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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(2): 221-226, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies is found in many countries of the eastern Mediterranean and is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in the world. The study aims to describe rabies suspected exposures (RSE) and rabies prophylaxis practices in Antalya-Turkey between 2010 and 2013. METHODS: All 2513 RSE cases presenting to a rabies vaccination center in Antalya, southwestern Turkey, were retrospectively investigated. RESULTS: The mean age of the RSE cases was 30.04±19.63 years with male predominance (63.6%). The vast majority was from urban areas (91.7%), and a postexposure rabies vaccination program was applied to 79.7% of participants. Dogs were the primary source of RSE cases (61.2%). The 39.2% of animals were under observation, and 9.53% of them died. Forty-two animals (1.7%) were laboratory confirmed rabid; 61.9% of them were cows. The rabid animal rate in the rural area was significantly higher than the urban area (18.2% versus 0.2%; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study includes a large number of RSE cases and prophylaxis practices in southwestern Turkey. Most RSE cases had dog or cat contact. As most RSE cases were in urban areas; more focused efforts should be made for elimination and vaccination of feral dog and cat population in Turkey.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Imunoterapia Ativa/métodos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Gatos , Bovinos , Criança , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(1): 131-136, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503709

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze epidemiological characteristics and explore control and prevention measures based on the rabies surveillance data in China from 2016 to 2018. Methods: The surveillance data of rabies in China from 2016-2018 were collected from the "Infectious Disease Surveillance Information Reporting Management System", eleven national surveillance sites in Hunan, Anhui, Guizhou, Jiangsu and Shandong provinces and National Bureau of Statistics. Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the distributions of rabies outbreaks in China during this period, and univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on the data using SPSS 25.0. Results: Rabies epidemics were mainly found in southern and central areas in China. Rabies mainly occurred in summer and autumn, and the majority of patients were farmers, students and children outside child care settings. The male to female ratio of the cases was 2.38∶1(1 114∶468). The cases were reported in all age groups and the incidence curve was bimodal, and more cases occurred in middle aged and old adults than in youths. In the case analysis of rabies from 2016 to 2018, the majority of the animals biting human were dogs, accounting for 91.46%(439/480). And about 71.88% (345/480) of the exposures were degree Ⅲ. The vaccination rate after exposure was only 8.13%(39/480). Age, degree of exposure, site of exposure, wound management, vaccination and injection of passive immunization product might influence the incubation period. Conclusions: The human rabies incidence in China declined consecutively from 2016 to 2018, and the affected areas decreased. No cases were reported in northwestern area. The rate of post exposure prophylaxis, vaccination and passive immunization product injection were all improved, but the level of standard wound management after exposure needs to be improved. Attention should be paid to epidemic surveillance in high-incidence provinces and neighboring provinces. It is necessary to strengthen professional treatment training in relevant medical institutions, strengthen immunization and management of dog to achieve the goal of "zero human rabies death by 2030".


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Raiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/epidemiologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e20, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327978

RESUMO

Arctic rabies virus variant (ARVV) is enzootic in Quebec (Canada) north of the 55th parallel. With climate change, increased risk of re-incursion of ARVV in more densely populated southern regions raises public and animal health concerns. The objective of this study was to prioritise geographical areas to target for an early detection of ARVV incursion south of the 55th parallel based on the historical spatio-temporal trends of reported rabies in foxes in Quebec. Descriptive analyses of fox rabies cases from 1953 to 2017 were conducted. Three periods show increases in the number of fox rabies cases in southern regions and indicate incursion from northern areas or neighbouring provinces. The available data, particularly in central and northern regions of the province, were scarce and of low spatial resolution, making it impossible to identify the path of spread with precision. Hence, we investigated the use of multiple criteria, such as historical rabies cases, human population density and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) relative abundance, to prioritise areas for enhanced surveillance. This study underscores the need to define and maintain new criteria for selecting samples to be analysed in order to detect rapidly ARVV cases outside the current enzootic area and any potential re-incursion of the virus into central and southern regions of the province.


