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1.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 213-224, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564729

RESUMO

Since the emergence of rabies on Bali, Indonesia, in 2008, the Indonesian Government and other stakeholders have implemented disease control and prevention activities with the aim of re-securing Bali's freedom from dog-mediated rabies. The authors report on the lessons learned during these efforts, and their applicability to other regions where canine rabies is endemic, as well as to rabies-free populations that are at risk from incursions. To eliminate rabies from Bali will require time and commitment, as well as a combination of approaches employing the principle of One Health. Efforts should be directed towards well-coordinated, highcoverage, annual dog vaccination campaigns using high-quality vaccines, and enhanced surveillance focused on investigations of biting animals. Bali, an island, is an ideal target for achieving freedom from rabies, but the logistics of vaccinating its very large, free-roaming dog population are challenging. Lessons can be drawn from Bali for other large and dense dog populations, where dog management and rabies control appear difficult. Well-trained teams with nets can rapidly catch and vaccinate large numbers of dogs where central-point vaccination is insufficient, and post vaccination surveys of collared dogs can be used to evaluate coverage and target supplementary vaccination. However, careful planning is required to ensure that all communities are reached during such campaigns and that sufficient vaccine is available over the following years. Effective communication strategies are needed to coordinate intersectoral activities, and to keep communities engaged, particularly during the 'end game', when the risk of rabies appears only minimal. An effective One Health approach to eliminate rabies requires long-term planning, multisectoral communication and coordination, and sustained effort, using tried and tested methods.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças do Cão , Saúde Única , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Animais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Indonésia , Vacinação em Massa , Raiva/prevenção & controle
2.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 199-212, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564730

RESUMO

Rabies is a fatal viral disease that causes an estimated 59,000 human deaths each year. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries in Asia. Canine rabies is endemic to Vietnam, which is, however, moving towards the disease's elimination. Many countries, such as Vietnam, have invested tremendous resources in controlling rabies, highlighting the goal of regional and global elimination of this neglected disease. In Vietnam, rabies is recognised as one of five high-priority, zoonotic diseases by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Investment by the government and by international partners for rabies prevention and control has played a substantial role in reducing human rabies deaths from 404 cases in 1992 to 74 cases in 2017. The catalyst for this effort was the Prime Minister's creation of the National Rabies Program in 1996, which led to increased support and resources for rabies prevention and control. Interventions carried out since then include the expansion of post-exposure prophylaxis centres throughout the country, the introduction or revision of key legislation and guidelines, and improved multisectoral One Health collaboration. In addition, support from international partners, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has helped to increase awareness, manage dog populations more effectively, and improve Vietnam's surveillance and diagnostic capabilities. To pursue the goal of eliminating dog-mediated rabies in Vietnam, political commitment is crucial. Resources must be made available to enforce the regulations and guidelines that will enable Vietnam to achieve greater canine rabies vaccination coverage. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the animal and human health systems in Vietnam, as well as past, current and future directions of rabies prevention and control.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças do Cão , Raiva , Animais , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
3.
Rev Prat ; 69(4): 423-428, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626500

RESUMO

Rabies is a zoonosis of viral origin responsible for tens of thousands of human deaths each year in countries where dog rabies is not controlled and where post-exposure prophylaxis -PEP- is not available to populations the most vulnerable. In France, the epidemiology of rabies has changed for 20 years and our territory is currently declared free from rabies in terrestrial animals since 2001. This favorable epidemiology no longer justifies the administration of PEP in individuals exposed to an animal -except bats- in France except in French Guiana because of the risk of desmodin-type rabies in South America.


