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1.
Food Chem ; 372: 131336, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818744

RESUMO

Over the years, food adulteration has become an important global problem, threatening public health safety and the healthy development of food industry. This study established a liquid chromatography-tandem mass (LC-MS/MS) method for accurate identification and quantitative analysis of fox meat products. High-resolution mass was used for data collection, and Proteome Discoverer was used for data analysis to screen fox-specific peptides. Multivariate statistical analysis was conducted using the data obtained from the label-free analysis of different contents of simulated samples. Samples with different contents were distinguished without interfering with each other, suggesting the feasibility of quantitative analysis of fox meat content. The linear correlation coefficient and recovery rate were calculated to determine the fox peptides that can be used for accurate quantification. The established LC-MS/MS method can be used for the accurate identification and quantification of actual samples. In addition, this method can provide technical support for law enforcement departments.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Raposas , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(4): 579-584, 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Echinococcus multilocularis has been endemic in red foxes in eastern and central parts of Europe, and E. granulosus s. l. identified in wolves in some countries. In recent years, wolves hale emerged as potentially important definitive hosts of E. multilocularis. OBJECTIVE: This aim of the survey was to record indirectly using nested-PCR test with faecal samples the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus s. l. in the two species of wild canids in the protected area of the Tatra National Park (TNP) in Western Carpathian, southern mountainous part of Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From February to June 2019, experienced staff of TNP randomly collected fox and wolf faeces on and off hiking trails at altitudes from 850 m to 2,000 m above sea level. In total, 91 faecal samples from red foxes and 19 from wolves were collected. Genomic DNA was obtained by direct extraction from faecal samples using a commercial kit, and from taeniid eggs retrieved from the same samples after flotation. RESULTS: A nested PCR screening of 91 red fox faeces indicated the prevalence of E. multilocularis of 4.4%. Positive samples were confirmed by sequencing parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Neither genomic DNA of E. multilocularis nor of E. granulosus s.l. was obtained from 19 wolves faeces, nor from taeniid eggs retrieved from these samples by initial flotation. CONCLUSIONS: The current results show that humans might be exposed to a risk of fox tapeworm infection in nature, even at high altitude inan alpine zone, in an environment contaminated by roaming red foxes encouraged by food leftovers on mountain trails.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus multilocularis , Lobos , Animais , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Fezes , Raposas , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Polônia/epidemiologia
3.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e252093, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932633

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the diet of the free-living crab-eating fox by identifying the stomach contents of the 17 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) roadkilled in two conservation units, both located in the Amazon rainforest. The food items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (FO) and percentage of occurrence (PO). The stomach contents were analysed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and mineral matter (MM). Nitrogen-free extractives (NFE), metabolisable energy (ME) values, as well as the energy need for maintenance were estimated. The composition of the diet for the crab-eating fox presented 29 food items from the different taxonomic groups, with a greater diversity of items of animal origin (n=22), although the highest frequency of occurrence was gramineae (Poaceae) (41.18%). Among the items of animal origin, 21% were mammals, 18% reptiles, 10% amphibians, 9% invertebrates and 3% birds. A high content of CF (62.76%) were determined. Nitrogen-free extractive and dry matter averages were 5.91% and 141.82 kcal/100g, respectively. The average maintenance energy was 447.01 kcal/day. These findings suggesting that the crab-eating foxes have a generalist diet with an omnivorous diet in the Amazon basin, feeding on gramineae, fruits, insects, snakes, amphibians, birds and small mammals and have the same feeding habit that present in other Brazilian biomes.