Assuntos
Raposas/virologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Vigilância da População , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008957, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370268

RESUMO

Rabies remains a public health challenge of unknown magnitude in Liberia in spite of the goal of ensuring that no human in the country dies of rabies by 2030. The annual prevalence of Dog Bite Victims (DBVs) and true load of Annual Human Deaths (AHDs) due to rabies were not known. We investigated three selected cities of Liberia for annual prevalence of DBVs and true load of AHD due to suspected rabies, using 10-year retrospective record, 2008-2017 obtained from Buchanan, Gbarnga, and Voinjama, three socio-economically important cities in post-conflict Liberia. Data were sourced at County Reference Hospitals and at the Liberia National Institute of Health for these cities and their local environs. In addition, household questionnaire survey was used to identify and audit data quality for unreported DBVs, and treatment received from traditional caregivers. The proportion was used to audit the 10-year data on unreported DBVs in the cities. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize annual DBVs over the 10-year period in the three cities, respectively. A standardized clinical decision tree model was used to estimate AHDs due to suspected rabies. Based on questionnaire survey, 140/365, 148/375 and 146/350 DBVs did not visit any orthodox health facility in Buchanan, Gbarnga and Voinjama cities, respectively in 2014. An estimated total of 559 DBVs died of suspected rabies in the three cities and their environs during the 10-year period. Mean yearly prevalence of DBVs was 179±106.82, 393±257.85 and 76.9±38.11 per 100,000 population, while mean AHDs due to suspected rabies was 14.3±8.47, 35.5±23.25, and 6.1±3.21 per 100,000 population in Buchanan, Gbarnga, and Voinjama cities, respectively. The present findings provide annual prevalence of suspected rabies cases, corrected for under-reporting in three selected cities of Liberia. The findings would be useful in planning for stepwise actions towards rabies elimination, ensuring that no human dies of rabies in Liberia by 2030.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Raiva/mortalidade , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008948, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370285

RESUMO

Domestic dogs are responsible for 99% of all cases of human rabies and thus, mass dog vaccination has been demonstrated to be the most effective approach towards the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies. Namibia demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by applying government-led strategic rabies vaccination campaigns to reduce both human and dog rabies incidences in the Northern Communal Areas of Namibia since 2016. The lessons learnt using paper-based form for data capturing and management of mass dog vaccination campaign during the pilot and roll out phase of the project (2016-2018) led to the implementation of a simple and accurate data collection tool in the second phase (2019-2022) of the rabies elimination program. In this paper, we describe the implementation of such custom-developed vaccination tracking device, i.e. the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) Data Logger (GDL), and the integration of the collected data into a website-based rabies surveillance system (Rabies Epidemiological Bulletin-REB) during 2019 and 2020 campaigns. A total of 10,037 dogs and 520 cats were vaccinated during the 2019 campaign and 13,219 dogs and 1,044 cats during the 2020 campaign. The vaccination data were recorded with the GDL and visualized via REB. Subsequent GIS-analysis using gridded population data revealed a suboptimal vaccination coverage in the great majority of grid cells (82%) with a vaccination coverage below 50%. Spatial regression analysis identified the number of schools, estimated human density, and adult dog population were associated with the vaccination performance. However, there was an inverse correlation to human densities. Nonetheless, the use of the GDL improved data capturing and monitoring capacity of the campaign, enabling the Namibian government to improve strategies for the vaccination of at-risk areas towards achieving adequate vaccination coverage which would effectively break the transmission of rabies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375530

