptive vaccination, spread occurred in >30% of model simulations (in these, median case rate was 1.5/month with 95% range of 15-275 days duration). We conclude that the social disruption caused by rabies-induced behavioural change is the key to explaining how rabies persists in small populations of dogs. Results suggest that vaccination of substantially greater than the recommended 70% of dog populations is required to prevent rabies emergence in currently free rural areas.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Cães/psicologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/transmissão , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vacinação/veterinária
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007699, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490919

RESUMO

A subpopulation of the arctic fox lineage of rabies virus has circulated extensively in red fox populations of Ontario, Canada, between the 1960s and 1990s. An intensive wildlife rabies control program, in which field operations were initiated in 1989, resulted in elimination of the disease in eastern Ontario. However in southwestern Ontario, as numbers of rabid foxes declined the proportion of skunks confirmed to be infected with this rabies virus variant increased and concerted control efforts targeting this species were employed to eliminate the disease. Since 2012 no cases due to this viral variant were reported in southwestern Ontario until 2015 when a single case of rabies due to the arctic fox variant was reported in a bovine. Several additional cases have been documented subsequently. Since routine antigenic typing cannot discriminate between the variants which previously circulated in Ontario and those from northern Canada it was unknown whether these recent cases were the result of a new introduction of this variant or a continuation of the previous enzootic. To explore the origins of this new outbreak whole genome sequences of a collection of 128 rabies viruses recovered from Ontario between the 1990s to the present were compared with those representative of variants circulating in the Canadian north. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the variant responsible for current cases in southwestern Ontario has evolved from those variants known to circulate in Ontario previously and is not due to a new introduction from northern regions. Thus despite ongoing passive surveillance the persistence of wildlife rabies went undetected in the study area for almost three years. The apparent adaptation of this rabies virus variant to the skunk host provided the opportunity to explore coding changes in the viral genome which might be associated with this host shift. Several such changes were identified including a subset for which the operation of positive selection was supported. The location of a small number of these amino acid substitutions in or close to protein motifs of functional importance suggests that some of them may have played a role in this host shift.


Assuntos
Raposas/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Mephitidae/virologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
6.
Acta Trop ; 200: 105156, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491398

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rabies is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in numerous regions of the world. Annually, 60,000 deaths have been reported, mostly in Asia and Africa. Dogs are responsible for approximately 99% of human deaths due to rabies. Consequently, incidences of canine bites are increased yet rabies continues to remain a neglected disease in Pakistan. The objective of the study was to investigate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) for rabies, among the participants from urban and rural population of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. METHODS: Data was collected by conducting household based cross-sectional survey over a period of 5 months (from January 2018 to May 2018). Quantitative data was collected in the form of questionnaires to investigate awareness and knowledge of rabies among the participants. The questionnaire compromised of socio-demographic features and degree of KAP with respect to rabies management and control. RESULTS: A total sample size of 434 participants responded in the study. Among them, 89.4% were found to have heard about rabies, 38.7% have no knowledge of signs and symptoms, 93.3% knew that infected dogs are the major cause of spreading rabies and 77.6% considered that the vaccination of animals is important for prevention of rabies. However, only 39.8% actively seek medical treatment at a hospital if bitten by a dog. From the 434 participants 61 reported dog bites, of which 68.8% (42/61) were male and 49.1% (30/61) belonged to age group of 6-25 years. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that respondents have relatively limited knowledge, inconsistent attitude and poor practices towards rabies prevention and control. There is a high need of imparting knowledge to the population from multidisciplinary programs for effective management and prevention of rabies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2811-2817, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471723

RESUMO

Rabies remains a public health threat in China, and most transmissions are dog-mediated. In this study, we studied 31 clinically diagnosed human rabies patients that had been scratched or bitten by dogs. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and nested RT-PCR were performed on saliva samples or cerebrospinal fluid, and samples from 28 patients tested positive for rabies virus. A total of one near-complete genome sequence, 15 complete glycoprotein (G) gene sequences, and five partial G gene sequences were determined. Phylogenetic analysis was performed, based on complete G gene sequences, using the maximum-likelihood method. The results indicated that the isolates belonged to the lyssavirus genotype I lineage and China I lineage. The Chinese rabies virus can be divided into six major lineages. The China I lineage was the dominant clade and could be divided into four subclades. Isolates 17HN19, 17HN75, and 18HN162 fell within clade IC subgroup, and the other isolates were assigned to the clade IA subgroup. This study provides epidemiological and genetic information on rabies incidence in humans.