Assuntos
Raposas , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária
4.
Parasite ; 28: 74, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723788

RESUMO

Echinococcus multilocularis eggs are deposited on the ground with the faeces of the carnivore definitive hosts. A reliable assessment of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis eggs in environments used by humans is crucial for the prevention of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). This study was conducted in 192 rural and 71 urban vegetable gardens in AE endemic areas of north-eastern France. Its objective was to explore the relationship between the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis estimated from the collection and molecular analysis of two types of samples: faeces and soil. A total of 1024 carnivore faeces and 463 soil samples were collected and analysed by real-time PCR. No fox droppings and no positive soil samples were collected from the urban gardens. Positive soil samples, positive carnivore faeces, or both, were found in 42%, 24% and 6% of the sampled rural gardens, respectively. No significant association was found between the detection of E. multilocularis in soil samples collected from 50 gardens during a single sampling session and the extent and frequency of deposits of fox and cat faeces collected during repeated sampling sessions conducted in the previous months. In 19/50 gardens, E. multilocularis was detected in the soil while no positive faeces had been collected in the previous 12 months. Conversely, in 8/50 gardens, no soil samples were positive although positive faeces had been collected in the previous months. Collecting and analysing faeces provide information on soil contamination at a given time, while analysing soil samples provides an overview of long-term contamination.


Assuntos
Echinococcus multilocularis , Fezes/parasitologia , Solo , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Raposas , Jardins , Solo/parasitologia , Verduras
5.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 425-432, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730314

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the content of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in the liver of predominantly plant-eating omnivore wild boar (Sus scrofa), predominantly meat-eating omnivore red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and herbivore red deer (Cervus elaphus), from North-Eastern Poland (Warmia and Mazury), in order to verify the distribution of these elements in the trophic pyramid. Furthermore, the study was used to assess the risk of eating venison. Samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average concentration of Se was 3.9 (p⟨0.001) and 1.8-fold higher (p0.001) in the wild boar and red fox, respectively, in comparison to the red deer, and 2.1-fold higher in the wild boar comparing to the red fox (p⟨0.001). There was no difference in the average concentration of Zn. The average concentration of Cu was 9.3. Concentration of this element was 5.4-fold higher in red deer in comparison to red fox (p⟨0.001) and 9,34-fold higher than in wild boar (p⟨0.001). The average concentration of Cd was 1.9-fold higher in wild boar in comparison to the red fox (p⟨0.029). Correlation between Cu and Cd concentrations was also observed in the case of the red deer and red fox, while no such correlations were observed between the tested elements in the wild boar. In conclusion, the liver concentrations of these heavy metals in selected wild animas species from the hunting areas of Warmia and Mazury, do not exceed standard safe values for consumers. Moreover, the wild red deer population in North-Eastern Poland is significantly Se deficient.


Assuntos
Cervos , Raposas , Fígado/química , Metais Pesados/química , Sus scrofa , Animais , Polônia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 120(11): 3827-3835, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604932

RESUMO

Parasites are natural components of ecosystems and play a significant role in the dynamics of wild animal populations. Although the environment of parasites is primarily defined by the host, most life cycles involve stages that must endure external conditions. Rainfall and flooding events are important factors that might influence the transport of parasitic stages, altering soil moisture levels, and resulting in a favorable environment for parasite survival and development. We assessed whether an extraordinary flood event modified the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites (nematodes and protozoa) in wild canids in two protected areas in northern Argentina. From 2016 to 2018, we collected fecal samples of two fox species, Lycalopex gymnocercus and Cerdocyon thous, and examined the presence of nematodes and protozoa. We assessed changes in the occurrence of these parasites after a flood event, while adjusting for potential confounders (i.e., monthly average temperature, season, host species, site). In a second stage of the analysis, we evaluated whether part of the effect was caused by changes in soil moisture, by adding normalized difference water index as an independent variable. We found that the presence of nematodes in foxes was higher after flooding than before flooding, and this association was not explained by changes in the soil moisture. On the other hand, the flood event was not relevant for protozoa. Stronger and long-lasting flood events are expected due to the effect of global warming on El Niño events, and this may increase and intensify the spread of some parasites affecting wildlife, which could also be of public health concern.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Parasitos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Argentina/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Inundações , Raposas
7.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258083, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613989