RESUMO

In rabies diagnosis, it is essential to count on a rapid test to give a quick response. The combined sensitivity and robustness of the TaqMan RT-PCR assays (qRT-PCR) have made these methods a valuable alternative for rabies virus (RABV) detection. We conducted a study to compare the applicability of two widely used qRT-PCR assays targeting the nucleoprotein gene (LysGT1 assay) and leader sequences (LN34 qRT-PCR assay) of RABV genomes, in all variants circulating in Argentina. A total of 44 samples obtained from bats, dogs, cattle, and horses, that were previously tested for rabies by FAT and conventional RT-PCR, were used in the study. All variants were successfully detected by the pan-lyssavirus LN34 qRT-PCR assay. The LysGT1 assay failed to detect three bat-related variants. We further sequenced the region targeted by LysGT1 and demonstrated that the presence of three or more mismatches with respect to the primers and probe sequences precludes viral detection. We conclude that the LysGT1 assay is prone to yield variant-dependent false-negative test results, and in consequence, the LN34 assay would ensure more effective detection of RABV in Argentina.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/diagnóstico , Raiva/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Quirópteros , Geografia Médica , Cavalos , Humanos , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , RNA Viral , Raiva/epidemiologia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 778, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International organizations advocate for the elimination of dog-mediated rabies, but there is only limited guidance on interpreting surveillance data for managing elimination programmes. With the regional programme in Latin America approaching elimination of dog-mediated rabies, we aimed to develop a tool to evaluate the programme's performance and generate locally-tailored rabies control programme management guidance to overcome remaining obstacles. METHODS: We developed and validated a robust algorithm to classify progress towards rabies elimination within sub-national administrative units, which we applied to surveillance data from Brazil and Mexico. The method combines criteria that are easy to understand, including logistic regression analysis of case detection time series, assessment of rabies virus variants, and of incursion risk. Subjecting the algorithm to robustness testing, we further employed simulated data sub-sampled at differing levels of case detection to assess the algorithm's performance and sensitivity to surveillance quality. RESULTS: Our tool demonstrated clear epidemiological transitions in Mexico and Brazil: most states progressed rapidly towards elimination, but a few regressed due to incursions and control lapses. In 2015, dog-mediated rabies continued to circulate in the poorest states, with foci remaining in only 1 of 32 states in Mexico, and 2 of 27 in Brazil, posing incursion risks to the wider region. The classification tool was robust in determining epidemiological status irrespective of most levels of surveillance quality. In endemic settings, surveillance would need to detect less than 2.5% of all circulating cases to result in misclassification, whereas in settings where incursions become the main source of cases the threshold detection level for correct classification should not be less than 5%. CONCLUSION: Our tool provides guidance on how to progress effectively towards elimination targets and tailor strategies to local epidemiological situations, while revealing insights into rabies dynamics. Post-campaign assessments of dog vaccination coverage in endemic states, and enhanced surveillance to verify and maintain freedom in states threatened by incursions were identified as priorities to catalyze progress towards elimination. Our finding suggests genomic surveillance should become increasingly valuable during the endgame for discriminating circulating variants and pinpointing sources of incursions.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Algoritmos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cães , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Vacinação em Massa , México/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cobertura Vacinal
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0007477, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841227

RESUMO

Dog bites in humans are a major public health problem in India in general and Kashmir in particular. Canine rabies is almost non-existent in developed countries and exists mainly in the poorer, low socioeconomic strata of society in the developing world. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics, pattern, and burden of dog bite injuries in the Kashmir valley. Data from Anti-Rabies Clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Srinagar, the summer capital of the state of Jammu & Kashmir, was collated and analyzed. Analysis of records of all the patients who had reported between April 2016 and March 2017 was done. A total of 6172 patients had reported to the Anti-Rabies Clinic for management of animal bites from 1st April 2016 to 31st March 2017. Most of the patients were young males. Almost half (47.7%) of the patients were bitten in the afternoon. Lower limbs were the most common site of bite (71.7%). Most of the bites were of Category III (57.6%) followed by Category II (42.3%); only one case of Category I was recorded. Almost all (98.0%) cases reported being bitten by dogs. Conclusions: Category III dog bites on lower limbs were the most common type of animal bites presenting to the Anti-Rabies Clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Children have more chances of a bite on head and neck region. Serious and workable efforts have to be made to reduce the incidence and consequences of animal bites.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Raiva/tratamento farmacológico , Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Estudos Retrospectivos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841247

