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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 778, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International organizations advocate for the elimination of dog-mediated rabies, but there is only limited guidance on interpreting surveillance data for managing elimination programmes. With the regional programme in Latin America approaching elimination of dog-mediated rabies, we aimed to develop a tool to evaluate the programme's performance and generate locally-tailored rabies control programme management guidance to overcome remaining obstacles. METHODS: We developed and validated a robust algorithm to classify progress towards rabies elimination within sub-national administrative units, which we applied to surveillance data from Brazil and Mexico. The method combines criteria that are easy to understand, including logistic regression analysis of case detection time series, assessment of rabies virus variants, and of incursion risk. Subjecting the algorithm to robustness testing, we further employed simulated data sub-sampled at differing levels of case detection to assess the algorithm's performance and sensitivity to surveillance quality. RESULTS: Our tool demonstrated clear epidemiological transitions in Mexico and Brazil: most states progressed rapidly towards elimination, but a few regressed due to incursions and control lapses. In 2015, dog-mediated rabies continued to circulate in the poorest states, with foci remaining in only 1 of 32 states in Mexico, and 2 of 27 in Brazil, posing incursion risks to the wider region. The classification tool was robust in determining epidemiological status irrespective of most levels of surveillance quality. In endemic settings, surveillance would need to detect less than 2.5% of all circulating cases to result in misclassification, whereas in settings where incursions become the main source of cases the threshold detection level for correct classification should not be less than 5%. CONCLUSION: Our tool provides guidance on how to progress effectively towards elimination targets and tailor strategies to local epidemiological situations, while revealing insights into rabies dynamics. Post-campaign assessments of dog vaccination coverage in endemic states, and enhanced surveillance to verify and maintain freedom in states threatened by incursions were identified as priorities to catalyze progress towards elimination. Our finding suggests genomic surveillance should become increasingly valuable during the endgame for discriminating circulating variants and pinpointing sources of incursions.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Algoritmos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cães , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Vacinação em Massa , México/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cobertura Vacinal
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1281-1288, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913169

RESUMO

Aims: This study aimed to obtain data on the knowledge, behavior, and immunization status of veterinary students about rabies. Methods and Materials: The population of this descriptive study consisted of all the 770 students of a veterinary faculty (response rate 85.7%; n = 660). A survey was conducted querying the knowledge and behaviors of the participants about rabies. Results: Of the surveyed students 28.6% (n = 189) stated that they were exposed to animal bites at least once, and 50.3% (n = 95) of these students stated that they were vaccinated following the exposure. Of the participants, 23.6% (n = 156) indicated that they received protective rabies treatment (prophylactic vaccination). About 32.9% (n = 217) of the students taking part in the study had pets at home. Around 70.7% (n = 153) of these students stated that their animals were vaccinated against rabies. A significant relationship was found between having a pet and being bitten by an animal (P < 0.001). 50.5% (n = 333) of the students who participated in the study were competent in knowledge, while 48.3% were competent in behavior. Students competent in knowledge or behavior were considerably more in the clinical classes compared to preclinical classes. A significant relationship in favor of men was found between the sexes concerning both knowledge and behavior levels. Conclusions: The study revealed deficiencies in the students' awareness levels regarding rabies. Ascertaining a sufficient amount of theory and practice courses on rabies in the veterinary faculty curriculum, starting from earlier classes will contribute to the knowledge and behaviors of the students.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Cães , Educação em Veterinária , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Raiva/veterinária , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239090, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956373