Assuntos
Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Saliva/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007630, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557160

RESUMO

The World Health Organization, the World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have resolved to eliminate human rabies deaths due to dog bites by 2030, and the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi) has added human rabies vaccines to their investments for 2021-2025. Implementing these goals cost-effectively and sustainably requires understanding the complex connections between dog rabies vaccination and human risk and response. The objective of this paper is to estimate how dog rabies vaccinations affect human rabies deaths, mediated through dog rabies cases, dog bite reporting, and post-exposure human rabies vaccination. To approach this objective, we apply multivariate regression analysis over five rabies-related outcomes: (a) dog vaccinations, (b) dog rabies cases, (c) reported human exposures, (d) human post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) use, and (e) human rabies cases. Analysis uses aggregate annual data over 1995-2005 for seven Latin American countries that experienced dramatic declines in canine and human rabies. Among other results, we estimate the following. (i) A 10% increase in dog vaccinations decreases dog rabies cases by 2.3%. (ii) Reported exposures decline as concurrent dog rabies cases decline, but these declines are more than offset by increases in reported exposures per dog rabies case, which may result from higher rabies awareness due to anti-rabies campaigns. (iii) A 10% increase in PEP use decreases human deaths by 7%, but a 10% increase in dog vaccination induces a 2.8% decrease in PEP use. The net effect is that a 10% increase in dog vaccination reduces human deaths by 12.4% overall, although marginal effectiveness declines as dog rabies incidence declines. (iv) Increases in income and public health expenditures increase PEP demand. The findings highlight the importance of mass dog vaccination, heightened awareness, treatment access, and clinical algorithms to reduce both false negatives leading to death and false positives leading to costly unnecessary PEP prescriptions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Saúde Pública , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180199, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390441

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Jirau hydroelectric power plant built in Rondônia state has environmental impacts that could be relevant to rabies outbreaks. METHODS: Bat populations were monitored for rabies by fluorescent antibody testing and simplified fluorescent inhibition microtesting between 2010 and 2015. RESULTS: All 1,183 bats tested negative for rabies. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was 17.5% in 1,049 bats. CONCLUSIONS: The rabies antibody dosage was not reactive in samples collected before the environmental changes, and there was a progressive increase in subsequent collections that could indicate an increase in rabies virus circulation among bats and risk of a rabies outbreak.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Imunofluorescência/métodos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394794

RESUMO

Approximately 1500 people die annually due to rabies in the United Republic of Tanzania. Moshi, in the Kilimanjaro Region, reported sporadic cases of human rabies between 2017 and 2018. In response and following a One Health approach, we implemented surveillance, monitoring, as well as a mass vaccinations of domestic pets concurrently in >150 villages, achieving a 74.5% vaccination coverage (n = 29, 885 dogs and cats) by September 2018. As of April 2019, no single human or animal case has been recorded. We have observed a disparity between awareness and knowledge levels of community members on rabies epidemiology. Self-adherence to protective rabies vaccination in animals was poor due to the challenges of costs and distances to vaccination centers, among others. Incidence of dog bites was high and only a fraction (65%) of dog bite victims (humans) received post-exposure prophylaxis. A high proportion of unvaccinated dogs and cats and the relative intense interactions with wild dog species at interfaces were the risk factors for seropositivity to rabies virus infection in dogs. A percentage of the previously vaccinated dogs remained unimmunized and some unvaccinated dogs were seropositive. Evidence of community engagement and multi-coordinated implementation of One Health in Moshi serves as an example of best practice in tackling zoonotic diseases using multi-level government efforts. The district-level establishment of the One Health rapid response team (OHRRT), implementation of a carefully structured routine vaccination campaign, improved health education, and the implementation of barriers between domestic animals and wildlife at the interfaces are necessary to reduce the burden of rabies in Moshi and communities with similar profiles.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedade , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007564, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381564