Assuntos
Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Cães , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/transmissão , Zoonoses
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489090

RESUMO

Introduction: Animal bite injuries are a common public health concern in Uganda. We sought to characterize animal bite injuries among patients presenting to Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: This was a cross sectional study from 1st September to 30th November 2011. Participants were animal bite injury victims presenting to the accident and emergency (A&E) unit at Mulago hospital and were consecutively enrolled into the study. Socio-demographics, severity and patterns of injury, health seeking and dog handling behaviours were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize participant characteristics and the animal bite injuries. Poisson regression model's incident rate ratios (IRR) was used to explore the relationship of the number of days to accessing treatment at Mulago hospital with; a) received prior first aid, b) animal bite injury sustained during day time, c) unknown dog and d) victim resident in Kampala. Data were analyzed using STATA version 12.0 and statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results: Of 25,420 patients that presented to the A&E unit during the study period, 207 (0.8%) had animal bite injuries, mean age 22.7 years (SD 14.3), 64.7% male, and 40.1% were <18 years. Majority 199 (96.1%) were bitten by a lone unrestrained and un-signaled dog that had bitten someone else in 22.2% of cases, and eight victims (0.4%) were attacked in canine gangs of 2-5 dogs. Rabies vaccination was confirmed in only 23 dogs (11.1%) as 109 (52.7%) were unknown to the victims or the communities. One hundred and eighteen victims (57.0%) sustained the dog bites within Kampala district whilst the rest occurred near or far from Kampala district, and the victims especially referred to access anti-rabies vaccine. Of 207, 189 victims (91.3%) presented within 2.6 days (SD ± 4.3). Two hundred victims (96.6%) sustained extremity injuries while the rest had injuries to other body parts. All injuries were minor and managed on out-patient basis with wound dressing, analgesics, prophylactic antibiotics and anti-rabies vaccination. Victims who received prior first aid had a rate of 1.7 times greater for seeking treatment at Mulago hospital (IRR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1) compared to those that had no prior first aid. Participants who sustained the animal bite injuries during day time had a rate of 1.6 times greater for seeking treatment at Mulago hospital (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1) compared to those that sustained injuries at other times. Participants bitten by unknown dog and participants residing in Kampala had IRR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9 and IRR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8 respectively of accessing treatment at Mulago hospital compared to bitten by known dog and not residing in Kampala. Conclusion: Dog bites injuries from unrestrained, un-signaled dogs are the commonest source of animal bite injuries especially among children (<18 years). Vaccination against rabies was only confirmed for a very small number of dogs, as majority were unknown and likely stray dogs. Government and public sensitization is urgently required to limit stray dogs, vaccinate dogs and restrain them to prevent a grave probability of a looming canine rabies epidemic.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição de Poisson , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(8): 804-810, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378040

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the cost-utility of different immunization strategies for rabies in China, and to provide a reference for determining the optimal immunization strategy. Methods: The system dynamics model was used to simulate the epidemic of canine rabies and a decision tree model was conducted to analysis different immune strategies. Relevant probabilities were obtained through literature search and on-site investigation. Sensitivity analysis was used to explore the important influenced factors. Results: At baseline, from a social perspective, 70% vaccination of dogs was the optimal strategy compared to current vaccination strategy (43% vaccination in dogs, human category-Ⅱ exposure vaccination/category-Ⅲ exposure vaccination combined with RIG). The total cost was 14 084 354 CNY, and the total utility value was 22 078 616.23 QALYs, and the incremental cost-utility ratio was-62 148 147 CNY/QALY; if human vaccination was considered, 55% vaccination of dogs combined with strategy one was the optimal strategy, its incremental cost-utility ratio was-444 620 557 CNY/QALY. The probability that an injured dog carries rabies virus was the most sensitive parameter. When it was greater than 0.005 03, strategy four was the optimal strategy. When it was less than 82/100 000, strategy one was the optimal strategy; when it was between 82/100 000 and 120/100 000, strategy two was the optimal strategy; when it was between 120/100 000 and 503/100 000, strategy two was the optimal strategy. Conclusion: It was conducive to increase the vaccination coverage of canine for the prevention and control of rabies.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , China , Árvores de Decisões , Cães , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Raiva/economia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/economia , Vacinação
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(7): 668-679, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288336