RESUMO

Rabies is a lethal viral disease and dogs are the major disease reservoir in the Philippines. Spatio-temporal variations in environmental factors are known to affect disease dynamics. Some rabies-affected countries considered investigating the role of weather components in driving rabies cases and it has helped them to strategize their control efforts. In this study, cointegration analysis was conducted between the monthly reported rabies cases and the weather components, such as temperature and precipitation, to verify the effect of weather components on rabies incidence in Davao City, Philippines. With the Engle-Granger cointegration tests, we found that rabies cases are cointegrated into each of the weather components. It was further validated, using the Granger causality test, that each weather component predicts the rabies cases and not vice versa. Moreover, we performed the Johansen cointegration test to show that the weather components simultaneously affect the number of rabies cases, which allowed us to estimate a vector-error correction model for rabies incidence as a function of temperature and precipitation. Our analyses showed that canine rabies in Davao City was weather-sensitive, which implies that rabies incidence could be projected using established long-run relationship among reported rabies cases, temperature, and precipitation. This study also provides empirical evidence that can guide local health officials in formulating preventive strategies for rabies control and eradication based on weather patterns.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cães/virologia , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Animais , Causalidade , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva , Análise Espaço-Temporal
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817716

RESUMO

Bhutan is one of the biological hotspots in the world where humans and natural flora and fauna co-exist in close proximity. Bhutan is home to two species of bears: Sloth Bear and Himalayan Black Bear. Human conflicts with bears are reported from all over the country. This study describes the profile of the victims and the pattern of injury resulting from bear attacks and circumstances around human conflicts with bears in Bhutan between 2015 and 2019. This was a cross-sectional study with a review of hospital records of patients treated at the National Referral Hospital from 01 January 2015 till 31 December 2019. Data were extracted into a structured pro forma and entered into EpiData Entry 3.1 and analysed in STATA 13.1. There were thirty-four patients who were provided care for bear maul injuries, with an average annual caseload of 6.8 cases per year. The injury prevalence was 100% and the kill prevalence was 0%. Bear attacks were reported from fourteen of twenty districts of the country. The mean age of the victims was 49 (±13) years. Males (26, 76%) and farmers (26, 76%) were the common victims; the risk of bear attacks was 0.16 per 100,000 farmers per year. The commonest region of the body attacked was the face (29, 85%) and victims were provided emergency and rehabilitative care within and outside the country. Thirty-three victims (97%) were provided post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies. All victims received antibiotics despite the lack of national guidelines on the choice of antibiotics post-bear maul. Human-bear conflict is multi-faceted, puts a considerable strain on bear-conservation efforts and requires multi-disciplinary efforts in the prevention of human injury and socioeconomic losses.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Ursidae/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/psicologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Butão/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/fisiopatologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/cirurgia , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Orelha/lesões , Orelha/fisiopatologia , Orelha/cirurgia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Florestas , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/patologia , Raiva/virologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Ursidae/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1293, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of rabies disease in rural and urban communities of Pakistan. It also identified malpractices after suspected dog bite that might pose a risk for humans contracting rabies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted (n = 1466) on people having different age groups and educational levels in four different geographic regions of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces in Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of people were assessed using a structured questionnaire. We used a bivariate and multivariate analysis to study the association between rabies related mortalities in near or extended family members and different risk behaviors. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that the majority of the juvenile population (less than 18 years of age) were not aware of the clinical signs of rabies in animals. 75% of the total respondents were not vaccinated against rabies, 60% did not seek a doctor's advice after a suspected animal bite, and 55% had inadequate health care facilities for rabies patients in local hospitals. Respondents that had pets at home had not vaccinated (38%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.58) themselves against rabies due to lack of knowledge and awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies (51%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.25). They also tend to not visit doctor after suspected bite (52%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.97), which may had resulted in more deaths (65%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.73) of someone in their near or extended family due to rabies. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge about the nature of rabies disease and prophylaxis has contributed to increase of rabies related deaths. Inadequate health care facilities and poor attitude of not seeking medical attention after suspected dog bite are the major reasons of rabies related deaths. These findings could help in devising a targeted management strategy and awareness program to control and reduce the incidence of human rabies related deaths in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(29): 956-959, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701943