RESUMO

An effective surveillance system is critical for the elimination of canine rabies in Latin America. Brazil has made substantial progress towards canine rabies elimination, but outbreaks still occurred in the last decade in two states. Brazil uses a health information system (SINAN) to record patients seeking post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following contact with an animal suspected of having rabies. This study evaluated: (i) whether SINAN can be reliably used for rabies surveillance; (ii) if patients in Brazil are receiving appropriate PEP and (iii) the benefits of implementing the latest World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on PEP. Analysing SINAN records from 2008 to 2017 reveals an average of 506,148 bite-injury patients/year [range: 437k-545k] in the country, equivalent to an incidence of 255 bite-injuries/100,000 people/year [range: 231-280]. The number of reports of bites from suspect rabid dogs generally increased over time. In most states, records from SINAN indicating a suspect rabid dog do not correlate with confirmed dog rabies cases reported to the Regional Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Rabies (SIRVERA) maintained by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Analyses showed that in 2017, only 45% of patients received appropriate PEP as indicated by the Brazilian Ministry of Health guidance. Implementation of the latest WHO guidance using an abridged intradermal post-exposure vaccination regimen including one precautionary dose for dog bites prior to observation would reduce the volume of vaccine required by up to 64%, with potential for annual savings of over USD 6 million from reduced vaccine use. Our results highlight the need to improve the implementation of SINAN, including training of health workers responsible for delivering PEP using an Integrated Bite Case Management approach so that SINAN can serve as a reliable surveillance tool for canine rabies elimination.


Assuntos
Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Raiva/tratamento farmacológico , Raiva/epidemiologia , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Brasil , Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças do Cão , Cães , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(7): 668-679, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288336

RESUMO

Rabies is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by lyssavirus and characterized by central nervous system symptoms. The fatality rate of rabies is almost 100%. About 59 000 cases die of rabies worldwide every year, mainly in Asia and Africa. China is an epidemic country of rabies. Grade II and III exposures are the main types of rabies exposures in China. Standardized post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can prevent rabies almost 100%. Human Rabies Vaccine Technical Working Group, National Immunization Advisory Committee and invited experts reached an expert consensus on PEP by referring to the World Health Organization's position paper on rabies vaccine in 2018 and related research progress in recent.


Assuntos
Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Consenso , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007565, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306425

RESUMO

Contact patterns strongly influence the dynamics of disease transmission in both human and non-human animal populations. Domestic dogs Canis familiaris are a social species and are a reservoir for several zoonotic infections, yet few studies have empirically determined contact patterns within dog populations. Using high-resolution proximity logging technology, we characterised the contact networks of free-ranging domestic dogs from two settlements (n = 108 dogs, covering >80% of the population in each settlement) in rural Chad. We used these data to simulate the transmission of an infection comparable to rabies and investigated the effects of including observed contact heterogeneities on epidemic outcomes. We found that dog contact networks displayed considerable heterogeneity, particularly in the duration of contacts and that the network had communities that were highly correlated with household membership. Simulations using observed contact networks had smaller epidemic sizes than those that assumed random mixing, demonstrating the unsuitability of homogenous mixing models in predicting epidemic outcomes. When contact heterogeneities were included in simulations, the network position of the individual initially infected had an important effect on epidemic outcomes. The risk of an epidemic occurring was best predicted by the initially infected individual's ranked degree, while epidemic size was best predicted by the individual's ranked eigenvector centrality. For dogs in one settlement, we found that ranked eigenvector centrality was correlated with range size. Our results demonstrate that observed heterogeneities in contacts are important for the prediction of epidemiological outcomes in free-ranging domestic dogs. We show that individuals presenting a higher risk for disease transmission can be identified by their network position and provide evidence that observable traits hold potential for informing targeted disease management strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Chade/epidemiologia , Criança , Coleta de Dados , Cães , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Epidemias , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Raiva/veterinária , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(7): 460-468, July 2019. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040719

RESUMO

Rabies affects several domestic species, causing significant economic losses due to the death of animals in characteristic areas of the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. In this context, this work aimed to study the epidemiology of rabies outbreaks observed in cattle from January 2008 to December 2017, through its space and time distribution in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. We performed an observational and ecological retrospective through the analysis of data recorded in necropsy protocols performed in cattle at the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" (LRD-UFPel). A descriptive data analysis aimed at evaluating the distribution of cases over time. The statistical analysis was performed with Gretl statistical software 1.9.12 (GNU Regression, Econometric, and Time-series Library). To the existence of stationarity was verified with the Dickey-Fuller test, considering a value of p<0.05. From January 2008 to December 2017, 1418 bovine diagnostic materials were received at the LRD-UFPel, and 160 outbreaks of rabies were confirmed in 160 farms located in the 24 municipalities of the LRD-UFPel area of influence. We observed 591 cattle out of a total of 25,886 infected with the virus. We conclude that rabies does not exhibit seasonality in the study region, with a tendency to decrease in frequency in the next years. The disease has an epidemic characteristic in most of the analyzed months (2012-2014), remaining endemic in the remaining period (2011, 2015 and 2016) with sporadic episodes of epidemics in these years. We also observed that as the incidence of the disease increased in the animals and in the properties, there was a geographical spread of the virus for the majority (54.16%) of the municipalities in the area of influence of the LRD-UFPel.(AU)