RESUMO

Rabies is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by lyssavirus and characterized by central nervous system symptoms. The fatality rate of rabies is almost 100%. About 59 000 cases die of rabies worldwide every year, mainly in Asia and Africa. China is an epidemic country of rabies. Grade II and III exposures are the main types of rabies exposures in China. Standardized post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can prevent rabies almost 100%. Human Rabies Vaccine Technical Working Group, National Immunization Advisory Committee and invited experts reached an expert consensus on PEP by referring to the World Health Organization's position paper on rabies vaccine in 2018 and related research progress in recent.


Assuntos
Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Consenso , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem
7.
Vet Ital ; 55(2): 163-168, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274178

RESUMO

Rabies is one of the world's major zoonoses. Controlling rabies continues to pose a major public health challenge. The issues surrounding dog bites and the vaccination of dogs against rabies are important to consider in implementing programmes to control the spread of rabies. This is particularly true in Ogoja, Nigeria, where accessibility to adequate health care and veterinary medical services, and the management of canine populations are challenging. This retrospective study analyses factors associated with dog bites to humans and anti-rabies vaccination in dogs that were reported to a State Veterinary Hospital in Ogoja. Factors such as the age and sex of the dog bite victim, and season and site of bite, as well as the age, sex, breed, and vaccination history of the biting dogs were obtained for a period of 11 years (2001-2011). Out of 183 dog bite cases, 79 (43.2%) were to persons > 20 years of age. Anatomically, the majority of bite wounds - 20 (64.5%) - occurred on the lower extremities of the body. The seasonal distribution of bites indicates a higher frequency in the months of October and March (dry season). A total of 687 (43.9%) dogs were vaccinated out of 1,562 cases presented within the period of study. The highest vaccination rate was within the ages of 3-12 months (464 dogs, or 67.5%). In this study, dog bites were a common occurrence among male children > 20 years old, and the frequency of bites was high during the dry season. Proper sensitisation around how to manage dog bites and increase anti-rabies vaccination of dogs as a means of controlling the disease are recommended.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303958

RESUMO

Introduction: Dog-mediated human rabies remains a major public health threat in Ghana. Dog population structure surveys are pre-requisites for appropriate planning for rabies vaccination; however, this information is unavailable in Ghana. This study describes dog population structure in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods: A household cross sectional survey was conducted from January through April 2016 in Ayeduase and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) campus using a structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 1319 households were surveyed out of which 35.1% (463/1319) kept dogs. We recorded 816 dogs from 463 households, giving dog to household ratio of 1.8:1. Respondents acquired 71% (579/816) of dogs through purchase. Of 2065 persons in Ayeduase, 406 owned dogs, resulting in man to dog ratio of 5.1:1. Male dogs represented 62.9% (513/816) while those aged a year and above recorded 70%. Most of the dogs were not restricted (80.3%) and 49.9% were allowed to enter neighbors' households. Dog rabies vaccination coverage was 28.1% and 64.9% in Ayeduase and KNUST campus respectively. Respondents (87.8%) from Ayeduase knew dog bite was the main means of rabies transmission, however, about 65% believed in traditional ways of treatment such as concoction, herbs and consumption of offending dogs' organs. Conclusion: The high dog to household-human ratio, increased roaming dog population and low vaccination coverage is of concern to rabies. Respondents' knowledge on their dogs is an indication of accessibility for vaccination. Obtained results can be useful for rabies vaccination planning in Kumasi and other comparable settings in Ghana.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Características da Família , Feminino , Gana , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(5): 526-530, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177732