RESUMO

In rabies endemic areas, appropriate management of dog bites is critical in human rabies prevention. Victims must immediately wash bite wound for 15 minutes with water, soap, and a disinfectant before seeking medical care. This study investigated the epidemiology of dog bites and the determinants of compliance to these pre-clinical guidelines requirements among dog bite victims from high rabies-burden areas of Wakiso and Kampala, Uganda. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods study design was used. Quantitative data were collected from 376 dog-bite patients at two healthcare facilities. Qualitative data were also collected through 13 in-depth interviews with patients, healthcare workers, herbalists, and veterinarians. Qualitative data were analyzed using a deductive thematic approach. Generalized linear models were used to determine factors associated with compliance. Nearly half (190, 51%) of the patients were from Wakiso District and 293 (77.9%) had grade II wounds. Most of the wounds (171, 45.5%) were on the legs. Two-thirds of the bites occurred in public places. Only 70 (19%) of the bite patients had complied with pre-clinical guidelines. Nearly half of the patients had applied substances that were not recommended e.g. herbs (47/193), antiseptics (46/193), "black stone" (25/193), and unknown creams (10/193). Factors negatively associated with compliance included: being aged 15 years or older, adjPR = 0.70 (0.47-0.92) and knowing the dog owner, adjPR = 0.65 (0.36-0.93). However, attainment of secondary or higher education, adjPR = 1.76 (1.24-3.79), being in employment, adjPR = 1.48 (1.09-2.31), perception that the dog was sick, adjPR = 1.47 (1.02-2.72) and knowledge about the dog's subsequent victim(s) adjPR = 0.35 (0.17-0.70) were positively associated with compliance. High occurrence of dog bites in public places by free-roaming dogs suggests the need for deliberate promotion of responsible dog ownership. Additionally, targeted health education may be required to improve the low compliance to pre-clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Cães , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Cães/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1293, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of rabies disease in rural and urban communities of Pakistan. It also identified malpractices after suspected dog bite that might pose a risk for humans contracting rabies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted (n = 1466) on people having different age groups and educational levels in four different geographic regions of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces in Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of people were assessed using a structured questionnaire. We used a bivariate and multivariate analysis to study the association between rabies related mortalities in near or extended family members and different risk behaviors. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that the majority of the juvenile population (less than 18 years of age) were not aware of the clinical signs of rabies in animals. 75% of the total respondents were not vaccinated against rabies, 60% did not seek a doctor's advice after a suspected animal bite, and 55% had inadequate health care facilities for rabies patients in local hospitals. Respondents that had pets at home had not vaccinated (38%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.58) themselves against rabies due to lack of knowledge and awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies (51%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.25). They also tend to not visit doctor after suspected bite (52%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.97), which may had resulted in more deaths (65%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.73) of someone in their near or extended family due to rabies. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge about the nature of rabies disease and prophylaxis has contributed to increase of rabies related deaths. Inadequate health care facilities and poor attitude of not seeking medical attention after suspected dog bite are the major reasons of rabies related deaths. These findings could help in devising a targeted management strategy and awareness program to control and reduce the incidence of human rabies related deaths in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841247

RESUMO

Rabies is a lethal viral disease and dogs are the major disease reservoir in the Philippines. Spatio-temporal variations in environmental factors are known to affect disease dynamics. Some rabies-affected countries considered investigating the role of weather components in driving rabies cases and it has helped them to strategize their control efforts. In this study, cointegration analysis was conducted between the monthly reported rabies cases and the weather components, such as temperature and precipitation, to verify the effect of weather components on rabies incidence in Davao City, Philippines. With the Engle-Granger cointegration tests, we found that rabies cases are cointegrated into each of the weather components. It was further validated, using the Granger causality test, that each weather component predicts the rabies cases and not vice versa. Moreover, we performed the Johansen cointegration test to show that the weather components simultaneously affect the number of rabies cases, which allowed us to estimate a vector-error correction model for rabies incidence as a function of temperature and precipitation. Our analyses showed that canine rabies in Davao City was weather-sensitive, which implies that rabies incidence could be projected using established long-run relationship among reported rabies cases, temperature, and precipitation. This study also provides empirical evidence that can guide local health officials in formulating preventive strategies for rabies control and eradication based on weather patterns.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cães/virologia , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Animais , Causalidade , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva , Análise Espaço-Temporal
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008497, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845886