RESUMO

Wildlife-vehicle collisions are one of the main causes of mortality for wild mammals and birds in the UK. Here, using a dataset of 54,000+ records collated by a citizen science roadkill recording scheme between 2014-2019, we analyse and present temporal patterns of wildlife roadkill of the 19 most commonly reported taxa in the UK (84% of all reported roadkill). Most taxa (13 out of 19) showed significant and consistent seasonal variations in road mortality and fitted one of two seasonal patterns; bimodal or unimodal: only three species (red fox Vulpes vulpes, European polecat Mustela putorius and Reeves' muntjac deer Muntiacus reevesi) showed no significant seasonality. Species that increase movement in spring and autumn potentially have bimodal patterns in roadkill due to the increase in mate-searching and juvenile dispersal during these respective time periods (e.g. European badger Meles meles). Unimodal patterns likely represent increased mortality due to a single short pulse in activity associated with breeding (e.g. birds) or foraging (e.g. grey squirrels Sciurus carolinensis in autumn). Importantly, these patterns also indicate periods of increased risk for drivers, potentially posing a greater threat to human welfare. In addition to behaviour-driven annual patterns, abiotic factors (temperature and rainfall) explained some variance in roadkill. Notably, high rainfall was associated with decreased observations of two bird taxa (gulls and Eurasian magpies Pica pica) and European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. By quantifying seasonal patterns in roadkill, we highlight a significant anthropogenic impact on wild species, which is important in relation to conservation, animal welfare, and human safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Cervos , Feminino , Raposas/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Coelhos , Estações do Ano , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
Acta Vet Scand ; 63(1): 40, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent re-emergence of wildlife-mediated rabies in Finland, oral rabies vaccine baits are distributed every year during autumn in southern Finland in a vaccination zone bordering Russia. Recently, Finland introduced a 3rd generation oral rabies virus vaccine bait. By analysing bait uptake and seroconversion in red foxes and raccoon dogs, the field efficacy of this new vaccine strain, SPBN GASGAS, was compared with the originally used highly efficacious 1st generation vaccine SAD B19. RESULTS: Overall, 74.6% and 53.9% of the animals submitted from the vaccination area after the campaigns (2017-2019) tested positive for the presence of the bait marker and anti-rabiesvirus antibodies, respectively. No significant difference was observed between years, species and vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The field performance of the highly attenuated 3rd generation oral rabies vaccine, SPBN GASGAS, in terms of bait uptake and seroconversion was similar to the 1st generation vaccine, SAD B19, and therefore offers a suitable alternative.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Administração Oral , Animais , Finlândia , Raposas , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Cães Guaxinins , Vacinação/veterinária
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2960-2962, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670656

RESUMO

We detected infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus clade 2.3.4.4b in 2 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cubs found in the wild with neurologic signs in the Netherlands. The virus is related to avian influenza viruses found in wild birds in the same area.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Raposas , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Filogenia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 120(12): 3993-3999, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694516

RESUMO

Livestock guarding dogs are increasingly used to reduce carnivore-livestock conflicts, but no information is available to determine any adverse effects that these dogs may have on the health of wild carnivores. We assessed differences in prevalence, richness and severity of parasites in chilla fox (Lycalopex griseus) populations associated with livestock guarding dogs, which were routinely dewormed. We also evaluated whether the parasite assemblages of herding dogs, which were not dewormed, and chilla foxes were more similar in the presence of livestock guarding dogs. Scats of L. griseus and herding dogs were collected and screened for parasite eggs in areas with and without livestock guarding dogs to determine differences in prevalence, richness, intensity and parasite aggregation. We did not find any association between livestock guarding dogs and differences in parasite richness or prevalence of parasites. The intensity of parasites was higher among foxes positive to parasites when LGDs were present. A lower proportion of foxes with low parasite burdens occurred in areas with LGDs compared to areas without LGDs, but this difference was not significant at the population level. Our findings show the need to continue studying the effects of livestock guarding dogs on the health of wildlife with larger sample sizes and more locations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Parasitos , Animais , Cães , Raposas , Humanos , Gado , Cães Trabalhadores
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258919, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710148