RESUMO

Objective: To understand epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2017 and provide evidence for the development of strategy of human rabies control and prevention. Methods: The descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted based on the epidemic data from Chinese Infectious Disease Surveillance Reporting System, sentinel surveillance system in 6 provinces (Hunan, Guangxi, Anhui, Guizhou, Jiangsu and Shandong) and National Bureau of Statistics in 2017. Results: A total of 516 human rabies cases, including 502 deaths, were reported by 27 provinces in 2017 with the morbidity rate and mortality rate of 0.037/100 000 and 0.036/100 000, respectively. The case number and death number decreased by 19.88% (128/644) and 15.20% (90/592) respectively compared with 2016. Rabies epidemics were mainly found in southern and central areas. The first 5 provinces reporting high case numbers were Hunan (71 cases), Henan (52 cases), Guangxi (41 cases), Anhui (39 cases) and Hubei (39 cases), their cases accounted for 46.90% (242/516) of the total reported cases in China. Rabies mainly occurred in summer and autumn, and the majority of patients were farmers, students and children outside child care settings. The male to female ratio of the cases was 2.46 ∶ 1 (367 ∶ 149). Cases was reported in all age groups, and more cases occurred in middle aged and old adults than in adolescents. Questionnaires survey was conducted for 186 cases, the results indicated that 94.89% (167/176) of exposures were caused by dog bites. The exposure degree was mainly category Ⅲ, accounting for 68.86% (115/167), and only 6.02% (10/166) of cases were immunized after exposure. The median of latent period of these cases was 72 days. Conclusions: By 2017, the human rabies incidence in China had declined consecutively for ten years, more cases were reported in southern area than in northern area. The case number showed downward trends in provinces with high incidences and fluctuant increase in provinces with low incidence. Rabies cases mainly occurred in rural areas, and most cases were men and farmers. Low rate of post exposure prophylaxis, low rates of vaccination and passive immunization product injection were main causes for the onset of human rabies. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for human rabies, especially in rural areas, health education about treatment after rabies exposure and expend the coverage of canine immunization.


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias , Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/etnologia , Raiva/mortalidade , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(23): 524-528, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194721

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Each year, rabies causes approximately 59,000 deaths worldwide, including approximately two deaths in the United States. Before 1960, dogs were a common reservoir of rabies in the United States; however, increasingly, species of wildlife (e.g., bats, raccoons) are the main reservoirs. This report characterizes human rabies deaths, summarizes trends in rabies mortality, and highlights current rabies risks in the United States. METHODS: Rabies trends in the United States during 1938-2018 were analyzed using national rabies surveillance data. Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project for 2006-2014 were used to estimate the number of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) visits per 100,000 persons during 2017-2018. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' average sales price data were used to estimate PEP costs. RESULTS: From 1960 to 2018, a total of 125 human rabies cases were reported in the United States; 36 (28%) were attributed to dog bites during international travel. Among the 89 infections acquired in the United States, 62 (70%) were attributed to bats. In 2018, approximately 55,000 persons sought PEP after contact with a potentially rabid animal. CONCLUSIONS AND COMMENTS: In the United States, wildlife rabies, especially in bats, continues to pose a risk to humans. Travelers also might be exposed to canine rabies in countries where the disease is still present; increased awareness of rabies while traveling abroad is needed. Vaccinating pets, avoiding contact with wildlife, and seeking medical care if one is bitten or scratched by an animal are the most effective ways to prevent rabies. Understanding the need for timely administration of PEP to prevent death is critical.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Raiva/mortalidade , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(5): 526-532, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119884

RESUMO

The oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programme is the most widespread vaccination programme that is implemented in the European Union and targets wildlife diseases. The size of the project requires significant financial resources, so a cost-benefit analysis is necessary to establish the economic value of the project. We summarized all ORV costs during the period 2011-2016 in Croatia, calculated all established benefits and presented the cost-benefit ratio (CBR). Additionally, we analysed all components included in the ORV and rabies control programme (surveillance, preventive human treatment and vaccination of dogs) to find possibilities to increase the benefits. According to our results, in the period 2011-2016, the CBR was only 0.05, and the majority of the cost was derived from the preventive vaccination of dogs (72.3%). With the implementation of 2- or 3-year vaccination intervals, the CBR can be increased to 1.46 or 1.92, respectively, confirming positive economic value. This study shows the importance of analysing all rabies control and eradication components based on the specific characteristics of a particular country to determine the factors that can be modified to potentially improve the benefits of ORV.