RESUMO

On November 7, 2018, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) reported the first confirmed human rabies death in the state since 1944 (1). The case occurred in a person who had been treated over a period of 19 days at four health care facilities and an emergency medical transport service across three counties and two states. Human rabies is preventable through preexposure or postexposure vaccination but is invariably fatal upon symptom onset. Timely identification of persons who might have been exposed to rabies virus is therefore crucial to administer postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Because of the large number of health care workers who had been involved in the patient's care, a standardized online risk assessment survey was developed by UDOH based on Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations (2). This online tool was evaluated for accuracy, acceptability, and administrative obligation by reviewing the results from the tool and conducting focus group discussions and a follow-up survey. Among 90 health care workers initially identified by the online risk assessment as being potentially exposed to infectious material, 74 were classified as exposed. All 74 health care workers received PEP following consultation with occupational health staff members, indicating a positive predictive value of the assessment tool of 82%. In a follow-up survey, 42 (76%) of the 55 respondents reported that they were satisfied with the assessment process. In focus group discussions, participants suggested that the survey could be improved by providing additional information about rabies exposures because many of them were unfamiliar with human-to-human rabies transmission. This evaluation highlighted the importance of adopting clear communication strategies, demonstrated the benefits of using an online risk assessment during a mass rabies exposure, and provided specific feedback for CDC to improve resources available for states and health care facilities after mass rabies exposures.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Internet , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco/métodos , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Utah/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008478, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692739

RESUMO

A canine rabies epidemic started in early 2015 in Arequipa, Peru and the rabies virus continues to circulate in the dog population. Some city residents who suffer dog bites do not seek care or do not complete indicated post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens, increasing the risk of human rabies. The objectives of our study are to qualitatively assess knowledge about rabies, and preventive practices, such as rabies vaccine administration, following a dog bite. We conduct eight focus group discussions in peri-urban and urban communities with 70 total participants. In our results, we observe low awareness of rabies severity and fatality, and different practices following a dog bite, depending on the community type: for example, whereas participants in the urban communities report cleaning the wound with hydrogen peroxide rather than soap and water, participants in peri-urban areas cover the wound with herbs and hair from the dog that bit them. Misconceptions about rabies vaccines and mistreatment at health centers also commonly prevent initiating or completing PEP. We identify important behavioral and structural barriers and knowledge gaps that limit evidence-based preventive strategies against rabies and may threaten successful prevention of dog-mediated human rabies in this setting.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , População Urbana , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1247-1257, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662391

RESUMO

Since its reintroduction in 2015, rabies has been established as an enzootic disease among the dog population of Arequipa, Peru. Given the unknown rate of dog bites, the risk of human rabies transmission is concerning. Our objective was to estimate the rate of dog bites in the city and to identify factors associated with seeking health care in a medical facility for wound care and rabies prevention follow-up. To this end, we conducted a door-to-door survey with 4,370 adults in 21 urban and 21 peri-urban communities. We then analyzed associations between seeking health care following dog bites and various socioeconomic factors, stratifying by urban and peri-urban localities. We found a high annual rate of dog bites in peri-urban communities (12.4%), which was 2.6 times higher than that in urban areas (4.8%). Among those who were bitten, the percentage of people who sought medical treatment was almost twice as high in urban areas (39.1%) as in peri-urban areas (21.4%).


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Raiva/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Demografia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/virologia , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Zoonoses
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008194, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598388