RESUMO

The coastal zone provides foraging opportunities for insular populations of terrestrial mammals, allowing for expanded habitat use, increased dietary breadth, and locally higher population densities. We examined the use of sandy beach resources by the threatened island fox (Urocyon littoralis) on the California Channel Islands using scat analysis, surveys of potential prey, beach habitat attributes, and stable isotope analysis. Consumption of beach invertebrates, primarily intertidal talitrid amphipods (Megalorchestia spp.) by island fox varied with abundance of these prey across sites. Distance-based linear modeling revealed that abundance of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) wrack, rather than beach physical attributes, explained the largest amount of variation in talitrid amphipod abundance and biomass across beaches. δ13C and δ15N values of fox whisker (vibrissae) segments suggested individualism in diet, with generally low δ13C and δ15N values of some foxes consistent with specializing on primarily terrestrial foods, contrasting with the higher isotope values of other individuals that suggested a sustained use of sandy beach resources, the importance of which varied over time. Abundant allochthonous marine resources on beaches, including inputs of giant kelp, may expand habitat use and diet breadth of the island fox, increasing population resilience during declines in terrestrial resources associated with climate variability and long-term climate change.


Assuntos
Dieta , Raposas , Animais , California , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Ilhas
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(12): 3987-3992, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677665

RESUMO

Among the zoonotic mosquito-borne nematodes, Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) are highly significant from a public health perspective. While D. immitis is also of major veterinary concern, D. repens is regarded as less pathogenic for carnivores, but is the main causative agent of human dirofilariosis throughout the Old World. In the Republic of Uzbekistan, recent data refer exclusively to D. immitis infection in domestic and wild carnivores, while the current prevalence and distribution of D. repens remain unknown. Between 2015 and 2021, a total of 559 domestic and wild carnivore carcasses were collected and examined by necropsy. All subcutaneous nematodes were collected and identified morphologically. The overall prevalence of D. repens infection was of 11.03% in domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, and 9.29% in wildlife hosts: golden jackals, Canis aureus (11.76%), wolves, Canis lupus (9.09%), red foxes, Vulpes vulpes (9.23%), and jungle cats, Felis chaus (7.14%). Additionally, a human case of subcutaneous D. repens infection was also documented. The present study represents the first recent assessment of the occurrence of the zoonotic filarioid D. repens in the Republic of Uzbekistan. It indicates a wide distribution in domestic dogs and four species of wildlife hosts throughout the country, raising awareness on the public health risks associated with this parasite.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilaria repens , Dirofilariose , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Gatos , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Raposas , Uzbequistão/epidemiologia
13.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 339-345, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a multiplex nucleic acid assay for rapid detection of Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus based on the recombinase-aided isothermal amplification assay (RAA) and to preliminarily assess its diagnostic efficiency. METHODS: The mitochondrial genomic sequences of E. multilocularis (GenBank accession number: NC_000928), E. granulosus (GenBank accession number: NC_044548) and E. shiquicus (GenBank accession number: NC_009460) were used as target sequences, and three pairs of primers were designed based on the RAA primer design principle and synthesized for the subsequent multiple RAA amplification. The genomic DNA of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus at different concentrations and the recombinant plasmids containing the target gene at various concentrations were amplified to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of the multiplex RAA assay, and the genomic DNA of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus, E. shiquicus, Taenia multiceps, T. saginata, T. asiatica, Dipylidium caninum, T. hydatigena, Toxocara canis, Fasciola hepatica, T. pisiformis, Mesocestoides lineatus and Cryptosporidiumn canis was detected using the multiplex RAA assay to evaluate its specificity. In addition, the reaction condition of the multiplex RAA assay was optimized, and was then employed to detect the tissues with echinococcosis lesions, simulated canine fecal samples and field captured fox fecal samples to examine its application values. RESULTS: The multiplex RAA assay was effective to specifically amplify the mitochondrial gene fragments of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus within 40 min at 39 °C, with sequence lengths of 540, 430 bp and 200 bp, respectively. This multiplex RAA assay showed the minimum detection limits of 2.0, 2.5 pg/µL and 3.1 pg/µL for detection of the genomic DNA of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus, and presented the minimum detection limit of 200 copies/µL for detection of the recombinant plasmids containing E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus target genes. This multiplex RAA assay was effective to simultaneously detect single and multiple infections with E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus, but failed to amplify the genomic DNA of T. multiceps, T. saginata, T. asiatica, D. caninum, T. hydatigena, T. canis, F. hepatica, T. pisiformis, M. lineatus and C. canis. In addition, the optimized multiplex RAA assay was effective to detect all positive samples from the tissue samples with echinococcosis lesions, simulated canine fecal samples and field captured fox fecal samples, which was fully consistent with the detection of the single PCR assay. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and specific multiplex nucleic acid assay for rapid detection of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus has been successfully established.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus multilocularis , Animais , Cães/parasitologia , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Raposas/parasitologia , Ácidos Nucleicos , Recombinases , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Parasitol Res ; 120(10): 3587-3593, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480202