Assuntos
União Europeia/economia , Raposas/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Análise Custo-Benefício , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/economia , Vacinação/métodos
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007377, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116732

RESUMO

We present a new modeling tool that can be used to maximize the impact of canine rabies management resources that are available at the local level. The model is accessible through a web-based interface that allows for flexibility in the management strategies that can be investigated. Rabies vaccination, sterilization, chemo-contraception, and euthanasia can be specified and limited to specific demographic groups. Additionally, we allowed for considerable complexity in the specification of management costs. In many areas, the costs of contacting additional dogs increases as management effort increases, and this can have important strategic implications. We illustrated the application of the model by examining several alternative management strategies in an area of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Our results based on this dog population suggested that puppies should be vaccinated and sterilization would not be optimal if the spatial extent of management is not large (and perhaps not even then). Furthermore, given a sufficient budget, it was evident that vaccination campaigns should be repeated annually.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/economia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Modelos Econômicos , Raiva/economia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , África do Sul , Vacinação
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(4): e0007384, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034474

RESUMO

Canine rabies is endemic in urban India. A questionnaire was administered to 204 residents of the urbanised municipality of Panchkula in north India to assess the influence of gender, age, family size, social status and dog ownership, over the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards rabies control and free-roaming dogs (FRD) in their locality. Bivariate analyses revealed significant knowledge gaps regarding crucial information on the control and transmission of rabies. Multivariable logistic regression models found that the respondents with a high/middle socio-economic status were likely to be more knowledgeable than those from low socio-economic levels (OR 3.03, 95%CI 1.5-6.0, p = 0.001). Households with children ≤14 years of age were likely to be lacking in knowledge about rabies compared to households with older or no children (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9, p = 0.04). The attitudes and practices of the respondents towards rabies control was positive in households with a high/middle socio-economic status (OR 3.4, 95%CI 1.7-7.2, p = 0.0008) but poor in older (≥ 35 years) participants (OR 0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.7, p = 0.001). It is concluded that rabies awareness campaigns should be developed and conducted to target sectors of the urban community such as those belonging to lower socio-economic sections and schools to improve the residents' knowledge and practices towards rabies. Educating dog owners about sterilising their pets is also recommended to alter the attitudes of the residents towards FRD population control.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Cães , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/etiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Raiva/transmissão , População Rural , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4518163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008105

RESUMO

Inactivation of rabies virus is essential for rabies vaccine preparation where the inactivating compound that is currently recommended for rabies vaccine preparation is ß-propiolactone (ß-PL). This compound is considered better than phenol and formalin but it is expensive and potentially carcinogenic. Data revealed that Ascorbic acid (AA) with cupric ions could yield complete and irreversible inactivation of rabies virus without adversely affecting its antigenicity. Additionally, the results of testing the vaccine potency with the selected inactivating compounds were comparable (P<0.05), and ED50 was higher than the recommended World Health Organization (WHO) limits. The use of HemaGel (plasma substitute) for testing vaccine stabilization was compared with the currently used vaccine stabilizers (human albumin and lactose). HemaGel yielded better stability than the other tested stabilizers. Monitoring of cellular and humoral immune responses indicated that both the total IgG level against rabies vaccine and the IFN and IL5 levels obtained with the HemaGel-stabilized vaccines were higher than those obtained with human albumin- and lactose-stabilized vaccine candidates.