A raiva afeta várias espécies domésticas, causando perdas econômicas significativas pela morte de animais em áreas bem características da região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia dos surtos de raiva observados em bovinos de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2017, por meio de sua distribuição no espaço e no tempo na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Foi realizado um estudo observacional e ecológico retrospectivo, por meio da análise de dados registrados nos protocolos de necropsias realizadas em bovinos no Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD-UFPel). Foi feita análise descritiva dos dados para avaliar a distribuição dos casos ao longo do tempo. Para a análise temporal foi utilizado o software estatístico Gretl 1.9.12 (GNU Regression, Econometricand Time-series Library). Para verificar a existência da estacionariedade utilizou-se o teste de Dickey-Fuller aumentado, considerando um valor de p<0,05. No período de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2017, foram recebidos no LRD-UFPel 1418 materiais de bovinos para diagnóstico, sendo confirmados 160 surtos de raiva em 160 propriedades situadas nos 24 municípios da área de influência do LRD-UFPel. O número de animais infectados pelo vírus foi de 591 bovinos de um total de 25.886. O presente estudo permitiu concluir que a raiva não tem sazonalidade na região do estudo, tendo tendência de queda na frequência nos próximos anos. A doença tem característica epidêmica na maioria dos meses analisados (2012-2014), mantendo-se endêmica no período restante (2011, 2015 e 2016) com episódios esporádicos de epidemias nestes anos. Observou-se ainda, que na medida em que aumentou a incidência da doença nos animais e nas propriedades, houve disseminação geográfica do vírus para a maioria (54,16%) dos municípios da área de influência do LRD-UFPel.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Raiva/veterinária , Raiva/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Estudos de Séries Temporais , Epidemiologia Descritiva
16.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 30(3): 560-563, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249218

RESUMO

Rabies is an important neurological infection that is prevalent in tropical countries. The rabid animals can bring rabies to humans by biting. The disease can result in serious neurological problem and death is the end result. The best way is prevention of disease by postexposure prophylaxis against rabies. The effect of rabies on the renal system is little mentioned in the literature. In the previous literature, acute kidney injury was observable in half of the rabies patients. Rabies is also transmittable by organ transplantation. Although it is rare and <10 cases had ever been reported in literature, it is proven that kidney transplant patients are at risk of getting rabies if the donor come from endemic country or with a history of travel to endemic country and has unclear cause of death. Regarding rabies immunization, the use of vaccination for patients with the underlying renal failure is interesting. In this short article, the authors summarize on those important clinical issues of rabies and renal failure.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/virologia , Rim/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Renal/virologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Imunização , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/efeitos adversos , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Doadores de Tecidos
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(5): 526-530, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177732

RESUMO

Objective: To understand epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2017 and provide evidence for the development of strategy of human rabies control and prevention. Methods: The descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted based on the epidemic data from Chinese Infectious Disease Surveillance Reporting System, sentinel surveillance system in 6 provinces (Hunan, Guangxi, Anhui, Guizhou, Jiangsu and Shandong) and National Bureau of Statistics in 2017. Results: A total of 516 human rabies cases, including 502 deaths, were reported by 27 provinces in 2017 with the morbidity rate and mortality rate of 0.037/100 000 and 0.036/100 000, respectively. The case number and death number decreased by 19.88% (128/644) and 15.20% (90/592) respectively compared with 2016. Rabies epidemics were mainly found in southern and central areas. The first 5 provinces reporting high case numbers were Hunan (71 cases), Henan (52 cases), Guangxi (41 cases), Anhui (39 cases) and Hubei (39 cases), their cases accounted for 46.90% (242/516) of the total reported cases in China. Rabies mainly occurred in summer and autumn, and the majority of patients were farmers, students and children outside child care settings. The male to female ratio of the cases was 2.46 ∶ 1 (367 ∶ 149). Cases was reported in all age groups, and more cases occurred in middle aged and old adults than in adolescents. Questionnaires survey was conducted for 186 cases, the results indicated that 94.89% (167/176) of exposures were caused by dog bites. The exposure degree was mainly category Ⅲ, accounting for 68.86% (115/167), and only 6.02% (10/166) of cases were immunized after exposure. The median of latent period of these cases was 72 days. Conclusions: By 2017, the human rabies incidence in China had declined consecutively for ten years, more cases were reported in southern area than in northern area. The case number showed downward trends in provinces with high incidences and fluctuant increase in provinces with low incidence. Rabies cases mainly occurred in rural areas, and most cases were men and farmers. Low rate of post exposure prophylaxis, low rates of vaccination and passive immunization product injection were main causes for the onset of human rabies. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for human rabies, especially in rural areas, health education about treatment after rabies exposure and expend the coverage of canine immunization.