RESUMO

In South America, apicomplexan parasites of the genus Hepatozoon have been sporadically detected in mammals. Previous studies in wild canids from Brazil and Argentina demonstrated infections by species genetically related to Hepatozoon americanum. The aim of the present work was to detect the presence of Hepatozoon in road-killed foxes encountered in Uruguayan highways. Blood samples from 45 crab-eating (Cerdocyon thous) and 32 grey pampean (Lycalopex gymnocercus) foxes were analyzed by PCR for Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene. Eight foxes (10.4%) were found to be infected with an H. americanum-like protozoan, an Hepatozoon closely related to H. americanum. Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed that the sequences obtained in this study cluster with H. americanum from the United States, and with an H. americanum-like species from dog and foxes from Brazil and Argentina. In the Unites States, H. americanum causes severe disease in dogs. In addition to this, an increasing habitat overlap between dogs and foxes makes the presence of H. americanum-like protozoan in foxes acquires veterinary relevance. This work represents the first report of L. gymnocercus infected with an H. americanum-like protozoan, and of wild canids infected with Hepatozoon in Uruguay.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Raposas , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cães , Filogenia , Uruguai/epidemiologia
15.
Acta Vet Hung ; 69(3): 274-281, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506299

RESUMO

In the present study, 64 golden jackals were examined for intestinal helminths in three regions of Vojvodina, Serbia. Among the examined jackals 57.8% were infected with at least one parasite species. Using the intestinal scraping technique (SCT), eight species of intestinal helminths were found: Alaria alata (7.8%), Toxascaris leonina (9.4%), Toxocara canis (4.7%), Uncinaria stenocephala (20.3%), Echinococcus multilocularis (14.1%), Mesocestoides sp. (42.2%), Taenia pisiformis, and Taenia hydatigena (the overall prevalence of Taenia infection was 6.3%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. leonina in jackals from Serbia. In comparison with the SCT results, coprological tests were less sensitive and specific for parasite identification, as only two nematode species (T. leonina and T. canis) as well as ancylostomatid and taeniid eggs were identified. The total prevalence of intestinal helminths was higher in males (71.9% males, 45% females), but the difference was not statistically significant (χ 2 = 3.76; P = 0.052). Co-infection with two species of intestinal helminths was found in 35% of the examined golden jackal individuals, three-species co-infection was demonstrated in 21.6%, whereas four-species co-infection was detected in 2.7% of the golden jackals examined. Echinococcus multilocularis has previously been recorded in jackals and foxes in Serbia, but only in Vojvodina. Our results corroborate the findings of previous studies, and indicate that the Vojvodina Province, more specifically the Srem region, is probably a high-risk area for E. multilocularis transmission to humans.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Animais , Equinococose , Feminino , Raposas , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Chacais , Masculino , Prevalência , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Iugoslávia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 120(10): 3451-3459, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462804