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina/efeitos dos fármacos , Propiolactona/farmacologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/farmacologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Albuminas/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Cercopithecus aethiops , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Interleucina-5 , Lactose/química , Propiolactona/química , Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/química , Vacinas Antirrábicas/genética , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Potência de Vacina , Células Vero/virologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(4): e0007305, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933984

RESUMO

Rabies remains a disease of significant zoonotic and economic concern in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan. Rabies outbreaks in livestock threaten the livelihoods of subsistence farming communities and pose a potential public health threat. As a part of identifying approaches to prevent rabies in cattle, a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) survey was conducted among cattle owners in selected rural areas of the southern rabies high-risk zone and low-risk zone in eastern Bhutan. Between March and April 2017, 562 cattle owners (281 in the east and 281 in the south) were interviewed using a questionnaire. Eighty-eight percent of the participants had heard of rabies but only 39% of the participants who had heard of rabies had adequate knowledge about rabies. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that residing in the south [OR = 9.25 (95% CI: 6.01-14.53)] and having seen a rabies case [OR = 2.46 (95% CI: 1.6-3.82)] were significantly associated with having adequate knowledge about rabies. Based on our scoring criteria, 65% of the total participants who had heard of rabies had a favorable attitude towards rabies control and prevention programs. The participants residing in the east were two times more likely to have a favourable attitude than their counterparts in the south [OR = 2.08 (95% CI: 1.43-3.05)]. More than 70% of the participants reported engaging in farm activities such as examining the oral cavity of sick cattle and assisting cattle during parturition. Only 25% of the participants reported using personal protective equipment while undertaking these activities. Despite a high level of rabies awareness, we observed that there is a lack of comprehensive knowledge about rabies regarding susceptible hosts, transmission routes, the health outcome of rabies infection in humans, and appropriate health-seeking behaviours. This study highlights the need to strengthen rabies education programs in rural communities to address the knowledge gaps that have been identified.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/veterinária , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Conscientização , Butão/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fazendas , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(646): 780-785, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969491

RESUMO

Animal and human bites are a common cause of admission to the emergency room and the infections are common, although they are often trivialized. Complications can range from simple cellulitis to septic shock especially in asplenic patients with Capnoyctophaga canimorsus infection. Other less common infections are possible such as rat-bite fever, leptospirosis, tularemia, and evaluation of post-exposure prophylaxis (anti-tetanus, anti-rabies, HIV, HBV) is essential. Antibiotic prophylaxis remains controversial but is recommended for certain groups of patients and must cover common bite pathogens.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Mordeduras Humanas , Raiva , Tétano , Animais , Humanos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Tétano/prevenção & controle
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 321, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Most fatal rabies cases, especially in children, result from dog bites and occur in low-income countries, such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa. Rabies can be controlled through mass dog vaccination and human deaths prevented through timely and appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). As access to appropriate PEP remains a serious challenge for bite-victims, the aim of this study was to understand the use of PEP, to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices with respect to rabies and to identify risk factors related to non-compliance with PEP to define recommendations for improving PEP in Senegal. METHODS: This study included patients with suspicion of rabies exposure who sought PEP at the Pasteur Institute of Dakar from April 2013 to March 2014. Patients with rabies clinical symptoms, those who had already started PEP and those with exposure outside Senegal or for more than 3 months were excluded. Data on risk factors and propensity to seek and complete PEP were collected using questionnaires and phone interviews. The association between acceptability and compliance with PEP and other independent variables were evaluated using multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 905 patients enrolled into the study, 67% were male (sex ratio M/F, 2) and 46%, children under 15 years of age. Exposures by animal bites represented 87%, whereas the remainder were due to scratches or contact; 76% were classified as WHO category III and 88% were due to dogs. Among these patients, 7% refused to start PEP and 54.5% completed the full schedule. Main factors reported by non-compliant patients were vaccine costs and affordability, and knowledge on status of biting animal. CONCLUSION: This study shows that despite the awareness about rabies dangers and prevention, only half of the patients completed the full PEP schedule. The following recommendations, such as free of charge prophylaxis or intradermal regimens as an alternative to intramuscular regimens, should be considered to increase the adherence to PEP at the Pasteur Institute of Dakar and in Senegal.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Custos e Análise de Custo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/economia , Fatores de Risco , Senegal , Adulto Jovem
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(4): 1693-1700, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985065