RESUMO

Rabies virus infections normally cause universally lethal encephalitis across mammals. However, 'abortive infections' which are resolved prior to the onset of lethal disease have been described in bats and a variety of non-reservoir species. Here, we surveyed rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 332 unvaccinated livestock of 5 species from a vampire bat rabies endemic region of southern Peru where livestock are the main food source for bats. We detected rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 11, 5 and 3.6% of cows, goats and sheep respectively and seropositive animals did not die from rabies within two years after sampling. Seroprevalence was correlated with the number of local livestock rabies mortalities reported one year prior but also one year after sample collection. This suggests that serological status of livestock can indicate the past and future levels of rabies risk to non-reservoir hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anti-rabies antibodies among goats and sheep, suggesting widespread abortive infections among livestock in vampire bat rabies endemic areas. Future research should resolve the within-host biology underlying clearance of rabies infections. Cost-effectiveness analyses are also needed to evaluate whether serological monitoring of livestock can be a viable complement to current monitoring of vampire bat rabies risk based on animal mortalities alone.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Remissão Espontânea , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Peru , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Acta Virol ; 64(2): 216-225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551789

RESUMO

Currently, Slovakia is a rabies-free country, but the epizootiological situation of rabies was not always favorable. The main reservoir species of rabies virus in the first half of the last century was the domestic dog. Since 1906, hundreds of cases were reported, of which approximately 90% were infected dogs. The disease had a typical urban character. Since 1929, the number of rabid domestic animals decreased due to the implementation of dog vaccination campaigns in particular parts of Slovakia. From the second half of 1950s, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have become an important reservoir of the RABV. In this time period urban rabies in Slovakia changed into sylvatic form. One effective method of prevention and control of wildlife rabies is an oral rabies vaccination of red foxes. It is carried out in Slovakia since 1993. A detailed development of the rabies epizootiological situation on the territory of the Slovak Republic until the application of oral antirabies immunisation of foxes and the current situation after its performance is the main object of this review. Keywords: rabies; Lyssavirus; red fox; incidence; oral vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cães/virologia , Raposas/virologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Vacinação/veterinária
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 814-822, May-June, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129484

RESUMO

Objetivou-se conhecer o perfil epidemiológico do paciente que buscou atendimento antirrábico pós-exposição associado a acidentes com gatos domésticos, em Belo Horizonte/MG, no período de 2007 a 2016. Realizou-se uma análise exploratória das fichas de notificação do atendimento antirrábico humano do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificações (Sinan). Nos resultados, observou-se que 37,4% das pessoas eram adultas do gênero feminino, com idade entre 20 e 59 anos, 88,7% residentes em área urbana, 26,1% de etnia branca e apenas 31,7% dos pacientes buscaram atendimento antirrábico com até 24 horas da exposição ao vírus rábico. Lesões por mordedura ocorreram em 75,6% dos casos notificados. Quanto às características dos ferimentos, 59,6% foram superficiais, 62,2% ocorreram em mãos/pés e 50,1% foram lesões únicas. Na faixa etária de zero a 10 anos, as regiões anatômicas mãos/pés e cabeça/pescoço/face totalizaram 58,35%. Ressalta-se a necessidade de adoção de ações socioeducativas junto à população, devido ao risco de transmissão de raiva pelo gato, principalmente em áreas em que o vírus rábico circula em populações de morcegos. Sugerem-se melhorias no preenchimento das fichas de notificação do Sinan para melhor compreender o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes que buscam o atendimento antirrábico e, assim, tornar mais eficaz a gestão desse serviço público.(AU)


The objective of this study was to know the epidemiological profile of the patient who sought post-exposure anti-rabies treatment associated with accidents with domestic cats in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Brazil, from 2007 to 2016. An exploratory analysis of the reports on human rabies of the Notification of Injury Information System was performed. In the results, it was observed that 37.4% of the individuals were female adults aged 20-59 years, 88.7% were urban residents, 26.1% were white, and only 31.7% sought anti-rabies care within 24 hours of exposure to the rabies virus. Bite lesions occurred in 75.6%. Regarding the type of wound, 59.6% were superficial; as for the anatomical location, 62.2% occurred in hands / feet and 50.1% were single lesions. It is necessary to adopt socio-educational actions among the population, due to the risk of transmission of the rabies by the cat, especially in areas where the rabies virus circulates in bat populations. Improvements in the completion of the SINAN notification sheets are suggested to better understand the epidemiological profile of patients seeking anti-rabies treatment and thus improve the management of this public service.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Gatos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Raiva/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Brasil/epidemiologia
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