RESUMO

Current recommendations for the elimination of canine-mediated human rabies focus on mass dog vaccination as the most feasible and cost-effective strategy. However, attempts to control rabies are often combined with canine surgical sterilisation programmes. The added value of sterilisation is widely debated. A systematic review was undertaken to compare the outcomes and impact of vaccination and sterilisation programmes with vaccination only programmes. A systematic search of three electronic databases (CAB Abstracts, Medline and Global Health) and grey literature was performed. From 8696 abstracts found, 5554 unique studies were identified, and 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Eight described vaccination only programmes and eight described vaccination and sterilisation programmes. Indicators of impact measured were dog bites and/or doses of post-exposure prophylaxis administered; numbers of dog and/or human rabies cases; dog population demographic changes; changes in health and welfare of dogs, and indicators related to human behaviour change. The studies were contextually very diverse, programmes being implemented were complex, and there was variation in measurement and reporting of key indicators. Therefore, it was difficult to compare the two types of intervention, and impossible to make an evaluation of the role of sterilisation, using this evidence. Given the large number of vaccination and sterilisation programmes conducted globally, the lack of studies available for review highlights a gap in data collection or reporting, essential for impact assessment. There are several knowledge gaps concerning the impact of the sterilisation component alone, as well as subsequent effects on rabies transmission and control. Prospective studies comparing the outcomes and impact of the two interventions would be required in order to establish any additional contribution of sterilisation, as well as the underlying mechanisms driving any changes. In the absence of such evidence, the priority for rabies control objectives should be implementation of mass vaccination, as currently recommended by the World Health Organisation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Esterilização Reprodutiva/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Zoonoses
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(29): 956-959, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701943

RESUMO

On November 7, 2018, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) reported the first confirmed human rabies death in the state since 1944 (1). The case occurred in a person who had been treated over a period of 19 days at four health care facilities and an emergency medical transport service across three counties and two states. Human rabies is preventable through preexposure or postexposure vaccination but is invariably fatal upon symptom onset. Timely identification of persons who might have been exposed to rabies virus is therefore crucial to administer postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Because of the large number of health care workers who had been involved in the patient's care, a standardized online risk assessment survey was developed by UDOH based on Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations (2). This online tool was evaluated for accuracy, acceptability, and administrative obligation by reviewing the results from the tool and conducting focus group discussions and a follow-up survey. Among 90 health care workers initially identified by the online risk assessment as being potentially exposed to infectious material, 74 were classified as exposed. All 74 health care workers received PEP following consultation with occupational health staff members, indicating a positive predictive value of the assessment tool of 82%. In a follow-up survey, 42 (76%) of the 55 respondents reported that they were satisfied with the assessment process. In focus group discussions, participants suggested that the survey could be improved by providing additional information about rabies exposures because many of them were unfamiliar with human-to-human rabies transmission. This evaluation highlighted the importance of adopting clear communication strategies, demonstrated the benefits of using an online risk assessment during a mass rabies exposure, and provided specific feedback for CDC to improve resources available for states and health care facilities after mass rabies exposures.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Internet , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco/métodos , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Utah/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008260, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 59,000 people die from rabies annually, with 99% of those deaths attributable to bites from domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). This preventable Neglected Tropical Disease has a large impact across continental Africa, especially for rural populations living in close contact with livestock and wildlife. Mass vaccinations of domestic dogs are effective at eliminating rabies but require large amounts of resources, planning, and political will to implement. Grassroots campaigns provide an alternative method to successful implementation of rabies control but remain understudied in their effectiveness to eliminate the disease from larger regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on the development, implementation, and effectiveness of a grassroots mass dog rabies vaccination campaign in Kenya, the Laikipia Rabies Vaccination Campaign. During 2015-2017, a total of 13,155 domestic dogs were vaccinated against rabies in 17 communities covering approximately 1500 km2. Based on an estimated population size of 34,275 domestic dogs, percent coverages increased across years, from 2% in 2015 to 24% in 2017, with only 3 of 38 community-years of vaccination exceeding the 70% target. The average cost of vaccinating an animal was $3.44 USD with in-kind contributions and $7.44 USD without in-kind contributions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The evolution of the Laikipia Rabies Vaccination Campaign from a localized volunteer-effort to a large-scale program attempting to eliminate rabies at the landscape scale provides a unique opportunity to examine successes, failures, and challenges facing grassroots campaigns. Success, in the form of vaccinating more dogs across the study area, was relatively straightforward to achieve. However, lack of effective post-vaccination monitoring and education programs, limited funding, and working in diverse community types appeared to hinder achievement of 70% coverage levels. These results indicate that grassroots campaigns will inevitably be faced with a philosophical question regarding the value of local impacts versus their contributions to a larger effort to eliminate rabies at the regional, country, or global scale.