RESUMO

The diagnosis of human taeniosis can be achieved through coproscopy, ELISA or PCR. An important limitation of these methods is the high turnaround time for stool sample collection and preparation, indicating the need for a straightforward sampling strategy. Due to the high metabolic activity and reproductive potential of Taenia spp., we hypothesise that parasite DNA (cells and eggs) present in the peri-anal region of the host can be exploited as a target for molecular diagnosis. We evaluated the feasibility of recovering parasite DNA from the peri-anal area of foxes naturally infected with Taenia spp. Before necropsy, cotton swabs were rubbed at the peri-anal region of foxes. DNA was extracted using alkaline lysis coupled with a commercial DNA isolation kit (method A) or alkaline lysis alone (method B). DNA was used in the multiplex-PCR assay (previously described and called here swab-PCR) and a novel LAMP assay detecting Taenia spp. commonly found in foxes (swab-LAMP). The results of these assays from 105 foxes were compared with the presence of intestinal helminths determined at necropsy and by the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). The sensitivity of swab-PCR for detecting Taenia (n = 68) was 89.8% (95% CI, 77.7-96.6) and 89.5% (66.9-98.7) using methods A and B, respectively. The sensitivity of the swab-LAMP assay was 83.7% (70.3-92.7) using method A and 89.5% (66.9-98.7) with method B. We postulate that peri-anal swab sampling followed by simplified DNA extraction and LAMP might be a suitable strategy for surveillance of human taeniosis in resource-limited settings in the future.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Raposas , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Behav Processes ; 192: 104476, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418481

RESUMO

The Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) has suffered from hunting and human persecution for decades, both for fur trade or due to conflicts with livestock. However, studies assessing the effects of hunting pressure on this canid population ecology are lacking. In this work, we assessed the influence of several hunting-related variables on the daily activity patterns and habitat use of the Pampas fox. In private farms of central Argentina, we performed two camera-trapping surveys: one during the non-hunting season and other during the hunting season, distinguishing between sites with or without access by hunters. The habitat use of Pampas foxes did not vary between seasons, but their detectability was lower during the hunting season in habitats that allow humans to see foxes easily (i.e., habitats with high visibility). Pampas foxes selected dusk and night-time, increasing their activity at dusk hours on sites with hunting and showed differences in activity patterns related with the level of visibility of the habitat and to season. Hunting pressure may interact with anthropogenic habitat modifications and create ecological traps for the Pampas fox in agroecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Raposas , Animais , Argentina , Humanos
18.
Ecology ; 102(11): e03494, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309013

RESUMO

Trophic cascades reportedly structure ecological communities through indirect species interactions. Though the predator-herbivore-autotroph relationship has received much attention, mechanistic evidence supporting intraguild trophic cascades is rare. We established 348 remote camera sites (1 August-5 September 2019) across seven study areas of varying wolf (Canis lupus) density including one study area where wolves were absent in northern Michigan, USA. Using multi-species occupancy modeling at species-relevant spatial scales, we evaluated the hypothesis that increased wolf occurrence suppresses coyote (C. latrans) occurrence with corresponding increased red fox (Vulpes vulpes) occurrence mediated by land cover edge density, human presence, and temporal partitioning. Remote cameras recorded >600,000 images and included 6,370, 10,137, and 4,876 detections of wolves, coyotes, and foxes, respectively. Fox occupancy probability was more than three times as high (0.29) at camera sites where wolves were present, relative to sites wolves were absent (0.09). Pairwise species interactions supported expected size-based dominance patterns among canids and insignificant effects were directionally consistent with reported reduced strength of top-down effects in peripheral wolf range. Increased edge density also increased co-occurrence of coyote and wolves, likely a function of increased prey availability and refugia for coyotes. Though foxes occurred in spatial proximity to wolves, competition was limited by greater temporal partitioning than observed between coyotes and foxes that were spatially segregated. Collectively, our results provide marginal support for the reported trophic cascade among wolves, coyotes, and foxes wherein top-down effects may be reduced near the edge of current wolf distributions. As predators continue to recolonize portions of their historic range, knowledge of the effects on intraguild predators has implications for species management and predicting prey population responses.