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias , Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/etnologia , Raiva/mortalidade , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Aust Vet J ; 97(8): 268-276, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This survey aimed to understand hunting practices involving domestic dogs in remote Indigenous communities in northern Australia and, in the context of disease transmission, describe the domestic-wild dog interface and intercommunity interactions of hunting dogs during hunting activities. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 13 hunters from communities of the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA) of Queensland gathered information on demographics of hunters and hunting dogs, hunting practices and past encounters with wild dogs during hunting trips. Social networks that described the connections of hunters between NPA communities from hunting expeditions were developed. RESULTS: Most hunters interviewed were not aware of any diseases that could be transmitted to dogs (n = 11) or humans (n = 9) from wild animals while hunting. More than half (n = 7) of the respondents had experienced at least one wild dog encounter during hunting in the year prior to the interview. A map of the relative risk of interactions between wild and hunting dogs during hunting trips allowed the identification of high-risk areas in the NPA; these areas are characterised by dense rainforests. The social networks at the community level resulted in relatively large density measures reflecting a high level of intercommunity connectedness. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to our knowledge of Australian Indigenous hunting practices and supports the potential for disease transmission at the domestic-wild dog interface and intercommunity level through contacts between hunting dogs during hunting activities. Insights from this study also highlight the need for educational programs on disease management in Indigenous communities of northern Australia.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Demografia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão
19.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 52(3): 170-178, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the epidemiological features of patients and animals after bites/scratches from rabies-suspected animals in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. METHODS: Data from all patients (and the causative animals) admitted to the Antirabies Service of the Institute for Health and Food Safety Zenica in the 2009-2017 period were analyzed, including age, sex, anatomical site of the bite/scratch, animal type (stray/owned/wildlife), veterinary observations of the animal, and whether antirabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) was indicated and/or administered. RESULTS: In total, 1716 patients were admitted. Bites/scratches were most frequently recorded during April and May (n=181, 10.5% and n=163, 9.5%, respectively). The persons admitted were mostly from the Zenica municipality (n=1278, 74.5%; incidence: 11.55/ 1000), which is 66.6% urbanized. Males were more frequently represented (n=1089, 63.6%). The patients were mostly 50-64 and 25-49 years of age (n=425, 24.7% and n=390, 22.7%, respectively). Dog bites were the most common cause (n=1634, 95.1%, of which n=1258, 77.0% were caused by stray dogs). PEP was indicated for 997 (58.1%) patients. Only 340 (19.9%) animals underwent veterinary observations (3.1% of stray and 76.1% of owned animals). The largest number of injuries were presented at lower extremities, 1044 (60.8%) cases. CONCLUSIONS: Zenica-Doboj Canton is a rabies-free region. Due to the high rate of stray animals not undergoing veterinary observations, the non-existence of a unique dog registry, and the consequent lack of information about stray animals in terms of number, vaccination, neutering, and euthanasia, there is an urgent need for improving the prevention and control of rabies within the One Health framework.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Raiva/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Coelhos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 12(3): 445-447, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal viral disease that continues to threaten human and animal health in endemic countries. Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country on the Peninsula, little has been reported in the country about rabies situation. METHODS: A total of 199 animals suspected of rabies from 2010 to 2017, were examined for rabies infection using the Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test (DFAT). RESULTS: There were 158 (79.4%) positive cases of rabies of the examined animals, Most positive cases were found in Al-Qassim (63), Eastern region (48), Riyadh (25) and Al-Madina (10). Rabies was diagnosed in Procavia capensis and monkeys (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) in Saudi Arabia for the first time. In addition, infected livestock, especially camels, sheep and goat that pose a risk to veterinarians and farmers which increases the risk of potential zoonosis of rabies in Saudi Arabia. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that Rabies in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem and dogs and camels are the main reservoir and continue to present health risks for both human and animals throughout the country, underscoring the importance of applying rabies control measures to animals and humans.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Raiva/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Camelus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cães/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Humanos , Gado/virologia , Papio/virologia , Saúde Pública , Raiva/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Ovinos/virologia
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