Assuntos
Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Custos e Análise de Custo , Cães , Humanos , Quênia , Vacinação em Massa/economia , Densidade Demográfica , Voluntários
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008459, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667913

RESUMO

Rabies, caused by RNA viruses in the Genus Lyssavirus, is the most fatal of all infectious diseases. This neglected zoonosis remains a major public health problem in developing countries, causing the death of an estimated 25,000-159,000 people each year, with more than half of them in children. The high incidence of human rabies in spite of effective vaccines is mainly linked to the lack of compliance with the complicated administration schedule, inadequacies of the community public health system for local administration by the parenteral route and the overall costs of the vaccine. The goal of our work was the development of a simple, affordable and effective vaccine strategy to prevent human rabies virus infection. This next generation vaccine is based on a replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus vector belonging to group C, ChAd155-RG, which encodes the rabies glycoprotein (G). We demonstrate here that a single dose of this vaccine induces protective efficacy in a murine model of rabies challenge and elicits strong and durable neutralizing antibody responses in vaccinated non-human primates. Importantly, we demonstrate that one dose of a commercial rabies vaccine effectively boosts the neutralizing antibody responses induced by ChAd155-RG in vaccinated monkeys, showing the compatibility of the novel vectored vaccine with the current post-exposure prophylaxis in the event of rabies virus exposure. Finally, we demonstrate that antibodies induced by ChAd155-RG can also neutralize European bat lyssaviruses 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) found in bat reservoirs.


Assuntos
Adenovirus dos Símios/genética , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antígenos Virais , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Pan troglodytes/virologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Coelhos , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Sorogrupo , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Zoonoses
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008478, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692739

RESUMO

A canine rabies epidemic started in early 2015 in Arequipa, Peru and the rabies virus continues to circulate in the dog population. Some city residents who suffer dog bites do not seek care or do not complete indicated post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens, increasing the risk of human rabies. The objectives of our study are to qualitatively assess knowledge about rabies, and preventive practices, such as rabies vaccine administration, following a dog bite. We conduct eight focus group discussions in peri-urban and urban communities with 70 total participants. In our results, we observe low awareness of rabies severity and fatality, and different practices following a dog bite, depending on the community type: for example, whereas participants in the urban communities report cleaning the wound with hydrogen peroxide rather than soap and water, participants in peri-urban areas cover the wound with herbs and hair from the dog that bit them. Misconceptions about rabies vaccines and mistreatment at health centers also commonly prevent initiating or completing PEP. We identify important behavioral and structural barriers and knowledge gaps that limit evidence-based preventive strategies against rabies and may threaten successful prevention of dog-mediated human rabies in this setting.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , População Urbana , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 62, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal but preventable viral disease, which causes an estimated 59 000 human deaths globally every year. The vast majority of human rabies cases are attributable to bites from infected domestic dogs and consequently control of rabies in the dog population through mass vaccination campaigns is considered the most effective method of eliminating the disease. Achieving the WHO target of 70% vaccination coverage has proven challenging in low-resource settings such as Sub Saharan Africa, and lack of public awareness about rabies vaccination campaigns is a major barrier to their success. In this study we surveyed communities in three districts in Southern Malawi to assess the extent of and socio-economic factors associated with mobile phone ownership and explore the attitudes of communities towards the use of short message service (SMS) to inform them of upcoming rabies vaccination clinics. METHODS: This study was carried out between 1 October-3 December 2018 during the post-vaccination assessment of the annual dog rabies campaign in Blantyre, Zomba and Chiradzulu districts, Malawi. 1882 questionnaires were administered to households in 90 vaccination zones. The surveys gathered data on mobile phone ownership and use, and barriers to mobile phone access. A multivariable regression model was used to understand factors related to mobile phone ownership. RESULTS: Most survey respondents owned or had use of a mobile phone, however there was evidence of an inequality of access, with higher education level, living in Blantyre district and being male positively associated with mobile phone ownership. The principal barrier to mobile phone ownership was the cost of the phone itself. Basic feature phones were most common and few owned smartphones. SMS was commonly used and the main reason for not using SMS was illiteracy. Attitudes to receiving SMS reminders about future rabies vaccination campaigns were positive. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed a majority of those surveyed have the use of a mobile phone and most mobile phone owners indicated they would like to receive SMS messages about future rabies vaccination campaigns. This study provides insight into the feasibility of distributing information about rabies vaccination campaigns using mobile phones in Malawi.