Assuntos
Coiotes , Lobos , Animais , Raposas , Michigan
19.
Parasitol Res ; 120(8): 2847-2854, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232387

RESUMO

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most prevalent wild carnivores in the world and definitive hosts of many pathogenic parasites for humans and farm animals. These animals travel great distances in search of prey and nests, and cause contamination of large geographic areas with parasites. For this reason, monitoring the parasitic pathogens of red foxes is particularly important in terms of public and animal health. The goal of this study was to determine the intestinal helminths and molecular characterization of Taenia species of red foxes in Turkey. In this study, 103 red fox intestines obtained from 29 provinces of Turkey were examined with sedimentation and counting technique. Collected helminths were diagnosed according to their morphologic features. Additionally, further molecular analysis (PCR and DNA sequencing) was performed for the identification of Taeniid cestodes. At the end of the study, it was determined that 87.37% (90/103) of red foxes were infected with at least one helminth species. Detected helminths and their prevalence's were Mesocestoides sp. (56.31%), Joyeuxiella echinorhynchoides (33%), Taenia polyacantha (15.53%), Dipylidium caninum (0.97%), Pterygodermatites affinis (51.45%), Toxascaris leonina (45.63%), Uncinaria stenocephala (33%), Oxynema numicidum (20.38%), Toxocara canis (14.56%), Ancylostoma caninum (12.62%), and Trichuris vulpis (1.94%), respectively. Additionally, Pachysentis sp. (37.69%), Centrorhynchus sp. (0.97%) (Acantocephala), and nymphs of Linguatula serrata (20.38%) (Arthropoda) were also detected in the same intestinal samples. This is the most comprehensive study that has been conducted on the intestinal helminthes of red foxes in Turkey. To the best of our knowledge, molecular characterization of T. polyacantha and the detection of O. numicidum, A. caninum, Pachysentis sp., and Centrorhynchus sp. are the first reports in red foxes in Turkey. Our study revealed that red foxes are important hosts for many intestinal helminth species and are link between domestic and sylvatic cycles of these parasites.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Raposas/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/genética , Prevalência , Turquia
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13931, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230499

RESUMO

The red fox is one of the most adaptable carnivores inhabiting cities. The aim of our study was to describe the process of Warsaw colonization by the red fox. We focused on: (1) the fox distribution in Warsaw on the basis of presence-absence data (2005-2012) over a grid of 1 × 1 km2, (2) the process of settlement in 29 green areas (study periods 1976-1978, 2004-2012, and 2016-2019) in relation to habitat type, and (3) temporal and spatial patterns of the red fox incidents (1998-2015) reported by Warsaw citizens. We found out that: (1) the red fox penetrated the whole city (i.e. its presence was confirmed in all squares of the grid), (2) 21% of the green areas were colonized in 1976-1978 but 93% in 2016-2019. Forests and riparian habitats were occupied more frequently than parks and cemeteries in 1976-1978 with no difference in the further years; (3) the probability of the fox incidents increased over years, was higher in June-October, on working days, and around noon, and with the share of discontinuous urban fabric in the buffers around incident locations. Nevertheless, the incidents only partially reflect population abundance trends and activity patterns of the species, so should be treated cautiously.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Raposas/fisiologia , Animais , Florestas , Geografia , Modelos Biológicos , Polônia , Dinâmica Populacional , Probabilidade , Fatores de Tempo
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