RESUMO

Dog rabies and human rabies transmitted by dogs can be prevented through adequate dog vaccination coverage. For surveillance purposes, this coverage must be calculated using accurate population size estimates to avoid misleading conclusions. We used data from a Brazilian national survey comprising 64,348 households, to calculate point estimates and confidence intervals of the size, household density, and rabies vaccination coverage of the owned-dog population in Brazilian federative units. We also evaluated the precision of owned-dog population size estimates, based on the extrapolation among different areas, of the mean number of dogs per household and the human/dog ratio. The estimated owned-dog population size in Brazil was 52,198,324 (95% CI = 51,028,583-53,368,066) and the dog vaccination coverage was 80.09% (95% CI = 79.09%-81.09%). Both estimates had marked variation across Brazilian federative units and urban/rural strata. Only two of the 27 federative units had a confidence interval in rural vaccination coverage above 70% and six did not pass this threshold in their urban stratum. For the first time, we reported probabilistic estimates for an entire country and its main administrative areas. The estimated coverage for the country was high because the most populated federative unit also had high coverage. The mean number of dogs per household and the human/dog ratio were useful as survey estimates to characterize owned-dog density. However, the simple extrapolation of these parameters resulted in estimates of owned-dog population sizes with large errors (up to 254%) that must be interpreted with caution to avoid misleading conclusions. To evaluate the dog population size, we recommend the use of probabilistic sampling designs instead of simple human/dog ratio extrapolations, and the inclusion of animal-related questions in censuses and national surveys to obtain reliable estimates to support improvements in animal and human health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Cães , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Características da Família , Propriedade , Densidade Demográfica , Vigilância da População , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 49(4): 629-641, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961994

RESUMO

Desensitization to rabies is a result of successfully eliminating canine rabies in the United States, which occurred in 2007; however, the need for mandatory rabies vaccination in pets remains. Rabies cases are rare in comparison with other vaccine-preventable diseases in companion animals; however, because it is a zoonotic disease with the highest case fatality rate of any infectious disease demands the establishment of strict laws for disease prevention. Preventive strategies include addressing current concerns in consideration of disease surveillance, appropriate vaccination recommendations, and local regulations protecting public health.


Assuntos
Animais de Estimação , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem
20.
Biologicals ; 59: 56-61, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898479

RESUMO

The Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) is a standard assay used to detect and assess the titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in blood sera. To simplify the multistep RFFIT procedure by eliminating the immunostaining step, we generated a new recombinant RV expressing a green fluorescent protein (rRV-GFP) and assess its suitability for quantifying RVNA. We rescued the rRV-GFP virus from plasmid DNA carrying a full-length genome of the CVS-N2c strain of RV in which the eGFP gene was inserted between the glycoprotein and RNA-polymerase genes. The recombinant virus was genetically stable and grew efficiently in appropriate cells expressing sufficient GFP fluorescence to detect directly 20 h post infection (hpi). We evaluated the feasibility of using rRV-GFP in RFFIT by comparing RVNA titers in 27 serum samples measured by conventional RFFIT and RFFIT-GFP. A linear regression analysis of the data demonstrated a good agreement between these two methods (r = 0.9776) including results with samples having RVNA titers close to the minimally acceptable vaccine potency threshold (0.5 IU/ml). Study results showed that the rRV-GFP virus could replace the CVS-11 challenge virus currently used in the conventional RFFIT and enabling more rapid, simpler, and less expensive detection and quantitation of RVNA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fluorescência , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Cobaias , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Camundongos , Testes de Neutralização , Coelhos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/metabolismo , Recombinação Genética
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