Assuntos
Atitude , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Acta Virol ; 64(2): 216-225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551789

RESUMO

Currently, Slovakia is a rabies-free country, but the epizootiological situation of rabies was not always favorable. The main reservoir species of rabies virus in the first half of the last century was the domestic dog. Since 1906, hundreds of cases were reported, of which approximately 90% were infected dogs. The disease had a typical urban character. Since 1929, the number of rabid domestic animals decreased due to the implementation of dog vaccination campaigns in particular parts of Slovakia. From the second half of 1950s, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have become an important reservoir of the RABV. In this time period urban rabies in Slovakia changed into sylvatic form. One effective method of prevention and control of wildlife rabies is an oral rabies vaccination of red foxes. It is carried out in Slovakia since 1993. A detailed development of the rabies epizootiological situation on the territory of the Slovak Republic until the application of oral antirabies immunisation of foxes and the current situation after its performance is the main object of this review. Keywords: rabies; Lyssavirus; red fox; incidence; oral vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cães/virologia , Raposas/virologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Vacinação/veterinária
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 814-822, May-June, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129484

RESUMO

Objetivou-se conhecer o perfil epidemiológico do paciente que buscou atendimento antirrábico pós-exposição associado a acidentes com gatos domésticos, em Belo Horizonte/MG, no período de 2007 a 2016. Realizou-se uma análise exploratória das fichas de notificação do atendimento antirrábico humano do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificações (Sinan). Nos resultados, observou-se que 37,4% das pessoas eram adultas do gênero feminino, com idade entre 20 e 59 anos, 88,7% residentes em área urbana, 26,1% de etnia branca e apenas 31,7% dos pacientes buscaram atendimento antirrábico com até 24 horas da exposição ao vírus rábico. Lesões por mordedura ocorreram em 75,6% dos casos notificados. Quanto às características dos ferimentos, 59,6% foram superficiais, 62,2% ocorreram em mãos/pés e 50,1% foram lesões únicas. Na faixa etária de zero a 10 anos, as regiões anatômicas mãos/pés e cabeça/pescoço/face totalizaram 58,35%. Ressalta-se a necessidade de adoção de ações socioeducativas junto à população, devido ao risco de transmissão de raiva pelo gato, principalmente em áreas em que o vírus rábico circula em populações de morcegos. Sugerem-se melhorias no preenchimento das fichas de notificação do Sinan para melhor compreender o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes que buscam o atendimento antirrábico e, assim, tornar mais eficaz a gestão desse serviço público.(AU)


The objective of this study was to know the epidemiological profile of the patient who sought post-exposure anti-rabies treatment associated with accidents with domestic cats in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Brazil, from 2007 to 2016. An exploratory analysis of the reports on human rabies of the Notification of Injury Information System was performed. In the results, it was observed that 37.4% of the individuals were female adults aged 20-59 years, 88.7% were urban residents, 26.1% were white, and only 31.7% sought anti-rabies care within 24 hours of exposure to the rabies virus. Bite lesions occurred in 75.6%. Regarding the type of wound, 59.6% were superficial; as for the anatomical location, 62.2% occurred in hands / feet and 50.1% were single lesions. It is necessary to adopt socio-educational actions among the population, due to the risk of transmission of the rabies by the cat, especially in areas where the rabies virus circulates in bat populations. Improvements in the completion of the SINAN notification sheets are suggested to better understand the epidemiological profile of patients seeking anti-rabies treatment and thus improve the management of this public service.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Gatos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Raiva/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Brasil/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0220592, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469961

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are often transmitted through local interactions. Yet, both surveillance and control measures are implemented within administrative units. Capturing local transmission processes and spatial coupling between regions from aggregate level data is therefore a technical challenge that can shed light on both theoretical questions and practical decisions. Fox rabies has been eliminated from much of Europe through oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes. The European Union (EU) co-finances ORV to maintain rabies freedom in EU member and border states via a cordon sanitaire. Models to capture local transmission dynamics and spatial coupling have immediate application to the planning of these ORV campaigns and to other parts of the world considering oral vaccination. We fitted a hierarchical Bayesian state-space model to data on three decades of fox rabies cases and ORV campaigns from Eastern Germany. Specifically, we find that (i) combining regional spatial coupling and heterogeneous local transmission allows us to capture regional rabies dynamics; (ii) incursions from other regions account for less than 1% of cases, but allow for re-emergence of disease; (iii) herd immunity achieved through bi-annual vaccination campaigns is short-lived due to population turnover. Together, these findings highlight the need for regular and sustained vaccination efforts and our modelling approach can be used to provide strategic guidance for ORV delivery. Moreover, we show that biological understanding can be gained from inference from partially observed data on wildlife disease.


Assuntos
Raposas/virologia , Programas de Imunização , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Teorema de Bayes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/farmacologia , Vírus da Raiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232705, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421723

RESUMO

Disease transmission and epidemic prevention are top conservation concerns for wildlife managers, especially for small, isolated populations. Previous studies have shown that the course of an epidemic within a heterogeneous host population is strongly influenced by whether pathogens are introduced to regions of relatively high or low host densities. This raises the question of how disease monitoring and vaccination programs are influenced by spatial heterogeneity in host distributions. We addressed this question by modeling vaccination and monitoring strategies for the Channel Island fox (Urocyon littoralis), which has a history of substantial population decline due to introduced disease. We simulated various strategies to detect and prevent epidemics of rabies and canine distemper using a spatially explicit model, which was parameterized from field studies. Increasing sentinel monitoring frequency, and to a lesser degree, the number of monitored sentinels from 50 to 150 radio collared animals, reduced the time to epidemic detection and percentage of the fox population infected at the time of detection for both pathogens. Fox density at the location of pathogen introduction had little influence on the time to detection, but a large influence on how many foxes had become infected by the detection day, especially when sentinels were monitored relatively infrequently. The efficacy of different vaccination strategies was heavily influenced by local host density at the site of pathogen entry. Generally, creating a vaccine firewall far away from the site of pathogen entry was the least effective strategy. A firewall close to the site of pathogen entry was generally more effective than a random distribution of vaccinated animals when pathogens entered regions of high host density, but not when pathogens entered regions of low host density. These results highlight the importance of considering host densities at likely locations of pathogen invasion when designing disease management plans.


Assuntos
Cinomose/epidemiologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/veterinária , Raposas/virologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Vacinação , Animais , Ilhas Anglo-Normandas/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Cinomose/diagnóstico , Cinomose/imunologia , Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Geografia , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Raiva/diagnóstico , Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle
20.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449742

RESUMO

The growing global concern for the animal welfare is encouraging manufacturers and the National Control Laboratories (OMCLs) to follow the 3Rs strategy for the Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement of the laboratory animal testing. The development of in vitro approaches is recommended at the WHO and European levels as alternatives to the NIH test for evaluating the rabies vaccine potency. At the surface of the rabies virus (RABV) particle, trimers of glycoprotein constitute the major immunogen to induce Viral Neutralizing Antibodies (VNAbs). An ELISA test, where Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies (mAb-D1) recognize the trimeric form of the glycoprotein, has been developed to determine the contents of the native folded trimeric glycoprotein along with the production of the vaccine batches. This in vitro potency test demonstrated a good concordance with the NIH test and has been found suitable in collaborative trials by RABV vaccine manufacturers and OMCLs. Avoidance of animal use is an achievable objective in the near future. The method presented is based on an indirect ELISA sandwich immunocapture using the mAb-D1 which recognizes the antigenic sites III (aa 330 to 338) of the trimeric RABV glycoprotein, i.e., the immunogenic RABV antigen. mAb-D1 is used for both coating and detection of glycoprotein trimers present in the vaccine batch. Since the epitope is recognized because of its conformational properties, the potentially denatured glycoprotein (less immunogenic) cannot be captured and detected by the mAb-D1. The vaccine to be tested is incubated in a plate sensitized with the mAb-D1. Bound trimeric RABV glycoproteins are identified by adding the mAb-D1 again, labeled with peroxidase and then revealed in the presence of substrate and chromogen. Comparison of the absorbance measured for the tested vaccine and the reference vaccine allows for the determination of the immunogenic glycoprotein content.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Glicoproteínas/análise , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Potência de Vacina , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/química , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Padrões de Referência , Vírion/química
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